Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
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Published By Bentham Science


Rafat Milad Mohareb ◽  
Noha M. Asaad Bagato ◽  
Ibrahim Taha Radwan

Background: Cancer is a disease illustrated by a shift in the controlled mechanisms that control both cell proliferation and differentiation. It is regarded as a prime health problem worldwide, leading cause of human death-rate exceeded only by cardiovascular diseases. Many reported work was concerned with the discovery of new antitumor compounds this encourage us to synthesis new anticancer agents. Objective: In this work, we are aiming to synthesize target molecules from 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds through many heterocyclization reactions. Method: The reaction of either 4-methylaniline (1a) or 1-naphthylamine (1b) with diethyl malonate (2) gave the anilide derivatives 3a and 3b, respectively. The latter products underwent a series of heterocyclization reactions to give the pyridine, pyran andthiazole derivatives which confirmed with the required spectral data. Results: Thein-vitro antitumor evaluations of the newly synthesized products against four cancer cell lines MCF-7, NCI-H460, SF-268 and WI 38 as normal cell line were screened and the data revealed that compounds 11a, 18b, 18c and 20d showed high antitumor activity and 20dindividualize with potential antitumor activity towards cell lines with lowest cytotoxicity effect. Both EGFR and PIM-1 enzyme inhibition were investigated for the compound 20d and his inhibition effect was promising for each enzyme showing IC50=45.67 ng and 553.3 ng for EGFR and PIM-1, respectively. Conclusion: Molecular docking results of compound 20d showed a strong binding interactions on both enzymes, where, good binding modes obtained on case of EGFR, which closely similar to the binding mode of standard Erlotinib. While, 20d showed complete superimposition binding interactions with VRV-cocrystallized ligand of PIM-1 that may expounds the in-vitro antitumor activity.

Adem Güner ◽  
Hakan Bektaş ◽  
Emre Menteşe

Background: Coumarin is a functional compound with a pronounced wide range of biological activities and has recently been shown to have anticancer effects on various human cancer cells. Cisplatin is widely used in treating many cancers, but its effectiveness is limited due to acquired resistance and dose-related side effects. Objective: This study aimed to reveal the chemosensitizing ability of novel synthesized coumarin-triazole hybrid compounds (3a-f) compared to the cisplatin in A549, MCF-7, and HeLa cancer cells. Methods: Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), antioxidant/oxidant status, DNA fragmentation were determined spectrophotometrically using commercial kits. Muse™ Cell Analyzer was used to assess cell cycle progression. Pro/anti-apoptotic gene expressions were determined by Real-Time qPCR. The antiangiogenic activity was determined by VEGF expression and Hen's chorioallantoic membrane model. Results: Compounds 3c, -d, -e, and -f potentiated the cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity through the increased LDH release and DNA fragmentation, induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, overproduction of oxidative stress, and decrease of cellular antioxidant levels. These compounds combined with cisplatin caused upregulation in the pro-apoptotic Bax, Bıd, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Fas, and p53 gene expressions while downregulating anti-apoptotic DFFA, NFkB1, and Bcl2 gene expressions. These combinations caused vascular loss and a reduction in VEGF expression. Conclusion: These results suggest that a combinational regimen of coumarin compounds with cisplatin could be enhancing the effect of cisplatin in A549 cells. Besides, considering compounds have relatively low toxicity in normal cells, they decrease the dose requirement of cisplatin in cancer treatments.

Sindhu. R ◽  
H. K. Manonmani

Abstract: Microbial L-asparaginase is the most effective first-line therapeutic used in the treatment protocols of paediatric and adult leukemia. Leukemic cell’s auxotrophy for L-asparagine is exploited as a therapeutic strategy to mediate cell death through metabolic blockade of L-asparagine using L-asparaginase. Escherichia coli and Erwinia chrysanthemi serve as the major enzyme deriving sources accepted in clinical practise and the enzyme has bestowed improvements in patient outcomes over the last 40 years. However, an array of side effects generated by the native enzymes due to glutamine co-catalysis and short serum stays augmenting frequent dosages, intended a therapeutic switch towards the development of biobetter alternatives for the enzyme including the formulations resulting in sustained local depletion of L-asparagine. In addition, the treatment with L-asparaginase in few cancer types has proven to elicit drug-induced cytoprotective autophagy mechanisms and therefore warrants concern. Although the off-target glutamine hydrolysis has been viewed in contributing the drug-induced secondary responses in cells deficient with asparagine synthetase machinery, the beneficial role of glutaminase-asparaginase in proliferative regulation of asparagine prototrophic cells has been looked forward. The current review provides an overview on the enzyme’s clinical applications in leukemia and possible therapeutic implications in other solid tumours, recent advancements in drug formulations, and discusses the aspects of two-sided roles of glutaminase-asparaginases and drug-induced cytoprotective autophagy mechanisms.

