scholarly journals Analysis of the toxicological and pharmacokinetic profile of Kaempferol-3-O-β-D-(6”-E-p-coumaryl) glucopyranoside - Tiliroside: in silico, in vitro and ex vivo assay

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. P. Sousa ◽  
D. A. Fernandes ◽  
M. D. L. Ferreira ◽  
L. V. Cordeiro ◽  
M. F. V. Souza ◽  

Abstract Tiliroside is a glycosidic flavonoid present in many plants species including Helicteres velutina K. Schum (Malvaceae sensu lato), commonly known in Brazil as “pitó”. This molecule has been shown to have many biological activities, however no study has been carried out to investigate the toxicity of this substance. The present work aimed to evaluate the possible cellular toxicity in silico, in vitro and ex-vivo of the kaempferol-3-O-β-D-(6”-E-p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside), through chemical structure analysis, toxicity assessment and predictive bioactive properties, using human samples for in vitro and ex-vivo tests. The in silico analysis suggests that tiliroside exhibited great absorption index when penetrating biological membranes. In addition, it also displayed considerable potential for cellular protection against free radicals, and anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hemorrhagic and antithrombotic activities. The assessment of the hemolytic and genotoxic effects of tiliroside showed low hemolysis rates in red blood cells and absence of cellular toxicity in the oral mucosa cells. The data obtained indicate that this molecule could be a promising therapeutic approach as a possible new drug with biotechnological potential.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (6) ◽  
pp. 439
Tecla Ciociola ◽  
Walter Magliani ◽  
Tiziano De Simone ◽  
Thelma A. Pertinhez ◽  
Stefania Conti ◽  

It has been previously demonstrated that synthetic antibody-derived peptides could exert a significant activity in vitro, ex vivo, and/or in vivo against microorganisms and viruses, as well as immunomodulatory effects through the activation of immune cells. Based on the sequence of previously described antibody-derived peptides with recognized antifungal activity, an in silico analysis was conducted to identify novel antifungal candidates. The present study analyzed the candidacidal and structural properties of in silico designed peptides (ISDPs) derived by amino acid substitutions of the parent peptide KKVTMTCSAS. ISDPs proved to be more active in vitro than the parent peptide and all proved to be therapeutic in Galleria mellonella candidal infection, without showing toxic effects on mammalian cells. ISDPs were studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy, demonstrating different structural organization. These results allowed to validate a consensus sequence for the parent peptide KKVTMTCSAS that may be useful in the development of novel antimicrobial molecules.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (10) ◽  
pp. 2867
Lucia Kovacikova ◽  
Marta Soltesova Prnova ◽  
Magdalena Majekova ◽  
Andrej Bohac ◽  
Cimen Karasu ◽  

Aldose reductase (AR, ALR2), the first enzyme of the polyol pathway, is implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications. Aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) thus present a promising therapeutic approach to treat a wide array of diabetic complications. Moreover, a therapeutic potential of ARIs in the treatment of chronic inflammation-related pathologies and several genetic metabolic disorders has been recently indicated. Substituted indoles are an interesting group of compounds with a plethora of biological activities. This article reviews a series of indole-based bifunctional aldose reductase inhibitors/antioxidants (ARIs/AOs) developed during recent years. Experimental results obtained in in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of diabetic complications are presented. Structure–activity relationships with respect to carboxymethyl pharmacophore regioisomerization and core scaffold modification are discussed along with the criteria of ‘drug-likeness”. Novel promising structures of putative multifunctional ARIs/AOs are designed.

Nireeksha Nireeksha ◽  
Pavan Gollapalli ◽  
Sudhir Rama Varma ◽  
Mithra N. Hegde ◽  
N. Suchetha Kumari

AbstractLimiting the spread of virus during the recent pandemic outbreak was a major challenge. Viral loads in saliva, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were the major cause for droplet transmission and aerosols. Saliva being the major contributor for the presence of viral load is the major key factor; various mouthwashes and their combination were analyzed and utilized in health care centers to hamper the spread of virus and decrease viral load. The compositions of these mouthwashes to an extent affected the viral load and thereby transmission, but there is always a scope for other protocols which may provide better results. Here we evaluated the potential of antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in decreasing the viral load of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through an in silico work and evidence from other studies. This narrative review highlighted a brief nonsystematic methodology to include the selected articles for discussion. Accessible electronic databases (Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, SciELO, and PubMed) were used to find studies that reported the salivary viral load of SARS-CoV-2 published between December 2019 and June 2021. The following keywords were utilized for brief searching of the databases: “saliva,” “viral load,” and “SARS-CoV-2.” Articles in English language, in vitro cell-line studies, ex vivo studies, and clinical trials explaining the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva and strategies to decrease viral load were included in this review. The search was complemented by manual searching of the reference lists of included articles and performing a citation search for any additional reviews. The antiviral potential of cationic host defense peptide LL-37 was evaluated using computational approaches providing in silico evidence. The analysis of docking studies and the display of positive interfacial hydrophobicity of LL-37 resulting in disruption of COVID-19 viral membrane elucidate the fact that LL-37 could be effective against all variants of SARS-CoV-2. Further experimental studies would be needed to confirm the binding of the receptor-binding domain with LL-37. The possibility of using it in many forms further to decrease the viral load by disrupting the viral membrane is seen.

