strength development
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2022 ◽  
Vol 320 ◽  
pp. 126228
Siventhirarajah Krishnya ◽  
Charith Herath ◽  
Yogarajah Elakneswaran ◽  
Chamila Gunasekara ◽  
David W. Law ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 273-285
Jera Gregorc ◽  
Alenka Humar

<p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this paper is to determine the relevance of turning the camera on or off during distance learning as an argument for active or passive student participation. Seventy-five (75) students participated in the study and were divided into five groups (1-5) according to teaching method (i.e., synchronous instruction online with camera (1) and without camera (2), synchronous transmission of the recording online with camera (3) and without camera (4) and received the online instruction (5)) only. In the beginning and at the end, all students were tested with the same adapted test to determine general physical and motor status. All groups had the same training program twice a week for 45 minutes for 7 weeks. The first training of the week was dedicated to strength development, the second to endurance. In the end, all participants completed a questionnaire to determine their additional physical activity and how they felt about using a camera. The camera being turned on was identified as a factor that made participants uncomfortable but contributed significantly to the effectiveness of the course. However, 94.6 % of all participants cited non-camera methods as their favourite.</p>

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Beulah M ◽  
MR Sudhir ◽  
Shenen Chen ◽  
Sasha Rai ◽  
Deekshith Jain

Numerous works are reported in literature regarding the enhancement of compressive strength of fly ash-GGBS geopolymer combinations with addition of alkali activators of varying concentrations. However, a limited study has been chronicled, revealing the specific role of alkali or alkaline earth contributed by the fly ash-GGBS combinations on the compressive strength development. It is well known that the strength of a geopolymer is dependent on gel formation from Al/Si ratio, Ca/Si ratio, and Ca/(Si + Al) ratio but their exact role when cured for various extended periods is unknown as yet. In the present study, alkali concentration in a fly ash-GGBS geopolymer combination was varied from 6 M to 12 M with increments of two mol in six different fly ash-GGBS combinations with a minimum of 20 percent and a maximum of 70 percent GGBS. The correlation coefficients between compressive strength and Al/Si, Ca/Si, and Ca/(Si + Al) ratios exhibited values higher than 0.95 taken individually. Multiple linear regression analysis with compressive strength (as dependent parameter) and individual values of Al/Si, Ca/Si, and Ca/(Si + Al) ratios (as independent parameters) was effectuated. It was observed that, depending on the composition, the compressive strength circumstantiated a changeover from Ca/Si to Ca/(Si + Al) ratio in the intermediate composition range. Such a detailed analysis is considered supportive of developing a suitable composition which will provide the optimum compressive strength of the combination.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 306
Fatheali A. Shilar ◽  
Sharanabasava V. Ganachari ◽  
Veerabhadragouda B. Patil ◽  
Kottakkaran Sooppy Nisar ◽  
Abdel-Haleem Abdel-Aty ◽  

Industrial waste such as Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag (GGBS) and Granite Waste Powder (GWP) is available in huge quantities in several states of India. These ingredients have no recognized application and are usually shed in landfills. This process and these materials are sources of severe environmental pollution. This industrial waste has been utilized as a binder for geopolymers, which is our primary focus. This paper presents the investigation of the optimum percentage of granite waste powder as a binder, specifically, the effect of molar and alkaline to binder (A/B) ratio on the mechanical properties of geopolymer concrete (GPC). Additionally, this study involves the use of admixture SP-340 for better performance of workability. Current work focuses on investigating the effect of a change in molarity that results in strength development in geopolymer concrete. The limits for the present work were: GGBS partially replaced by GWP up to 30%; molar ranging from 12 to 18 with the interval of 2 M; and A/B ratio of 0.30. For 16 M of GPC, a maximum slump was observed for GWP with 60 mm compared to other molar concentration. For 16 M of GPC, a maximum compressive strength (CS) was observed for GWP with 20%, of 33.95 MPa. For 16 M of GPC, a maximum STS was observed for GWP, with 20%, of 3.15 MPa. For 16 M of GPC, a maximum FS was observed for GWP, with 20%, of 4.79 MPa. Geopolymer concrete has better strength properties than conventional concrete. GPC is $13.70 costlier than conventional concrete per cubic meter.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 541
Liyun Cui ◽  
Peiyuan Chen ◽  
Liang Wang ◽  
Ying Xu ◽  
Hao Wang

Recently, the massive accumulation of waste iron tailings powder (WITP) has resulted in significant environmental pollution. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an original mortar replacement (M) method to reuse waste solids and reduce cement consumption. In the experiment, the author employed an M method which replaces water, cement, and sand with WITP under constant water/cement and found that the strength development can be significantly improved. Specifically, a mortar with 20% WITP replacement can obtain a 30.95% improvement in strength development. To study the internal mechanism, we performed experiments such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), and SEM. The results demonstrate that the nucleation effect and pozzolanic effect of WITP can help promote cement hydration, and MIP reveals that WITP can effectively optimize pore structure. In addition, 1 kg 20% WITP mortar reduced cement consumption by 20%, which saves 19.98% of the economic cost. Comprehensively, our approach achieves the effective utilization of WITP and provides a favorable reference for practical engineering.

Salim KOURTAA ◽  
Morgan Chabannes ◽  
Frederic Becquart ◽  
Nor Edine Abriak

In the context of global warming, the built environment offers relevant opportunities to reduce GHG emissions that underlie climate change. In particular, this can be achieved with the development of low-embodied energy building materials such as bio-based concretes. Hemp concrete has been the subject of many investigations in the field of non-load bearing infill walls in France since the early 1990s. In addition to hygrothermal performances, the use of crop by-products definitely helps to limit the carbon footprint. Hemp concretes are often produced by mixing the plant aggregates with lime-based binders. The latter have many benefits among which the water vapor permeability. However, CO2 emissions due to the decarbonation of limestone for the production of lime largely contribute to the overall environmental balance of these materials. The use of natural pozzolans (volcanic scoria) combined with hydrated lime goes back to the Greco-Roman period and reduces carbon emissions. Nonetheless, it does not necessarily meet the issue related to the depletion of granular natural resources. Hence, this study deals with the design of a new low-carbon binder based on marine dredged sediment seen as an alternative strategic granular resource that can be considered renewable. The sediment comes from the Port of Dunkirk in the North of France and is mainly composed of silt and quartz sand. It was finely ground and compared to a lowly reactive basaltic pozzolan. Lime-pozzolan pastes were prepared and stored in a moist environment under room (20°C) and high temperature (50°C). The hardening kinetics of pastes was followed through mineralogical studies (TGA, XRD) and compressive strength development. The results showed that the hardening of pastes including the marine sediment was suitable in the case of samples stored at 50°C and make it possible to use such a binder for precast bio-based concretes.

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