physiological functions
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Vision ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 6
Feipeng Wu ◽  
Yin Zhao ◽  
Hong Zhang

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) confers neural control of the entire body, mainly through the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. Several studies have observed that the physiological functions of the eye (pupil size, lens accommodation, ocular circulation, and intraocular pressure regulation) are precisely regulated by the ANS. Almost all parts of the eye have autonomic innervation for the regulation of local homeostasis through synergy and antagonism. With the advent of new research methods, novel anatomical characteristics and numerous physiological processes have been elucidated. Herein, we summarize the anatomical and physiological functions of the ANS in the eye within the context of its intrinsic connections. This review provides novel insights into ocular studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 72
Ming-Hua Wu ◽  
Lu-Yao Huang ◽  
Li-Xiao Sun ◽  
Hui Qian ◽  
Yun-Yun Wei ◽  

Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast outbreaks. L-ascorbic acid (ASC) is a famous antioxidant found in nature. However, while ASC is rare or absent in fungi, a five-carbon analog, D-erythroascorbic acid (EASC), seems to appear to be a substitute for ASC. Although the antioxidant function of ASC has been widely described, the specific properties and physiological functions of EASC remain poorly understood. In this study, we identified a D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase (ALO) domain-containing protein, MoAlo1, and found that MoAlo1 was localized to mitochondria. Disruption of MoALO1 (ΔMoalo1) exhibited defects in vegetative growth as well as conidiogenesis. The ΔMoalo1 mutant was found to be more sensitive to exogenous H2O2. Additionally, the pathogenicity of conidia in the ΔMoalo1 null mutant was reduced deeply in rice, and defective penetration of appressorium-like structures (ALS) formed by the hyphal tips was also observed in the ΔMoalo1 null mutant. When exogenous EASC was added to the conidial suspension, the defective pathogenicity of the ΔMoalo1 mutant was restored. Collectively, MoAlo1 is essential for growth, conidiogenesis, and pathogenicity in M. oryzae.

2022 ◽  
Michael Valente ◽  
Nils Collinet ◽  
Thien-Phong Vu Manh ◽  
Karima Naciri ◽  
Gilles Bessou ◽  

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) were identified about 20 years ago, based on their unique ability to rapidly produce copious amounts of all subsets of type I and type III interferon (IFN-I/III) upon virus sensing, while being refractory to infection. Yet, the identity and physiological functions of pDC are still a matter of debate, in a large part due to their lack of specific expression of any single cell surface marker or gene that would allow to track them in tissues and to target them in vivo with high specificity and penetrance. Indeed, recent studies showed that previous methods that were used to identify or deplete pDC also targeted other cell types, including pDC-like cells and transitional DC (tDC) that were proposed to be responsible for all the antigen presentation ability previously attributed to steady state pDC. Hence, improving our understanding of the nature and in vivo choreography of pDC physiological functions requires the development of novel tools to unambiguously identify and track these cells, including in comparison to pDC-like cells and tDC. Here, we report successful generation of a pDC-reporter mouse model, by using an intersectional genetic strategy based on the unique co-expression of Siglech and Pacsin1 in pDC. This pDC-Tomato mouse strain allows specific ex vivo and in situ detection of pDC. Breeding them with Zbtb46GFP mice allowed side-by-side purification and transcriptional profiling by single cell RNA sequencing of bona fide pDC, pDC-like cells and tDC, in comparison to type 1 and 2 conventional DC (cDC1 and cDC2), both at steady state and during a viral infection, revealing diverging activation patterns of pDC-like cells and tDC. Finally, by breeding pDC-Tomato mice with Ifnb1EYFP mice, we determined the choreography of pDC recruitment to the micro-anatomical sites of viral replication in the spleen, with initially similar but later divergent behaviors of the pDC that engaged or not into IFN-I production. Our novel pDC-Tomato mouse model, and newly identified gene modules specific to combinations of DC types and activations states, will constitute valuable resources for a deeper understanding of the functional division of labor between DC types and its molecular regulation at homeostasis and during viral infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xiankang Fan ◽  
Xiefei Li ◽  
Tao Zhang ◽  
Yuxing Guo ◽  
Zihang Shi ◽  

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important antioxidant enzyme with different physiological functions, which can be used as a nutritional fortifier in food. Cereal-based fermented products are becoming popular worldwide. In this study, novel millet-based flavored yogurt enriched with SOD was developed. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum was screened, which manufactured SOD activity of 2476.21 ± 1.52 U g−1. The SOD content of millet yogurt was 19.827 ± 0.323 U mL−1, which was 63.01, 50.11, and 146.79% higher than that of Bright Dairy Yogurt 1911, Junlebao and Nanjing Weigang, respectively. Fifty-four volatile flavor substances and 22,571 non-volatile flavor substances were found in yogurt. Compared to traditional fermented yogurt, 37 non-volatile metabolites in yogurt with millet enzymatic fermentation broth were significantly upregulated, including 2-phenyl ethanol, hesperidin, N-acetylornithine and L-methionine, which were upregulated by 3169.6, 228.36, 271.22, and 55.67 times, respectively, thereby enriching the sensory and nutritional value of yogurt. Moreover, the manufacture of unpleasant volatile flavor substances was masked, making the product more compatible with consumers' tastes.

Elliot S Williams ◽  
Hassan Gneid ◽  
Sarah Ruth Marshall ◽  
Mario J González ◽  
Jorgi A Mandelbaum ◽  

Lipids fulfill a variety of important physiological functions, such as energy storage, providing a hydrophobic barrier, and signal transduction. Despite this plethora of biological roles, lipids are rarely considered a...

Abdelsalam Ahmed ◽  
Islam Hassan ◽  
Celine Ling

In this work, we develop a new general strategy for fabricating a printable skin-integrated electronics that is highly permeable to gases, inflammation-free, conformable, and biodegradable for monitoring physiological functions.

2022 ◽  
pp. 303-320
Pedro Monteiro ◽  
Diana Leal Tavares ◽  
Luís Mourão ◽  
Henri P. A. Nouws ◽  
Gisela Maia

In this chapter, the authors write about the processes of biofeedback, giving an insight about the sensors that might be used, the overall concept of biofeedback, as well as the evidence regarding the effectiveness of neurofeedback for the treatment of mental disorders.The main goal is to provide those introducing to the biofeedback as a self-regulation technique, used now for more than 50 years, with concise information about the sensors that might be used to detect the most common measured responses, the main types of physiological biofeedback, and the state-of-the-art evidence about neurofeedback as a form of brain training for individuals with the most prevalent mental disorders. Biofeedback and neurofeedback are guided therapies that include a vast and rowing variety of methodologies aimed to return information to the individual, regarding the physiological functions of the organism itself, in order to enable the modification of those otherwise considered unconscious physiological responses, designed to improve the individual's health and wellness.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 91-112
Pei-pei WANG ◽  
Zhao-ke WANG ◽  
Le GUAN ◽  
Muhammad Salman HAIDER ◽  
Maazullah NASIM ◽  

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