water conservation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 66 ◽  
pp. 287-295
Karmendra Kumar Agrawal ◽  
Shibani Khanra Jha ◽  
Ravi Kant Mittal ◽  
Sanjay Vashishtha

Samiksha Verma

Abstract: Water conservation is a practice needed for survival. In India, various techniques are used to save water, which are practical and climate-responsive. From the age of the Indus valley civilization, till today many practices are seen in different parts of India. The traditional practices used for conserving water and even cooling buildings in ancient times. Forts surrounded water bodies for protection from enemies. Indians continue to build structures to catch and store the monsoon rains. Some unique water conservation techniques are still practiced in India and are efficient. These are sometimes better than the presentday water-saving techniques. The paper summarizes the transformation over the years in the construction and advancements of water conservation practices in India. In dry regions, these practices have helped people survive tough times. Keywords: Rain water harvesting, Storage, Tanks, Traditional methods, Water conservation

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 257
Peng Guo ◽  
Jiqiang Lyu ◽  
Weining Yuan ◽  
Xiawan Zhou ◽  
Shuhong Mo ◽  

This study examined the Chabagou River watershed in the gully region of the Loess Plateau in China’s Shaanxi Province, and was based on measured precipitation and runoff data in the basin over a 52-year period (1959–2010), land-use types, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and other data. Statistical models and distributed hydrological models were used to explore the influences of climate change and human activity on the hydrological response and on the temporal and spatial evolution of the basin. It was found that precipitation and runoff in the gully region presented a downward trend during the 52-year period. Since the 1970s, the hydrological response to human activities has become the main source of regional hydrological evolution. Evapotranspiration from the large silt dam in the study area has increased. The depth of soil water decreased at first, then it increased by amount that exceeded the evaporation increase observed in the second and third change periods. The water and soil conservation measures had a beneficial effect on the ecology of the watershed. These results provide a reference for water resource management and soil and water conservation in the study area.

Zack Darby ◽  
Neelam Chandra Poudyal ◽  
Adam Frakes ◽  
Omkar Joshi

Municipal drawdowns at public reservoirs can negatively impact recreational uses on site. Therefore, sustaining recreation requires understanding how users relate themselves with the reservoir and the resource therein, and how they will respond to circumstances and policies impacting the resource. Researchers use placedbased theory, particularly sense of place (SOP), to assess the user community’s perspective on the natural resource or recreation site of interest. This study utilized visitor survey data (n=282) from Canton Reservoir in Oklahoma to assess visitors’ sense of place (SOP), and to evaluate the relationship of SOP with their acceptability of alternative water allocation strategies and future intention of visiting the reservoir under depleted water conditions. Visitors had a high level of SOP with the reservoir and supported protective water allocation strategies that either favor the retention of water on-site or ensure a fair distribution between recreation and municipal use. Results suggest a positive relationship between visitors' SOP and their intended trips to the reservoir even under depleted water conditions. The findings highlight the psychological, functional, and emotional benefits associated with the recreational use of the Canton Reservoir, which will in turn help managers make more informed and balanced decisions about water conservation and allocation. Insights from this study will also contribute in literature on the sense of place and protective norms and offers several implications for the management of public reservoirs.

2022 ◽  
Denbel Bedo ◽  
Abate Mekuriaw ◽  
Amare Bantider

Abstract Abijata-Shalla Park was established as one of Ethiopia's national parks to safeguard wetlands and ecosystem services (ESs). Some of the ESs that are offered by the wetlands are currently depleting and disappearing rather than being protected. Understanding the drivers behind these changes can help individuals and policymakers design mitigation measures. The objective of this case was to assess ESs and the drivers of change with highlighting on the Abijata wetland. In addition to a household survey and group discussion, personal interviews and field observation were employed to collect data. Using these data, the various ESs were assessed and ranked from 1-10 according to local perception. Grading scales such as very high (−2), high (−1), neutral (0), low (+1), and very low (+2) were employed to analyse the drivers of ESs change. Analyses of the study revealed that some of the ESs, including fish, papyrus, water reeds, hunting and spiritual services, existed before 1991, but have since disappeared from the site. Twenty ESs are available; 11 services pertain to provisioning, followed by 4 regulating, 3 cultural and 2 supporting services. Wetland for cultivation ranked highest, followed by domestic water supply and pasture. All services, with the exception of arable land and pasture, are on the decline. Water abstraction is the primary driver of ESs change, followed by population growth and deforestation. The park existed as a "paper park." Water withdrawals from the Ziway-Shalla sub-basin should be restricted. Instead, focus on water conservation strategies to make better use of abstracted water.

Lina Saraswati ◽  
Sugeng Prijono ◽  
Budi Prasetya

Background: The study of the moisture balance can be used to suppose the plants water requirement and the plants water use efficiency. The moisture balance influenced by climate factor, therefore climate change can affect the moisture balance especially in rainfed. Therefore, an effort is needed to manage soil moisture in rainfed as a climate change mitigation measure: soil and water conservation. This study aimed to determine the influence of soil and water conservation on the moisture balance in the coffee root zone. Methods: This study was conducted at people’s coffee plantation of Argotirto village, Sumbermanjing Wetan District, Malang Regency, located between 8.2411-8.1443 S and 112.4031-112.4634 E. Observation were made on February to November 2020, divided into observations in the wet season, dry seasons and flowering period. The observation plots consisted of terraced plot (P0), terraced + straight silt pit (P1), terraced + L-shaped silt pit (P2) and terrace + biopore (P3). The observation variables were: soil physical characteristics and moisture balance components there were precipitation, percolation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil moisture storage. Result: At P1, the runoff depth was 80.89% lower and the percolation was 44.22% higher than P0. The total soil moisture storage at P1 was 20.06% higher than P0 in the dry season, indicating that P1 could increase the period of surplus moisture in the dry season.

Dale Blahna ◽  
Steve Selin ◽  
Wade Morse ◽  
Lee Cerveny

The Great American Outdoors Act (AGOA) fully and permanently funds the Land and Water Conservation Fund for the first time since it was created in 1964. This is a boon for purchasing conservation lands, but equally important, the act provides funding to address massive federal agency recreation infrastructure backlogs. The last major overhaul of the U.S. parks and outdoor recreation system was over 50 years ago, during the era of Mission 66 and related programs. Since that time, a host of environmental and societal changes necessitates new approaches for updating conservation and recreation opportunities. In addition to acquiring critical park and conservation lands, and developing and updating facilities, new park and recreation goals include increasing public use and visitor diversity and advancing environmental justice, public health, and large-scale conservation goals. Integrated systems analyses are needed to address these diverse concerns across landscapes, regions, and jurisdictions, and new interagency and interdisciplinary approaches will be needed. This is a bureaucratic crossroads: for the first time in decades we can truly advance public access, human health, and social equity values of public lands; the GAOA is a critical process step toward, but not the culmination of, this goal.

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