Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
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Published By Bentham Science


Jun Wei Ng ◽  
Eric Tzyy Jiann Chong ◽  
Ping-Chin Lee

Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and recently has become a serious global pandemic. Age, gender, and comorbidities are known to be common risk factors for severe COVID-19 but are not enough to fully explain the magnitude of their effect on the risk of severity of the disease. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes have been reported as a genetic factor contributing to COVID-19 severity. This comprehensive review focuses on the association between SNPs in four important genes and COVID-19 severity in a global aspect. We discuss a total of 39 SNPs in this review: five SNPs in the ABO gene, nine SNPs in the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene, 19 SNPs in the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) gene, and six SNPs in the toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) gene. These SNPs data could assist in monitoring an individual's risk of severe COVID-19 disease, and therefore personalized management and pharmaceutical treatment could be planned in COVID-19 patients.

Riddhi Trivedi ◽  
Pravin Shende

Abstract: Nanotechnology opens many avenues in the food sector and offers applications associated with food production, processing, cultivation, and packaging. Nanofood employs nano-techniques like nano-encapsulation and conjugation of various phytochemicals, antioxidants, probiotics, minerals, vitamins, etc. into nanovehicles. Food fortification strategies are then implemented to incorporate nano-processed substances. Nanofood is mostly used for improving health and as a supplementation method in various diseases ranging from liver diseases to neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we focus on recent studies that exhibit comparable results for nanofood and conventional medicines and subsiding the limitations of traditional therapies. Nanofood hold a potential in management of various health problems and the possibilities of using nanofood as alternative to medicine in clinical conditions like cancers and inflammatory bowel disease. With further advances in nanotechnology and expansion in the scope of current nanofood industry in addition to proper regulations set in place, nanofood may offer a wide variety of advantages in safety, long-term stability, etc.

Javad Nezhadi ◽  
Sepehr Taghizadeh ◽  
Ehsaneh Khodadadi ◽  
Mehdi Yousefi ◽  
Khudaverdi Ganbarov ◽  

Abstract: The dramatically increasing levels of antibiotic resistance are being seen worldwide, and is a significant threat to public health. Antibiotic and drug resistance is seen in various bacterial species. Antibiotic resistance is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and increased treatment costs. Antisense-relevant technologies include the utilization of oligonucleotide molecules to interfere with gene expression, as a new technique for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has been proposed antisense agents or nucleic acids analogs with antibacterial properties, which are commonly very short and their size almost 10-20 bases and can be hinted to peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMOs) and locked nucleic acids (LNAs). This review highlights that PNAs, PPMOs, and LNAs target the genes that cause destroy the gene and inhibit the growth of bacteria. These results open a new perspective for therapeutic intervention. In future studies, it is necessary to examine different aspects of antisense agents, for example, safety, toxicity, and pharmacokinetic properties of antisense agents to be employed in clinical treatment.

Zhang Shuli ◽  
Liu Linlin ◽  
Gao Li ◽  
Zhao Yinghu ◽  
Shi Nan ◽  

Abstract: The traditional process of separating and purifying bioactive peptides is laborious and time-consuming. Using a traditional process to identify is difficult, and there is a lack of fast and accurate activity evaluation methods. How to extract bioactive peptides quickly and efficiently is still the focus of bioactive peptides research. In order to improve the present situation of the research, bioinformatics techniques and peptidome methods are widely used in this field. At the same time, bioactive peptides have their own specific pharmacokinetic characteristics, so computer simulation methods have incomparable advantages in studying the pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic correlation models of bioactive peptides. The purpose of this review is to summarize the combined applications of bioinformatics and computer simulation methods in the study of bioactive peptides, with focuses on the role of bioinformatics in simulating the selection of enzymatic hydrolysis and precursor proteins, activity prediction, molecular docking, physicochemical properties, and molecular dynamics. Our review shows that new bioactive peptide molecular sequences with high activity can be obtained by computer-aided design. The significance of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic correlation model in the study of bioactive peptides is emphasized. Finally, some problems and future development potential of bioactive peptides binding new technologies are prospected.

Parveen. A ◽  
Devika. R

Cardiovascular diseases, like coronary heart disease or artery disorders (arteriosclerosis, including artery solidification), heart failure (myocardial infarction), arrhythmias, congestive heart condition, stroke, elevated vital signs (hypertension), rheumatic heart disorder, and other circulatory system dysfunctions are the most common causes of death worldwide. Cardiovascular disorders are treated with stenting, coronary bypass surgery grafting, anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and other pharmacological and surgical procedures; however, these have limitations due to their adverse effects. Fibrinolytic agents degrade fibrin through enzymatic and biochemical processes. There are various enzymes that are currently used as a treatment for CVDs, like Streptokinase, Nattokinase, Staphylokinase, Urokinase, etc. These enzymes are derived from various sources like bacteria, fungi, algae, marine organisms, plants, snakes, and other organisms. This review deals with the fibrinolytic enzymes, their mechanisms, sources, and their therapeutic potential.

Sayyed Mohammad Ali Noori ◽  
Mohammad Hashemi ◽  
Sajjad Ghasemi

Abstract: Saffron is one of the most expensive spices in the world, and its popularity as a tasty food additive is spreading rapidly through many cultures and cuisines. Minerals and heavy metals are minor components found in saffron, which play a key role in the identification of the geographical origin, quality control, and food traceability, while they also affect human health. The chemical elements in saffron are measured using various analytical methods, such as techniques based on spectrometry or spectroscopy, including atomic emission spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study aimed to review the published articles about heavy metals and minerals in saffron across the world. To date, 64 chemical elements have been found in different types of saffron, which could be divided into three groups of macro-elements, trace elements, and heavy metals (trace elements with a lower gravity/greater than five times that of water and other inorganic sources). Furthermore, the chemical elements in the saffron samples of different countries have a wide range of concentrations. These differences may be affected by geographical condition such as physicochemical properties of the soil, weather and other environmental conditions like saffron cultivation and its genotype.

Qiuyan Weng ◽  
Tongzhou Hu ◽  
Xiaohan Shen ◽  
Jinming Han ◽  
Yong Zhang ◽  

Background: Osteoarthritis, a type of age-related, chronic, degenerative joint disease. Ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor, is widely used for the treatment of various diseases. The role of ezetimibe in osteoarthritis remains unclear. Objective: This study aimed to explored the anti-inflammation effect of ezetimibe on mouse chondrocytes. Method: In the present study, ELISA, qPCR and western blot analysis were performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of ezetimibe. In addition, enzymes that are highly associated with the anabolism and catabolism of the extracellular matrix of the articular cartilage were also evaluated. Results: Treatment with ezetimibe attenuated the IL-1β-induced degradation of the extracellular matrix, including aggrecan and collagen II. Ezetimibe also attenuated the IL-1β-induced expression levels of MMP3, MMP13 and ADAMTS5, thus exerting protective effects against IL-1β-induced extracellular matrix degradation. The complex mechanism of the anti-inflammatory reaction contributed to the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and the suppression of the NF-κB pathway. Conclusion: On the whole, the present study demonstrates that ezetimibe may be a promising agent for further osteoarthritis therapy

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