water scarcity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 261 ◽  
pp. 107358
R. Mir ◽  
G. Azizyan ◽  
A. Massah ◽  
A. Gohari

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 210
Prince Obinna Njoku ◽  
Olatunde Samod Durowoju ◽  
Solomon Eghosa Uhunamure ◽  
Rachel Makungo

South Africa is a semi-arid, water-stressed country. Adequate measures should be put in place to prevent water wastage. This paper aims to assess domestic water wastage and determine the proper attitude towards household water management in rural and urban communities in South Africa. This study was conceptualised in two stages. Firstly, critical observations were used to examine the attitude of households towards water usage in both urban and rural communities (Durban and Thohoyandou, respectively). Secondly, structured questionnaires and interviews were used to identify the factors that influenced the participants’ attitudes towards domestic water usage. This study concludes that, irrespective of the literacy level, accessibility to limited water supply, information available through advertisements about water scarcity, and better water management in an urban community, the rural community has a better attitude towards domestic water usage and water management. The result (83.3%) also indicated that the rural community strongly agreed to be water savers in their homes. However, in the urban community, the results from the participants were somewhat evenly distributed; the participants strongly agreed and disagreed at 36.2% and 32.2%, respectively. Other results of the study also showed that variables such as family upbringing, inaccessibility of domestic water, and advertisement play a major role in influencing the attitude of the rural community to water usage. These variables were statistically significant at p < 0.001. However, the immediate environment was shown to be not statistically significant at p < 0.911. Based on the study results, it is recommended that households should be encouraged to generate greywater collection systems to reduce water use and improve water reuse. The government could introduce a rationed allocation (shedding) of domestic water in urban communities to draw attention to the prevalence of water scarcity in the nation.

2022 ◽  
Seyed Farhad Saberali ◽  
Zahra Shirmohammadi-Aliakbarkhani ◽  
Hossein Nastari Nasrabadi

Abstract Water scarcity is the key challenge in arid regions, which exacerbates under climate change (CC) and must be considered to assess the impacts of CC on cropping systems. A climate-crop modelling approach was employed by using the CSM-CERES-Wheat model in some arid regions of northeast Iran to project the effects of CC on irrigated wheat production. Current climate data for 1990-2019 and climate projections of three climate models for 2021–2050 under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios were used to run the crop model. Two irrigation scenarios with different irrigation efficiencies were also simulated to investigate the impacts of water scarcity associated with changing climate and irrigation management on wheat productivity. Results indicated that mean temperature is projected to increase at the rates of 1.74–2.73 °C during the reproductive growth period of winter wheat over the study areas. The precipitation projections also indicated that the precipitation rates would decrease over most of the wheat-growing period. The length of the vegetative growth period will extend in some regions and shorten in others under the near future climate. However, the grain filling duration will reduce by about 2–4 days across all regions. The mean seasonal PET is expected to decrease by about 11 mm from 2021 to 2050 over the study areas. A mean overall reduction in winter wheat yield due to future climate conditions would be about 12.3 % across the study areas. However, an increase of 15-30% in the irrigation efficiency will be able to offset yield reductions associated with limited water supply under future climate scenarios. The results suggest that CC will exacerbate limited irrigation water availability, so implementing high-efficiency irrigation systems should be a priority to adapt to climate change in an arid cropping system.

Zheng Wang ◽  
Yue Huang ◽  
Tie Liu ◽  
Chanjuan Zan ◽  
Yunan Ling ◽  

Lower reaches of the Amu Darya River Basin (LADB) is one of the typical regions which is facing the problem of water shortage in Central Asia. During the past decades, water resources demand far exceeds that supplied by the mainstream of the Amu Darya River, and has resulted in a continuous decrease in the amount of water flowing into the Aral Sea. Clarifying the dynamic relationship between the water supply and demand is important for the optimal allocation and sustainable management of regional water resources. In this study, the relationship and its variations between the water supply and demand in the LADB from the 1970s to 2010s were analyzed by detailed calculation of multi-users water demand and multi-sources water supply, and the water scarcity indices were used for evaluating the status of water resources utilization. The results indicated that (1) during the past 50 years, the average total water supply (TWS) was 271.88 × 108 m3/y, and the average total water demand (TWD) was 467.85 × 108 m3/y; both the volume of water supply and demand was decreased in the LADB, with rates of −1.87 × 108 m3/y and −15.59 × 108 m3/y. (2) percentages of the rainfall in TWS were increased due to the decrease of inflow from the Amu Darya River; percentage of agriculture water demand was increased obviously, from 11.04% in the 1970s to 44.34% in 2010s, and the water demand from ecological sector reduced because of the Aral Sea shrinking. (3) the supply and demand of water resources of the LADB were generally in an unbalanced state, and water demand exceeded water supply except in the 2010s; the water scarcity index decreased from 2.69 to 0.94, indicating the status changed from awful to serious water scarcity. A vulnerable balanced state has been reached in the region, and that water shortages remain serious in the future, which requires special attention to the decision-makers of the authority.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Md Atif Ibne Haidar ◽  
Daniel Che ◽  
Larry W. Mays