Shagufta Habib ◽  
Pawan Gupta ◽  
Sana Shafi Bhat ◽  
Jeena Gupta

Abstract. Citral, one of the main components of lemongrass oil (65–85%), is known to possess various medicinal properties like enhancing skin health and vision-improvement. It also acts as flavoring agent, used in perfumes and skin care products. The objective of this work was to elucidate the biological properties of citral at molecular level using an integrated in silico, in vitro and in vivo approaches. To elucidate this in silico molecular docking studies were performed with in vitro validation by DPPH scavenging activity, MTT assays, enzymatic assays and Chorio Allantoic Membrane (CAM) assay. The in silico analysis demonstrated the potential binding of citral with PPARγ ligand binding domain and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2). Citral is already a proven anti-oxidant which is further confirmed by increased DPPH inhibition with increased citral concentration (IC50: 6.9 ± 1.68 μg/ml, p < 0.05). The results demonstrated that citral protect yeast cells from cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and also increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes like GST, SOD and LPO. It was also demonstrated to be cytotoxic to cancerous HeLa cells (IC50: 3.9 ± 0.38 μM, p < 0.01) and was found anti-angiogenic by CAM assay. This study highlights many important pharmaceutical properties of citral which can be explored further to increase its industrial applications.

2020 ◽  
Vol 13 (6) ◽  
pp. 133
Laísa Cordeiro ◽  
Pedro Figueiredo ◽  
Helivaldo Souza ◽  
Aleson Sousa ◽  
Francisco Andrade-Júnior ◽  

The increase in Staphylococcus aureus resistance to conventional antibacterials and persistent infections related to biofilms, as well as the low availability of new antibacterial drugs, has made the development of new therapeutic alternatives necessary. Medicinal plants are one of the main sources of bioactive molecules and myrtenol is a natural product with several biological activities, although its antimicrobial activity is little explored. Based on this, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of myrtenol against S. aureus, determining the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC), investigating the possible molecular target through the analysis of molecular docking. It also aimed to evaluate the effect of its combination with antibacterial drugs and its activity against S. aureus biofilms, in addition to performing an in silico analysis of its pharmacokinetic parameters. Myrtenol showed MIC and MBC of 128 µg/mL (bactericidal action) and probably acts by interfering with the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. The effects of the association with antibacterials demonstrate favorable results. Myrtenol has remarkable antibiofilm activity and in silico results indicate a good pharmacokinetic profile, which make myrtenol a potential drug candidate for the treatment of infections caused by S. aureus.

2019 ◽  
Vol 19 (8) ◽  
pp. 633-644 ◽  
Komal Kalani ◽  
Sarfaraz Alam ◽  
Vinita Chaturvedi ◽  
Shyam Singh ◽  
Feroz Khan ◽  

Introduction: As a part of our drug discovery program for anti-tubercular agents, dihydroartemisinin (DHA-1) was screened against Mtb H37Rv, which showed moderate anti-tubercular activity (>25.0 µg/mL). These results prompted us to carry out the chemical transformation of DHA-1 into various derivatives and study their antitubercular potential. Materials and Methods: DHA-1 was semi-synthetically converted into four new acyl derivatives (DHA-1A – DHA-1D) and in-vitro evaluated for their anti-tubercular potential against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv virulent strain. The derivatives, DHA-1C (12-O-(4-nitro) benzoyl; MIC 12.5 µg/mL) and DHA-1D (12-O-chloro acetyl; MIC 3.12µg/mL) showed significant activity against the pathogen. Results: In silico studies of the most active derivative (DHA-1D) showed interaction with ARG448 inhibiting the mycobacterium enzymes. Additionally, it showed no cytotoxicity towards the Vero C1008 cells and Mouse bone marrow derived macrophages. Conclusion: DHA-1D killed 62% intracellular M. tuberculosis in Mouse bone marrow macrophage infection model. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first-ever report on the antitubercular potential of dihydroartemisinin and its derivatives. Since dihydroartemisinin is widely used as an antimalarial drug; these results may be of great help in anti-tubercular drug development from a very common, inexpensive, and non-toxic natural product.

