host health
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2022 ◽  
Vol 62 ◽  
pp. 36-42
Tong Xu ◽  
Xinyue Wu ◽  
Jia Liu ◽  
Jiayi Sun ◽  
Xiaobo Wang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Dhrati V. Patangia ◽  
Cornelius Anthony Ryan ◽  
Eugene Dempsey ◽  
Reynolds Paul Ross ◽  
Catherine Stanton

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Shuangyue Li ◽  
Georgios Kararigas

There has been a recent, unprecedented interest in the role of gut microbiota in host health and disease. Technological advances have dramatically expanded our knowledge of the gut microbiome. Increasing evidence has indicated a strong link between gut microbiota and the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In the present article, we discuss the contribution of gut microbiota in the development and progression of CVD. We further discuss how the gut microbiome may differ between the sexes and how it may be influenced by sex hormones. We put forward that regulation of microbial composition and function by sex might lead to sex-biased disease susceptibility, thereby offering a mechanistic insight into sex differences in CVD. A better understanding of this could identify novel targets, ultimately contributing to the development of innovative preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for men and women.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yue Liu ◽  
Jiaqi Wang ◽  
Changxin Wu

The human gastrointestinal tract harbours a complex microbial community, which interacts with the mucosal immune system closely. Gut microbiota plays a significant role in maintaining host health, which could supply various nutrients, regulate energy balance, modulate the immune response, and defence against pathogens. Therefore, maintaining a favourable equilibrium of gut microbiota through modulating bacteria composition, diversity, and their activity is beneficial to host health. Several studies have shown that probiotics and pre-biotics could directly and indirectly regulate microbiota and immune response. In addition, post-biotics, such as the bioactive metabolites, produced by gut microbiota, and/or cell-wall components released by probiotics, also have been shown to inhibit pathogen growth, maintain microbiota balance, and regulate an immune response. This review summarises the studies concerning the impact of probiotics, pre-biotics, and post-biotics on gut microbiota and immune systems and also describes the underlying mechanisms of beneficial effects of these substances. Finally, the future and challenges of probiotics, pre-biotics, and post-biotics are proposed.

2022 ◽  
pp. 253-269
Muhammad Haseeb Ahmad ◽  
Muhammad Faizan Afzal ◽  
Muhammad Imran ◽  
Muhammad Kamran Khan ◽  
Nazir Ahmad

Nutrition is a known aspect that plays a pivotal role in the strengthening of the immune system. Populations with poor eating habits have more risk of severe COVID-19. Micronutrients such as vitamins, including vitamins A, B complex, C, D, and E; minerals including, zinc, selenium, magnesium, and copper are mainly present in plant based foods like legumes, fruits, and vegetables to build different types of immune cells that are helpful in supporting the immune system and promote the host health. Insufficient consumption of these nutrients may result to reduce the resistance to infections as well as an increasing in disease load. Garlic, black pepper, and basel leaves are known as ancient herbs which is helpful to boost the immunity. Numerous studies observed that a powerful antioxidant bioflavonoid quercetin and a glutathione may prevent the risk of COVID-19. In conclusion, foods from plant source show a vigorous role to boost the immunity for all aged groups to control COVID-19.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 191
Ilias Attaye ◽  
Sophie van Oppenraaij ◽  
Moritz V. Warmbrunn ◽  
Max Nieuwdorp

The ketogenic diet is a dietary regime focused on strongly reducing carbohydrate intake and increasing fat intake; leading to a state of ketosis. The ketogenic diet has gained much popularity over the years due to its effects on promoting weight loss, increasing insulin sensitivity and reducing dyslipidaemia. All these factors play a crucial role in the development of cardio-metabolic diseases; one of the greatest health challenges of the time. Moreover, the ketogenic diet has been known to reduce (epileptic) seizure activity. It is still poorly understood how following a ketogenic diet can lead to these beneficial metabolic effects. However, in recent years it has become clear that diet and the gut microbiota interact with one another and thus influence host health. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the beneficial metabolic effects of the ketogenic diet and the role of gut microbiota in these effects.