Climate change is causing shifts in seasonal weather patterns and variation in seasonal time scales in India. Factors including uneven distribution of water, faulty agricultural practices and water policies, low prices of farm products, and debt are leading farmers to commit suicide in Umarkhed Taluka of the Yavatmal District. This study aimed to develop a sustainable solution to water scarcity in the surrounding watershed by introducing optimization modeling in reservoir operation. Past studies have conducted different hydrologic analyses to address the water scarcity issue in this region. However, none of the studies incorporated optimization in their models. This study developed an integrated hydrologic and optimization model that can predict the daily reservoir releases for climate change scenarios from 2020 to 2069 based upon Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP-4.5 and RCP-8.5) climate change scenarios from 2020 to 2069. The integrated simulations were able to deliver around 19% more water than the historical discharge at the most downstream station of the Wardha Watershed. The simulated approaches store less water than the actual unoptimized scenario and deliver water when there is a need at the downstream locations. Finally, because the downstream locations of the Wardha Watershed receive more water, a localized storage system can be developed and a transfer method can be utilized to deliver sufficient water to the Umarkhed Taluka.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 88
Rui Gabriel Souza ◽  
Gustavo Meirelles ◽  
Bruno Brentan ◽  
Joaquín Izquierdo

Equitable distribution of water is a growing source of worry, and concerns water systems’ managers as water-stressed areas steadily increase and situations of water scarcity are becoming more frequent. The problem goes beyond just the water sector and globally affects many countries’ economies since water resources have multiple uses (i.e., power generation, irrigation, etc.). One of the various strategies to overcome periods of extreme events (e.g., water scarcity) is the adoption of intermittent operation. Intermittent operation can minimize water losses, and manages to supply the same water demand (in terms of volume) during a reduced period of time. However, despite minimizing water losses, the energy consumption necessary to cope with the increased flows and head loss, due to the reduced number of operating hours, increases. This paper explores a strategy based on rehabilitation of the system’s main pipes. It also considers optimal selection and scheduling of pumps aiming at improving the system’s hydraulic parameters (e.g., velocity and head losses) and at reducing the operating costs. Both selection and scheduling of pumps and resizing of main pipes are optimized using Particle Swarm Optimization. The obtained results show that this strategy can significantly reduce the energy consumed and can be economically feasible.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
C. Yerli ◽  
U. Sahin

Abstract Today, most of the world’s population faces water scarcity, while global warming, urbanization, industrialization and population increases continue to increase the severity of the pressure on water resources. Management of water resources plays a key role in the sustainability of agricultural production. The water footprint (WF) is different in comparison to other water statistics because it takes direct and indirect water consumption into account, and helps in the management of water resources. Within this context, the WF of Van province, which is Turkey’s most easterly located arid region, was calculated from 2004 to 2019. The study area covers lake Van, which is Turkey's largest lake, and the Van basin with an area of 23.334 km2 and a population of 1.136.757 (2019). In the calculations, crop (WFcrop), livestock (WFlivestock), and domestic and industrial water footprints (WFdomestic+industrial) were evaluated separately, and blue and green water footprints (WFblue and WFgreen) were analyzed in detail. According to the results, the average WF of Van province was found to be 8.73 billion m3 year-1. Throughout the province, 87.6% of the WF is composed of WFcrop, 4.9% is WFlivestock and 7.5% is WFdomestic+industrial. Of the WFcrop, 62.5% depends on WFblue, i.e., freshwater. Most of the WFlivestock consisted of dairy cattle (49%) and sheep (38%). The average WFdomestic+industrial for 2004 to 2019 was 0.64 billion m3 year-1. The average per capita water footprint of Van province was found to be 889.9 m3 year-1 capita-1. In addition, the province is classified as severe water scarcity (257%). This study is one of the first province-based calculations of WF in Turkey and is the first study to bring a different aspect to published literature by including residual soil moisture from the winter months. As a result of this study, the WFblue of the WFcrop is above the worldwide average and should be reduced by changing the crop pattern or synchronizing the planting and harvest dates of the crops to a period that benefits from precipitation. In addition, this study is expected to contribute to new studies for calculating the provincial scale WF and will have positive effects on agricultural planning, water allocation and the sustainability of water resources.

RSC Advances ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 1043-1050
Hiran D. Kiriarachchi ◽  
Amr A. Hassan ◽  
Fathi S. Awad ◽  
M. Samy El-Shall

Water desalination via solar steam generation is one of the most important technologies to address the increasingly pressing global water scarcity.

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