2018 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 127-135 ◽  
Parvesh Singh ◽  
Nomandla Ngcoya ◽  
Ramgopal Mopuri ◽  
Nagaraju Kerru ◽  
Neha Manhas ◽  

Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disease illustrated by abnormally high levels of plasma glucose or hyperglycaemia. Accordingly, several α-glucosidase inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of diabetes and other degenerative disorders. While, a coumarin ring has the privilege to represent numerous natural and synthetic compounds with a wide spectrum of biological activities e.g. anti-cancer, anti-HIV, anti-viral, anti-malarial, anti-microbial, anti-convulsant, anti-hypertensive properties. Besides this, coumarins have also shown potential to inhibit α-glucosidase leading to a generation of new promising antidiabetic agents. However, the testing of O-substituted coumarins for α-glucosidase inhibition has evaded the attention of medicinal chemists. Methods: For O-alkylation/acetylation reactions, the hydroxyl coumarins (A-B) initially activated by K2CO3 in dry DMF were reacted with variedly substituted haloalkanes at room temperature under nitrogen. The synthesized compounds were tested for their α-glucosidase (from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) inhibitory activity and anti-oxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity. In silico docking simulations were conducted using CDocker module in DS (Accelrys) to explore the binding modes of the representative compounds in the catalytic site of α-glucosidase. Results: All the coumarin analogues (A1, B1, A2-A10, B2-B8) including their precursors (A-B) were evaluated for their in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition using acarbose as a standard inhibitor. All the mono O-alkylated coumarins (except A1) showed significant (p <0.05) α-glucosidase inhibition relative to the hydroxyl coumarin (A) with IC50 values ranging between 11.084±0.117 to 145.24± 29.22 µg/mL. Compound 7-(benzyloxy)-4, 5-dimethyl-2H-chromen-2-one (A9) bearing a benzyl group (Ph-CH2-) at position 7 showed a remarkable (p <0.05) increase in the activity (IC50 = 11.084±0.117 µg/mL), almost four-fold more than acarbose (IC50 = 40.578±5.999 µg/mL). The introduction of –NO2 group dramatically improved the anti-oxidant activity of coumarin, while the O-alkylation/acetylation decreased the activity. Conclusion: The present study describes the synthesis of functionalized coumarins and their evaluation for α-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidant activity under in vitro conditions. Based on IC50 data, the mono O-alkylated coumarins were observed to be stronger inhibitors of α-glucosidase with respect to their bis O-alkylated analogues. Coumarin (A9) bearing O-benzyloxy group displayed the strongest α-glucosidase inhibition, even higher than the standard inhibitor acarbose. The coumarin (A10) bearing –NO2 group showed the highest anti-oxidant activity amongst the synthesized compounds, almost comparable to the ascorbic acid. Finally, in silico docking simulations revealed the role of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces in locking the compounds in catalytic site of α-glucosidase.

2020 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
Mahboob Ali ◽  
Momin Khan ◽  
Khair Zaman ◽  
Abdul Wadood ◽  
Maryam Iqbal ◽  

: Background: The inhibition of α-amylase enzyme is one of the best therapeutic approach for the management of type II diabetes mellitus. Chalcone possesses a wide range of biological activities. Objective: In the current study chalcone derivatives (1-17) were synthesized and evaluated their inhibitory potential against α-amylase enzyme. Method: For that purpose, a library of substituted (E)-1-(naphthalene-2-yl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ones was synthesized by ClaisenSchmidt condensation reaction of 2-acetonaphthanone and substituted aryl benzaldehyde in the presence of base and characterized via different spectroscopic techniques such as EI-MS, HREI-MS, 1H-, and 13C-NMR. Results: Sixteen synthetic chalcones were evaluated for in vitro porcine pancreatic α-amylase inhibition. All the chalcones demonstrated good inhibitory activities in the range of IC50 = 1.25 ± 1.05 to 2.40 ± 0.09 μM as compared to the standard commercial drug acarbose (IC50 = 1.34 ± 0.3 μM). Conclusion: Chalcone derivatives (1-17) were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for their α-amylase inhibition. SAR revealed that electron donating groups in the phenyl ring have more influence on enzyme inhibition. However, to insight the participation of different substituents in the chalcones on the binding interactions with the α-amylase enzyme, in silico (computer simulation) molecular modeling analyses were carried out.

2016 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. 1615-1621 ◽  
Erik Andrade-Jorge ◽  
Marycarmen Godínez-Victoria ◽  
Luvia Enid Sánchez-Torres ◽  
Luis Humberto Fabila-Castillo ◽  
José G. Trujillo-Ferrara

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