Xuexia Tian ◽  
Anhua Shi ◽  
Junzi Wu

Backgroud: At present, the tumor is still the leading cause of death. Biomimetic nanocarriers for precision cancer therapy are attracting increasing attention. Nanocarriers with a good biocompatible surface could reduce the recognition and elimination of nanoparticles as foreign substances by the immune system, offer specific targeting, and improve the efficacy of precision medicine for tumors, thereby providing outstanding prospects for application in cancer therapy. In particular, cell membrane biomimetic camouflaged nanocarriers have become a research hotspot because of their excellent biocompatibility, prolonged circulation in the blood, and tumor targeting. Objective: To summarize the biological targeting mechanisms of different cell membrane-encapsulated nanocarriers in cancer therapy. In this article, the characteristics, application, and stage of progress of bionic encapsulated nanocarriers for different cell membranes are discussed, as are the field’s developmental prospects. Method: The findings on the characteristics of bionic encapsulated nanocarriers for different cell membranes and tumor treatment have been analyzed and summarized. Results: Biomimetic nanosystems based on various natural cell and hybrid cell membranes have been shown to efficiently control targeted drug delivery systems. They can reduce immune system clearance, prolong blood circulation time, and improve drug loading and targeting, thereby enhancing the diagnosis and treatment of tumors and reducing the spread of CTCs. Conclusion: :With advances in the development of biomimetic nanocarrier DDSs, novel ideas for tumor treatment and drug delivery have been developed. However, there are still some problems in biomimetic nanosystems. Therefore, it needs to be optimized through further research, from the laboratory to the clinic for the benefit of a wide range of patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-1
Simone Carradori

Xiaomin Chen ◽  
Fengqi Liu ◽  
Dade Rong ◽  
Limei Xu ◽  
Xiuzhen Tong ◽  

Background: SH3-domain-binding glutamic acid-rich protein-like protein (SH3BGRL) is downregulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Clinically, DNA demethylating drug decitabine (DAC) combined with traditional chemotherapies reveals better efficacy on AML patients than the conventional chemotherapies alone. Our previous results revealed that human SH3-domain-binding glutamic acid-rich protein-like protein (SH3BGRL) plays a tumor suppressive role in AML but whether there is a connection between DAC and SH3BGRL expression remains elusive. Methods: Here, we tentatively treated AML cell lines U937, MV4, and HL-60 with DAC and Western Blots. RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of SH3BGRL. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using Annexin V/7-AAD staining. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were used to determine the expression of SH3BGRL mRNA and protein. Methylation-specific PCR was used to quantify the DNA methylation in AML cell lines.Results: DAC had cytotoxicity in HL-60, MV4, and U937. In U937 cell lines, treatment with DAC showed the up-regulation of caspase, PARP, and SH3BGRL. Upon treatment, up-regulation of SH3BGRL mRNA and protein was dose-dependent and this activity was partially inhibited in endogenous SH3BGRL knockdown cell lines. Results: DAC had cytotoxicity in HL-60, MV4, and U937. In U937 cell lines, treatment with DAC showed the up-regulation of caspase, PARP, and SH3BGRL. Upon treatment, up-regulation of SH3BGRL mRNA and protein was dose-dependent and this activity was partially inhibited in endogenous SH3BGRL knockdown cell lines. Conclusion: Thus, our results demonstrated a possibly cytotoxic role of DAC on AML cells by upregulation of SH3BGRL expression at epigenetic modulation level and the methylation status in the SH3BGRL promoter region could be a supplemental diagnostic marker to the precise administration of DAC to AML patients.

Umair Ilyas ◽  
Shagufta Naaz ◽  
Syed Aun Muhammad ◽  
Humaira Nadeem ◽  
Reem Altaf ◽  

Background: The development of resistance to available anticancer drugs is increasingly becoming a major challenge and new chemical entities could be unveiled to compensate for this therapeutic failure. Objectives: The current study demonstrated whether N-protected and deprotected amino acid derivatives of 2-aminopyridine could attenuate tumor development using colorectal cancer cell lines. Methods: Biological assays were performed to investigate the anticancer potential of synthesized compounds. The in silico ADME profiling and docking studies were also performed by docking the designed compounds against the active binding site of beta-catenin (CTNNB1) to analyze the binding mode of these compounds. Four derivatives 4a, 4b, 4c, and 4d were selected for investigation of in vitro anticancer potential using colorectal cancer cell line HCT 116. The anti-tumor activities of synthesized compounds were further validated by evaluating the inhibitory effects of these compounds on the target protein beta-catenin through in vitro enzyme inhibitory assay. Results: The docking analysis revealed favorable binding energies and interactions with the target proteins. The in vitro MTT assay on colorectal cancer cell line HCT 116 and HT29 revealed potential anti-tumor activities with an IC50 range of 3.7-8.1µM and 3.27-7.7 µM, respectively. The inhibitory properties of these compounds on the concentration of beta-catenin by ELISA revealed significant percent inhibition of target protein at 100 µg/ml. Conclusion: In conclusion, the synthesized compounds showed significant anti-tumor activities both in silico and in vitro, having potential for further investigating its role in colorectal cancer.

Noé Rodríguez-Barajas ◽  
Luis Miguel Anaya-Esparza ◽  
Zuami Villagrán-de la Mora ◽  
Jorge Alberto Sánchez-Burgos ◽  
Alejandro Pérez-Larios

Abstract: Recently, Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been studied as an alternative to treat cancer diseases under different activation therapies. The aim of this review was to describe the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on some cancer cell lines and their interaction with phototherapies such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), photothermal therapy (PTT), sonodynamic therapy (SDT), and ultraviolet therapy (UV) for anticancer treatment. The use of TiO2 combined with PDT, PTT, SDT, or UV has shown a remarkable capacity to enhance the killing of cancer cells through reactive oxygen species formation. Thus, the combination of TiO2 and activation therapies exhibited great potential and could be a viable anticancer treatment strategy. However, more studies on phototherapies in combination with TiO2 and their effects at under different experimental conditions (TiO2 concentration, type of cancer cells, and intensity and frequency of therapies) are necessary to guarantee the safe use of this kind of therapy.

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