Civil war hinders crop production and threatens food security in Syria

Nature Food ◽  
2022 ◽  
Xi-Ya Li ◽  
Xi Li ◽  
Ziying Fan ◽  
Li Mi ◽  
Tarek Kandakji ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Fatemeh Karandish ◽  
Hamideh Nouri ◽  
Marcela Brugnach

AbstractEnding hunger and ensuring food security are among targets of 2030’s SDGs. While food trade and the embedded (virtual) water (VW) may improve food availability and accessibility for more people all year round, the sustainability and efficiency of food and VW trade needs to be revisited. In this research, we assess the sustainability and efficiency of food and VW trades under two food security scenarios for Iran, a country suffering from an escalating water crisis. These scenarios are (1) Individual Crop Food Security (ICFS), which restricts calorie fulfillment from individual crops and (2) Crop Category Food Security (CCFS), which promotes “eating local” by suggesting food substitution within the crop category. To this end, we simulate the water footprint and VW trades of 27 major crops, within 8 crop categories, in 30 provinces of Iran (2005–2015). We investigate the impacts of these two scenarios on (a) provincial food security (FSp) and exports; (b) sustainable and efficient blue water consumption, and (c) blue VW export. We then test the correlation between agro-economic and socio-environmental indicators and provincial food security. Our results show that most provinces were threatened by unsustainable and inefficient blue water consumption for crop production, particularly in the summertime. This water mismanagement results in 14.41 and 8.45 billion m3 y−1 unsustainable and inefficient blue VW exports under ICFS. “Eating local” improves the FSp value by up to 210% which lessens the unsustainable and inefficient blue VW export from hotspots. As illustrated in the graphical abstract, the FSp value strongly correlates with different agro-economic and socio-environmental indicators, but in different ways. Our findings promote “eating local” besides improving agro-economic and socio-environmental conditions to take transformative steps toward eradicating food insecurity not only in Iran but also in other countries facing water limitations.

Food Security ◽  
2021 ◽  
Alain Ndoli ◽  
Athanase Mukuralinda ◽  
Antonius G. T. Schut ◽  
Miyuki Iiyama ◽  
Jean Damascene Ndayambaje ◽  

AbstractThe world is challenged to meet the food demand of a growing population, especially in developing countries. Given the ambitious plans to scale up agroforestry in Africa, an improved understanding of the effect of agroforestry practices on the already challenged food security of rural households is crucial. The present study was undertaken to assess how on-farm trees impacted food security in addition to other household income sources in Rwanda. In each of the six agroecologies of Rwanda, a stratified sampling procedure was used where two administrative cells (4th formal administrative level) were selected in which households were randomly selected for interviews. A survey including 399 farmers was conducted and farmers were grouped in three types of agroforestry practice (i) low practitioners (LAP) represented by the first tertile, (ii) medium practitioners (MAP) represented by the second tertile and (iii) high practitioners (HAP) represented by the third tertile of households in terms of tree number. Asset values, household income sources, crop production, farm size, crop yield, and food security (food energy needs) were quantified among the types of agroforestry practice. A larger proportion of HAP households had access to adequate quantity and diversity of food when compared with MAP and LAP households. Food security probability was higher for households with more resources, including land, trees and livestock, coinciding with an increased crop and livestock income. We found no difference in asset endowment among types of agroforestry practices, while farmers in agroecologies with smaller farms (0.42 ha to 0.66 ha) had more on-farm trees (212 to 358 trees per household) than farms in agroecologies with larger farms (0.96 ha to 1.23 ha) which had 49 to 129 trees per household, probably due to differences in biophysical conditions. A positive association between tree density and food security was found in two out of six agroecologies. The proportion of income that came from tree products was high (> 20%) for a small fraction of farmers (12%), with the more food insecure households relying more on income from tree products than households with better food security status. Thus, tree income can be percieved as a “safety net” for the poorest households.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 419
Jordi Sardans ◽  
Josep Peñuelas

Potassium, mostly as a cation (K+), together with calcium (Ca2+) are the most abundant inorganic chemicals in plant cellular media, but they are rarely discussed. K+ is not a component of molecular or macromolecular plant structures, thus it is more difficult to link it to concrete metabolic pathways than nitrogen or phosphorus. Over the last two decades, many studies have reported on the role of K+ in several physiological functions, including controlling cellular growth and wood formation, xylem–phloem water content and movement, nutrient and metabolite transport, and stress responses. In this paper, we present an overview of contemporary findings associating K+ with various plant functions, emphasizing plant-mediated responses to environmental abiotic and biotic shifts and stresses by controlling transmembrane potentials and water, nutrient, and metabolite transport. These essential roles of K+ account for its high concentrations in the most active plant organs, such as leaves, and are consistent with the increasing number of ecological and agricultural studies that report K+ as a key element in the function and structure of terrestrial ecosystems, crop production, and global food security. We synthesized these roles from an integrated perspective, considering the metabolic and physiological functions of individual plants and their complex roles in terrestrial ecosystem functions and food security within the current context of ongoing global change. Thus, we provide a bridge between studies of K+ at the plant and ecological levels to ultimately claim that K+ should be considered at least at a level similar to N and P in terrestrial ecological studies.