2021 ◽  
Jennah E. Dharamshi ◽  
Natalia Gaarslev ◽  
Karin Steffen ◽  
Tom Martin ◽  
Detmer Sipkema ◽  

Sponge microbiomes contribute to host health, nutrition, and defense through the production of secondary metabolites. Chlamydiae, a phylum of obligate intracellular bacteria ranging from animal pathogens to endosymbionts of microbial eukaryotes, are frequently found associated with sponges. However, sponge-associated chlamydial diversity has not yet been investigated at the genomic level and host-interactions remain thus far unexplored. Here, we sequenced the microbiomes of three sponge species and found high, though variable, Chlamydiae relative abundances of up to 21.2% of bacterial diversity. Using genome-resolved metagenomics 18 high-quality sponge-associated chlamydial genomes were reconstructed, covering four chlamydial families. Among these, Sorochlamydiaceae shares a common ancestor with Chlamydiaceae animal pathogens, suggesting long-term co-evolution with animals. Sponge-associated chlamydiae genomes mostly resembled environmental chlamydial endosymbionts, but not pathogens, and encoded genes for degrading diverse compounds associated with sponges, such as taurine. Unexpectedly, we identified widespread genetic potential for secondary metabolite biosynthesis across Chlamydiae, which may represent an explored reservoir of novel natural products. This finding suggests that chlamydiae may partake in defensive symbioses and that secondary metabolites play a wider role in mediating intracellular interactions. Furthermore, sponge-associated chlamydiae relatives were found in other marine invertebrates, pointing towards wider impacts of this phylum on marine ecosystems.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13475
Rafał Jastrząb ◽  
Damian Graczyk ◽  
Pawel Siedlecki

In recent years, commensal bacteria colonizing the human body have been recognized as important determinants of health and multiple pathologic conditions. Among the most extensively studied commensal bacteria are the gut microbiota, which perform a plethora of functions, including the synthesis of bioactive products, metabolism of dietary compounds, and immunomodulation, both through attenuation and immunostimulation. An imbalance in the microbiota population, i.e., dysbiosis, has been linked to many human pathologies, including various cancer types and neurodegenerative diseases. Targeting gut microbiota and microbiome–host interactions resulting from probiotics, prebiotics, and postbiotics is a growing opportunity for the effective treatment of various diseases. As more research is being conducted, the microbiome field is shifting from simple descriptive analysis of commensal compositions to more molecular, cellular, and functional studies. Insight into these mechanisms is of paramount importance for understanding and modulating the effects that microbiota, probiotics, and their derivatives exert on host health.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3055
Ting Wu ◽  
Xueqi Chu ◽  
Yuxin Cheng ◽  
Shuxin Tang ◽  
Daniel Zogona ◽  

The aim of this study was to investigate the modulation of gut microbiota by fermented raspberry juice (FRJ) both in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of FRJ reached the highest after fermentation for 42 h. Seventeen phenolic compounds were contained in FRJ, mainly including ellagic acid (496.64 ± 2.91 μg/g) and anthocyanins (total concentration: 387.93 μg/g). FRJ modulated the gut microbiota into a healthy in vitro status, with increase of valeric and isovaleric acids production. In healthy mice, all FRJ treatments improved the production of acetic, butyric and isovaleric acids as well as the gene expression of ZO-1, Claudin-1, Claudin-4, Ocdudin, E-cadherin and Muc-2. Moreover, variable gut microbial compositions were found among the groups fed diet-supplemented the different doses of FRJ, within low and median doses of FRJ may regulate the microbiota to a healthier state compared to the high dose supplementation. This study indicated that fermentation is a potential way to produce plant-based juices, which could reshape the gut microbiota and improve the host health.

2021 ◽  
Deirdre Church ◽  
Ranjani Somayaji ◽  
Jeannine Viczko ◽  
Dan Gregson ◽  
Christopher Naugler

Aim: To study the predictors of mortality from nine major pathogens causing approximately 70% of cases over a 7-year period. Materials & methods: A population-based surveillance cohort of all adult and pediatric patients in the Calgary Zone with an initial episode of bloodstream infections (BSI). Results: The 1-year mortality was 29.2% among 9524 patients (5164 males [54%]). Incidence rates for BSI increased annually to 119.7/100,000 persons by 2016. Distinct survival curves were found for each specific pathogen. Age, comorbidity burden and infecting organism were significantly associated with increased hazard of death. No relationship occurred between the time to positivity for blood cultures and overall mortality. Conclusion: BSI has a high mortality, but overall survival depends on underlying host health and the type of pathogen acquired.

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