cellular growth
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. Al Hargan ◽  
M. H. Daghestani ◽  
A. H. Harrath

Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease with high incidence worldwide. As of 2018, it is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. In Saudi Arabia, the incidence of this disease has been increasing in the younger population. Both genetic and lifestyle factors may have contributed to its increased incidence and pathogenesis. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a food flavor enhancer that can be found in many commercial foods, and it can sometimes be used as a substitute to table salt. MSG has been investigated for its possible genotoxicity, yielding controversial results. In the present study, the effect of MSG on cell viability and its effect on expression of APC, BECN1, and TP53 genes in SW620 and SW480 colon cancer cell lines were studied. TP53 is a tumor suppressor gene that functions in modifying DNA errors and/or inducing apoptosis of damaged cells, and both APC and BECN1 genes are involved in CRC and are of importance in cellular growth and metastasis. Cancer cell viability was analyzed using MTT assay, and the results showed a significant increase in the number of viable cells after 24 h of treatment with MSG with different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 10, 50, and 100mM). Moreover, gene expression results showed a significant increase in the expression levels of APC and BECN1 under specified conditions in both cell lines; conversely, TP53 showed a significant decrease in expression in SW620 cells. Thus, it can be concluded that MSG possibly confers a pro-proliferative effect on CRC cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 007-010
Michael John Dochniak

Vitamins are essential for cellular growth and nutrition. The bioavailability of vitamins may affect the immune system’s ability to fight cancer. Research efforts investigate the complex interplay of vitamins, immune cells, and cancer cells to improve treatment outcomes. This review explores managing the intake of vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K to enhance the efficacy of forced-atopy cancer immunotherapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 190
Ida Romano ◽  
Carlo Camerlingo ◽  
Lisa Vaccari ◽  
Giovanni Birarda ◽  
Annarita Poli ◽  

A main factor hampering life in space is represented by high atomic number nuclei and energy (HZE) ions that constitute about 1% of the galactic cosmic rays. In the frame of the “STARLIFE” project, we accessed the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) facility of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba, Japan. By means of this facility, the extremophilic species Haloterrigena hispanica and Parageobacillus thermantarcticus were irradiated with high LET ions (i.e., Fe, Ar, and He ions) at doses corresponding to long permanence in the space environment. The survivability of HZE-treated cells depended upon either the storage time and the hydration state during irradiation; indeed, dry samples were shown to be more resistant than hydrated ones. With particular regard to spores of the species P. thermantarcticus, they were the most resistant to irradiation in a water medium: an analysis of the changes in their biochemical fingerprinting during irradiation showed that, below the survivability threshold, the spores undergo to a germination-like process, while for higher doses, inactivation takes place as a consequence of the concomitant release of the core’s content and a loss of integrity of the main cellular components. Overall, the results reported here suggest that the selected extremophilic microorganisms could serve as biological model for space simulation and/or real space condition exposure, since they showed good resistance to ionizing radiation exposure and were able to resume cellular growth after long-term storage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Zhaoshuo Yu ◽  
Ying Tan ◽  
Sihao Luo ◽  
Jingru Zhou ◽  
Tianhao Xu ◽  

AbstractAbundant nanostructures have been constantly found in various foods, like vinegar, tea, coffee, and milk. However, these structures largely remain unexplored and even been eliminated for stability reasons in food industry. Here we report the isolation, characterization, and antioxidant activities of food nanoparticles (NPs) carrying polyphenols from Chinese rice vinegar. Using a gel-chromatography-based isolation protocol, the vinegar was separated into three major fractions. They were identified as spherical NPs (P1), lollipop-like NPs (P2) and spherical microparticles (P3) with average hydrodynamic diameter of 210, 245,1643 nm, separately. The former two fractions accounted for the major parts of dry matter in the vinegar. The P1-NPs fraction was composed of proteins, carbohydrates, and a high number of polyphenols (15 wt%), demonstrated potent antioxidant activity as determined by ABTS and ORAC assays. Moreover, they effectively quenched peroxyl free radicals in peritoneal macrophages and promoted cellular growth. The P2 fraction contained majority of organic acids, esters and mineral elements of the vinegar. It demonstrated the NPs are bioactive units of the rice vinegar, inspiring the development of novel functional nanomaterials with nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Adrián Ramírez-de-Arellano ◽  
Ana Laura Pereira-Suárez ◽  
Cecilia Rico-Fuentes ◽  
Edgar Iván López-Pulido ◽  
Julio César Villegas-Pineda ◽  

