Critical assessment of rapid methods to qualify supplementary cementitious materials for use in concrete

2022 ◽  
Vol 153 ◽  
pp. 106709
Saif Al-Shmaisani ◽  
Ryan D. Kalina ◽  
Raissa Douglas Ferron ◽  
Maria C.G. Juenger
2020 ◽  
Vol 71 (7) ◽  
pp. 775-788
Quyet Truong Van ◽  
Sang Nguyen Thanh

The utilisation of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) is widespread in the concrete industry because of the performance benefits and economic. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and fly ash (FA) have been used as the SCMs in concrete for reducing the weight of cement and improving durability properties. In this study, GGBFS at different cement replacement ratios of 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% by weight were used in fine-grained concrete. The ternary binders containing GGBFS and FA at cement replacement ratio of 60% by weight have also evaluated. Flexural and compressive strength test, rapid chloride permeability test and under-water abrasion test were performed. Experimental results show that the increase in concrete strength with GGBFS contents from 20% to 40% but at a higher period of maturity (56 days and more). The chloride permeability the under-water abrasion reduced with the increasing cement replacement by GGBFS or a combination of GGBFS and FA

2020 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Sri Ram Krishna Mishra ◽  
Pradeep Kumar Ghosh ◽  
Manoj Kulshreshtha

Background: The previous studies have focused curing effect of mainly on high strength concrete, where strict supervision is maintained. This study is based upon general purpose concreting work for commercial and residential construction in absence of skilled manpower and supervision. Objective: The objective of this study is to establish a thumb rule to provide 7 days initial curing for maintaining quality for unsupervised concreting irrelevant to type of cement and grading. Methods: In this study concrete samples made with locally available commercial cements were cured for various initial exposure. Results: The results shows that concrete cured after a gap of 4 days from the time of de-moulding have given lowest strength as compared to concrete cured in standard practices i.e. where proper curing protocol had been followed. Conclusion: Initial curing is most important aspect of gaining desired strength. The findings after this study shows that curing affects the strength of concrete in variable grading. Initial curing has great importance for concrete with all types of Portland cement. Concrete with supplementary cementitious materials gives lowest strength initially but results higher strength after 28 days as compared to Portland cement.

2015 ◽  
Vol 74 ◽  
pp. 176-187 ◽  
Evi Aprianti ◽  
Payam Shafigh ◽  
Syamsul Bahri ◽  
Javad Nodeh Farahani

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (9) ◽  
pp. 2291
Alessandro P. Fantilli ◽  
Daria Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka

The environmental impact of the Portland cement production and the large use of cement-based building materials is a growing problem [...]

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 4028
Asghar Gholizadeh Vayghan ◽  
Liesbeth Horckmans ◽  
Ruben Snellings ◽  
Arne Peys ◽  
Priscilla Teck ◽  

This research investigated the possibility of using metallurgical slags from the copper and lead industries as partial replacement for cement. The studied slags were fayalitic, having a mainly ferro-silicate composition with minor contents of Al2O3 and CaO. The slags were treated at 1200–1300 °C (to reduce the heavy metal content) and then granulated in water to promote the formation of reactive phases. A full hydration study was carried out to assess the kinetics of reactions, the phases formed during hydration, the reactivity of the slags and their strength activity as supplementary cementitious material (SCM). The batch-leaching behaviour of cementitious mixtures incorporating treated slags was also investigated. The results showed that all three slags have satisfactory leaching behaviour and similar performance in terms of reactivity and contribution to the strength development. All slags were found to have mediocre reactivity and contribution to strength, especially at early ages. Nonetheless, they passed the minimum mechanical performance requirements and were found to qualify for use in cement.

Materials ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 13 (16) ◽  
pp. 3467
Ankit Kothari ◽  
Karin Habermehl-Cwirzen ◽  
Hans Hedlund ◽  
Andrzej Cwirzen

Most of the currently used concretes are based on ordinary Portland cement (OPC) which results in a high carbon dioxide footprint and thus has a negative environmental impact. Replacing OPCs, partially or fully by ecological binders, i.e., supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) or alternative binders, aims to decrease the carbon dioxide footprint. Both solutions introduced a number of technological problems, including their performance, when exposed to low, subfreezing temperatures during casting operations and the hardening stage. This review indicates that the present knowledge enables the production of OPC-based concretes at temperatures as low as −10 °C, without the need of any additional measures such as, e.g., heating. Conversely, composite cements containing SCMs or alkali-activated binders (AACs) showed mixed performances, ranging from inferior to superior in comparison with OPC. Most concretes based on composite cements require pre/post heat curing or only a short exposure to sub-zero temperatures. At the same time, certain alkali-activated systems performed very well even at −20 °C without the need for additional curing. Chemical admixtures developed for OPC do not always perform well in other binder systems. This review showed that there is only a limited knowledge on how chemical admixtures work in ecological concretes at low temperatures and how to accelerate the hydration rate of composite cements containing high amounts of SCMs or AACs, when these are cured at subfreezing temperatures.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (3) ◽  
pp. 475
Ana María Moreno de los Reyes ◽  
José Antonio Suárez-Navarro ◽  
Maria del Mar Alonso ◽  
Catalina Gascó ◽  
Isabel Sobrados ◽  

Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) in industrial waste and by-products are routinely used to mitigate the adverse environmental effects of, and lower the energy consumption associated with, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) manufacture. Many such SCMs, such as type F coal fly ash (FA), are naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). 226Ra, 232Th and 40K radionuclide activity concentration, information needed to determine what is known as the gamma-ray activity concentration index (ACI), is normally collected from ground cement samples. The present study aims to validate a new method for calculating the ACI from measurements made on unground 5 cm cubic specimens. Mechanical, mineralogical and radiological characterisation of 28-day OPC + FA pastes (bearing up to 30 wt % FA) were characterised to determine their mechanical, mineralogical and radiological properties. The activity concentrations found for 226Ra, 212Pb, 232Th and 40K in hardened, intact 5 cm cubic specimens were also statistically equal to the theoretically calculated values and to the same materials when ground to a powder. These findings consequently validated the new method. The possibility of determining the activity concentrations needed to establish the ACI for cement-based materials on unground samples introduces a new field of radiological research on actual cement, mortar and concrete materials.

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