2017 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 50
Kalifa TRAORE ◽  
Daouda SIDIBE ◽  

Climate variability and change are recognized as the greatest challenge to crop production and food security in sub-Saharan Africa. This work assesses farmers’ perception on the contribution of improved varieties of sorghum and millet in the search for food security in Cinzana rural commune of Mali in the current context of climate change.The methodology was based on focus group surveys with both, the decentralized technical services, administrative and municipal authorities, NGOs, farmer organizations and producers but also farmer exchanges visits on improved varieties tested in farmer’s field.The result shows that climate change is described by the majority of farmers (87%) as decrease in rainfall amount and length of rainy seasons, high increases in temperature and high deforestation and water scarcity. Unpredictability of climate, (80%), drought (70%) and heavy rain (65%) occurrence were identified as major perception of farmers on risks in climate for crop production and soil degradation. After farmers’ study tour, 80% of the participants mentioned a better growth of plants and increase of soil moisture with the use of contour ridges tillage as a water conservation technology. Adapted cycle (55%) and higher yield (37%) of improved varieties were farmer’s main drivers for adoption of improved millet and sorghum varieties.The study revealed that local farmers have substantial knowledge on climate variabilities and risks and also are aware of some adaptation strategies. However, for wide scale adoption of effective strategies, capacity strengthening appeared a prerequisite.

2017 ◽  
Vol 10 (5) ◽  
pp. 268
Olivia Muza

El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the most recurrent change in climate impacting agriculture productivity and food security. This study investigates ENSO impacts on four cereal crops (maize, millet, sorghum and wheat) using crop production and climate datasets spanning the years 1960-2015. The results of this study reveal that during El Nino (La Nina) maize, sorghum and wheat production decreases (increases) while that of millet increases (decreases). Even though, the correlation is statistically significant for maize only, the outcome is a call to review the macro-food policy taking into account ENSO-related phase effects to redress food insecurity. The study recommends incentives for agricultural productivity including irrigation intensification and small grain value chain development, trade and food security arrangements, income generation opportunities and strategic partnerships for improved food and nutrition security.

2019 ◽  
Vol 100 (4) ◽  
pp. 1495-1504 ◽  
Razlin Azman Halimi ◽  
Bronwyn J Barkla ◽  
Liliana Andrés‐Hernandéz ◽  
Sean Mayes ◽  
Graham J King

2018 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 188-195
Siti Nur Indah Lestari ◽  
Hardjanto Hardjanto ◽  
Yulius Hero

Private forest is one of the alternatives to support food security and household income. The research is located in village of Cidokom, Leuwibatu, and Mekarjaya, Subdistrict of Rumpin with 66 respondents. This study aims to analysis contribution of private forest to the total household income and food security of farmer households Data was collected by field observation, interview and literature study. Analysis of contribution to food security was done by calculating total energy from all crop production with unit of cap/cal/day by comparing the recommended daily consumption of energy and nutritional value (AKG) of 2150 kcal/person/day. The level of household food security is measured by using food share. Food share is cross-classification of two indicators of food security. The two indicators are the share of food expenditure and the adequacy of energy consumption (kcal). The results showed that (1) The average contribution of private forest for household income from timber plantation is 10.63% and food crops is 30.22% of total income, (2) there are 46 types of crops which contribute to food security per day with average 393.70 cal/cap/day or 18.75% from total energy/day/person,(3) the distribution of households that have food resistant (TKE>90%) is 69,69%.KeyWords: Private forest, agroforestry, food security

2021 ◽  
Vol 940 (1) ◽  
pp. 012089
H Pribadi ◽  
S Jumiyati ◽  
A Muis ◽  
I K Widnyana ◽  
J Mustabi

Abstract The rate of world population growth gets faster every year, while on the other hand the land available for food production activities is increasingly limited. Efforts to increase income and food crop production by using cocoa farming to support national food security can be done by optimizing of land through crop diversification patterns by planting local tubers under cocoa farming. This research aims to analyze the optimization of land use, revenue and production costs. In addition, analyzing the nutritional content contained in each type of local tubers, namely sweet potato, cassava and taro. The research was conducted in the the buffer zone of Lore Lindu National Park (TNLL), Palolo District, Sigi Regency, Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The results showed that the optimization of land use and revenue was obtained through the diversification pattern of sweet potato and cocoa. Optimization of the costs use occurs in the use of fertilizer production inputs. In addition, sweet potatoes have a higher calorific value, protein and fat compared to cassava and taro. However, the carbohydrate content of cassava is higher than that of sweet potato and taro.

Mohamed Nasser Baco

Previous studies suggested that maize is set to become a cash crop while ensuring food security better than any other crop. However, climate change has become one of the key production constraints that are now hampering and threatening the sustainability of maize production systems. We conducted a study to better understand changes here defined as adaptations made by smallholder farmers to ensure food security and improve income through maize production in a climate change context. Our results show that maize farmers in northern Benin mainly rely on traditional seeds. Drought as abiotic stress is perceived by farmers in many agro-ecological zones as a disruptive factor for crop production, including maize. When drought is associated with pest damages, both the quantity (i.e. yield) and the quality (i.e. attributes) of products/harvests are negatively affected. The adverse effects of drought continue to reduce production in different agro-ecological zones of the country, because of the lack of widespread adoption of tolerant varieties. The study suggests actions towards the production of drought-tolerant maize seeds, a promotion of seed companies, the organization of actors and value chains. Apart from climate change, the promotion of value chains is also emerging as one of the important aspects to take into account to sustain maize production in Benin.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document