Estrogens are hormones that have been extensively presented in many types of cancer such as breast, uterus, colorectal, prostate, and others, due to dynamically integrated signaling cascades that coordinate cellular growth, differentiation, and death which can be potentially new therapeutic targets. Despite the historical use of estrogens in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa), their biological effect is not well known, nor their role in carcinogenesis or the mechanisms used to carry their therapeutic effects of neoplastic in prostate transformation. The expression and regulation of the estrogen receptors (ERs) ERα, ERβ, and GPER stimulated by agonists and antagonists, and related to prostate cancer cells are herein reviewed. Subsequently, the structures of the ERs and their splice variants, the binding of ligands to ERs, and the effect on PCa are provided. Finally, we also assessed the contribution of molecular simulation which can help us to search and predict potential estrogenic activities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 707
Ryo Matsuda ◽  
Shoji Suzuki ◽  
Norio Kurosawa

Homologous recombination (HR) is thought to be important for the repair of stalled replication forks in hyperthermophilic archaea. Previous biochemical studies identified two branch migration helicases (Hjm and PINA) and two Holliday junction (HJ) resolvases (Hjc and Hje) as HJ-processing proteins; however, due to the lack of genetic evidence, it is still unclear whether these proteins are actually involved in HR in vivo and how their functional relation is associated with the process. To address the above questions, we constructed hjc-, hje-, hjm-, and pina single-knockout strains and double-knockout strains of the thermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and characterized the mutant phenotypes. Notably, we succeeded in isolating the hjm- and/or pina-deleted strains, suggesting that the functions of Hjm and PINA are not essential for cellular growth in this archaeon, as they were previously thought to be essential. Growth retardation in Δpina was observed at low temperatures (cold sensitivity). When deletion of the HJ resolvase genes was combined, Δpina Δhjc and Δpina Δhje exhibited severe cold sensitivity. Δhjm exhibited severe sensitivity to interstrand crosslinkers, suggesting that Hjm is involved in repairing stalled replication forks, as previously demonstrated in euryarchaea. Our findings suggest that the function of PINA and HJ resolvases is functionally related at lower temperatures to support robust cellular growth, and Hjm is important for the repair of stalled replication forks in vivo.

Riccardo Ben Ali Zinati ◽  
Charlie Duclut ◽  
Saeed Mahdisoltani ◽  
Andrea Gambassi ◽  
Ramin Golestanian

Abstract The interplay between cellular growth and cell-cell signaling is essential for the aggregation and proliferation of bacterial colonies, as well as for the self-organization of cell tissues. To investigate this interplay, we focus here on the collective properties of dividing chemotactic cell colonies by studying their long-time and large-scale dynamics through a renormalization group (RG) approach. The RG analysis reveals that a relevant but unconventional chemotactic interaction -- corresponding to a polarity-induced mechanism -- is generated by fluctuations at macroscopic scales, even when an underlying mechanism is absent at the microscopic level. This emerges from the interplay of the well-known Keller--Segel (KS) chemotactic nonlinearity and cell birth and death processes. At one-loop order, we find no stable fixed point of the RG flow equations. We discuss a connection between the dynamics investigated here and the celebrated Kardar--Parisi--Zhang (KPZ) equation with long-range correlated noise, which points at the existence of a strong-coupling, nonperturbative fixed point.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 10-27
Deepankar Chakroborty ◽  
Veera K. Ojala ◽  
Anna M. Knittle ◽  
Jasmin Drexler ◽  
Mahlet Z. Tamirat ◽  

