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Eman Mostafa ◽  
Kenneth O. St. Louis ◽  
Ahlam Abdel-Salam El-Adawy ◽  
Ahmed Mamdouh Emam ◽  
Zahra Moemen Elbarody

Purpose: Limited research has shown that knowing or interacting with a person who stutters facilitates more positive attitudes toward stuttering. This is true when the stuttering person is a close friend or a family member. The study sought to determine if Egyptian mothers held different stuttering attitudes than fathers as joint parents of children who stuttered. Method: Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes–Stuttering results of 25 mothers and 25 fathers of the same children who stuttered were compared. Also, children's severity scores were correlated with their parents' attitudes. Results: There were no significant differences between mothers' and fathers' stuttering attitudes; however, an unexpected trend for more positive attitudes of fathers was observed. Weak relationships between children's stuttering severity and their parents' attitudes existed, with slightly higher correlations for the fathers. Conclusion: Nonsignificant trends for slightly more positive attitudes for fathers than mothers should be explored in larger sample sizes in order to answer the question “Should information provided for parents of children who stutter be different or differently presented to mothers versus fathers?”

Hinke M. van der Werf ◽  
Marie Louise A. Luttik ◽  
Alice de Boer ◽  
Petrie F. Roodbol ◽  
Wolter Paans

This scoping review provides an overview of the impact of growing up with a chronically ill family member on young adults (18–25 years old), and their specific needs. Young adults represent an important life stage involving a transition to adulthood, during which individuals’ family situations can affect their future. We searched relevant studies following the guideline of Arskey and O’Mailley’s methodological framework and the PRISMA statement guidelines for scoping reviews in PubMed, PsychInfo and reference lists to identify articles for inclusion. Studies from 2005 to 2020 were included in this review. Of the 12 studies, six qualitative studies, five quantitative studies and one mixed method study were included. Eight studies discussed the impact, including consequences at a physical and mental level, at their personal development and future perspectives, but also positive effects, such as being capable of organizing their lives. Four studies discussed the needs of young adult carers, including emotional needs, support needs with regard to stimulating autonomy (arising from internal conflicts) and developing their own identity, and the concerned attitude of involved professionals. An unambiguous definition of the target group and further well-designed research are needed to improve clarity about the role of support, so that future professionals can adequately address the needs and wishes of young adults who grow up with an ill family member.

Aging Cell ◽  
2022 ◽  
Chia‐Jung Li ◽  
Li‐Te Lin ◽  
Hsiao‐Wen Tsai ◽  
Zhi‐Hong Wen ◽  
Kuan‐Hao Tsui

Chris M. Vermeer ◽  
Larissa J. Bons ◽  
Robbert Kleerebezem

Abstract Using microbial enrichment cultures for the production of waste-derived polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) is a promising technology to recover secondary resources. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) form the preferred substrate for PHA production. Isobutyrate is a VFA appearing in multiple waste valorization routes, such as anaerobic fermentation, chain elongation, and microbial electrosynthesis, but has never been assessed individually on its PHA production potential. This research investigates isobutyrate as sole carbon source for a microbial enrichment culture in comparison to its structural isomer butyrate. The results reveal that the enrichment of isobutyrate has a very distinct character regarding microbial community development, PHA productivity, and even PHA composition. Although butyrate is a superior substrate in almost every aspect, this research shows that isobutyrate-rich waste streams have a noteworthy PHA-producing potential. The main finding is that the dominant microorganism, a Comamonas sp., is linked to the production of a unique PHA family member, poly(3-hydroxyisobutyrate) (PHiB), up to 37% of the cell dry weight. This is the first scientific report identifying microbial PHiB production, demonstrating that mixed microbial communities can be a powerful tool for discovery of new metabolic pathways and new types of polymers. Key points • PHiB production is a successful storage strategy in an isobutyrate-fed SBR • Isomers isobutyrate and butyrate reveal a very distinct PHA production behavior • Enrichments can be a tool for discovery of new metabolic pathways and polymers Graphical abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Suruchi Sood ◽  
Astha Ramaiya

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a harmful practice with no benefits and considerable harm to girls and women who undergo it. In 2016, the United Nations Joint Program to Eliminate FGM, funded the development and subsequent validation of a monitoring and evaluation framework to understand the relationship between social norms and practicing FGM. Evidence on the framework was gathered through a pilot study in Ethiopia. This paper uses cross-sectional quantitative data from the pilot to operationalize the framework and determine what factors are associated with practicing FGM. A total of 554 and 481 participants answered the question “Have you undergone FGM?” and “Do you know a family member who has undergone FGM?” respectively. Overall, 65% of participants said they had undergone FGM and 32% said they knew someone in their family who had undergone FGM. Predictors of not undergoing FGM included most progressive attitudes vs. less progressive attitudes about FGM and relationship to identity [OR: 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1–3.3)]; region [Afar vs. Addis Ababa: OR: 0.09 (95% CI: 0.02–0.5); Southern Nations Nationalities and People's Regions vs. Addis Ababa: OR: 0.1 (95% CI: 0.05–0.3)], being 36 years old and above vs. 10–19 years (OR: 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1 to 0.7)) and being single, never married vs. married or engaged (OR: 2.8 (95% CI: 1.1–7.0)]. Predictors of knowing a family member who has not undergone FGM included: Higher knowledge vs. lower knowledge [OR: 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1–0.5)]; if the family expected you to abandon FGM, you had a greater odds of knowing a family member who had not undergone FGM [43.6 (95% CI: 2.7–687.8)]; coming from Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Region was associated with a lower odds of knowing a family member who had not undergone FGM [0.3 (95% CI: 0.1–0.6)]. Being a female influential vs. female caregiver was associated with a higher odds of knowing a family member who had not undergone FGM [2.9 (95% CI: 1.01–5.2)]. This paper has allowed us to validate a theory and research based social norms framework, specifically examining how social and behavior change communication can be used as a mechanism for shifting norms around a given harmful practice. Now that this model has been developed and validated, it is likely to provide a foundation to study the direct and indirect impacts of social norms programming on changing harmful practices, such as FGM.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-2

2022 ◽  
pp. 73-87
Jason C. Yarbrough

I am a dad. Not a common dad. Rather, I am uncommon. Uncommon and very much like Dan Marino, Doug Flutie, Joe Mantegna, Sylvester Stallone, and Ed Asner. We are all dads to children with autism, or, as I will call us, “Autism Dads.” Having a child on the spectrum is a unique dad experience. And having a child that receives an autism diagnosis can be surprising. Adjustment to this new information can take some time. When we have a family member with autism, each family member's role must shift a little with unknown expectations. This chapter has the purpose of sharing from one dad to another some of the important steps you should consider taking to support your child on the autism spectrum in the kindergarten-through-high-school academic journey. First, a discussion of relevant literature and finally some tips and suggestions based on experience are presented.

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