Despite the relatively high frequency of somatic ERBB4 mutations in various cancer types, only a few activating ERBB4 mutations have been characterized, primarily due to lack of mutational hotspots in the ERBB4 gene. Here, we utilized our previously published pipeline, an in vitro screen for activating mutations, to perform an unbiased functional screen to identify potential activating ERBB4 mutations from a randomly mutated ERBB4 expression library. Ten potentially activating ERBB4 mutations were identified and subjected to validation by functional and structural analyses. Two of the 10 ERBB4 mutants, E715K and R687K, demonstrated hyperactivity in all tested cell models and promoted cellular growth under two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture conditions. ERBB4 E715K also promoted tumor growth in in vivo Ba/F3 cell mouse allografts. Importantly, all tested ERBB4 mutants were sensitive to the pan-ERBB tyrosine kinase inhibitors afatinib, neratinib, and dacomitinib. Our data indicate that rare ERBB4 mutations are potential candidates for ERBB4-targeted therapy with pan-ERBB inhibitors. Statement of Significance: ERBB4 is a member of the ERBB family of oncogenes that is frequently mutated in different cancer types but the functional impact of its somatic mutations remains unknown. Here, we have analyzed the function of over 8,000 randomly mutated ERBB4 variants in an unbiased functional genetics screen. The data indicate the presence of rare activating ERBB4 mutations in cancer, with potential to be targeted with clinically approved pan-ERBB inhibitors.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0262180
Rossana Segreto ◽  
Hoda Bazafkan ◽  
Julia Millinger ◽  
Martina Schenk ◽  
Lea Atanasova ◽  

Trichoderma atroviride (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes) is a well-known mycoparasite applied for protecting plants against fungal pathogens. Its mycoparasitic activity involves processes shared with plant and human pathogenic fungi such as the production of cell wall degrading enzymes and secondary metabolites and is tightly regulated by environmental cues. In eukaryotes, the conserved Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase serves as a central regulator of cellular growth in response to nutrient availability. Here we describe how alteration of the activity of TOR1, the single and essential TOR kinase of T. atroviride, by treatment with chemical TOR inhibitors or by genetic manipulation of selected TOR pathway components affected various cellular functions. Loss of TSC1 and TSC2, that are negative regulators of TOR complex 1 (TORC1) in mammalian cells, resulted in altered nitrogen source-dependent growth of T. atroviride, reduced mycoparasitic overgrowth and, in the case of Δtsc1, a diminished production of numerous secondary metabolites. Deletion of the gene encoding the GTPase RHE2, whose mammalian orthologue activates mTORC1, led to rapamycin hypersensitivity and altered secondary metabolism, but had an only minor effect on vegetative growth and mycoparasitic overgrowth. The latter also applied to mutants missing the npr1-1 gene that encodes a fungus-specific kinase known as TOR target in yeast. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis confirmed TOR1 as a regulatory hub that governs T. atroviride metabolism and processes associated to ribosome biogenesis, gene expression and translation. In addition, mycoparasitism-relevant genes encoding terpenoid and polyketide synthases, peptidases, glycoside hydrolases, small secreted cysteine-rich proteins, and G protein coupled receptors emerged as TOR1 targets. Our results provide the first in-depth insights into TOR signaling in a fungal mycoparasite and emphasize its importance in the regulation of processes that critically contribute to the antagonistic activity of T. atroviride.

2021 ◽  
Julia L Daiß ◽  
Michael Pilsl ◽  
Kristina Straub ◽  
Andrea Bleckmann ◽  
Mona Höcherl ◽  

Transcription of the ribosomal RNA precursor by RNA polymerase (Pol) I is a major determinant of cellular growth and dysregulation is observed in many cancer types. Here, we present the purification of human Pol I from cells carrying a genomic GFP-fusion on the largest subunit allowing the structural and functional analysis of the enzyme across species. In contrast to yeast, human Pol I carries a single-subunit stalk and in vitro transcription indicates a reduced proofreading activity. Determination of the human Pol I cryo-EM reconstruction in a close-to-native state rationalizes the effects of disease-associated mutations and uncovers an additional domain that is built into the sequence of Pol I subunit RPA1. This "dock II" domain resembles a truncated HMG-box incapable of DNA-binding which may serve as a downstream-transcription factor binding platform in metazoans. Biochemical analysis and ChIP data indicate that Topoisomerase 2a can be recruited to Pol I via the domain and cooperates with the HMG-box domain containing factor UBF. These adaptations of the metazoan Pol I transcription system may allow efficient release of positive DNA supercoils accumulating downstream of the transcription bubble.

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