scholarly journals Wood ash as a vegetative-growth promoter in soils with subsurface compaction

Edna M. Bonfim-Silva ◽  
Tulio Martinez-Santos ◽  
Tonny J. A. da Silva ◽  
Rackel D. de S. Alves ◽  
Everton A. R. Pinheiro ◽  

ABSTRACT Subsurface soil compaction and nutritional stress are among the main factors that limit the yield of crops. Using forest residues, such as wood ash, is a viable option in the chemical recovery of soils and can promote vigorous root development in soils with subsurface compaction. The objective of this study was to indicate the most adequate dose of wood ash for efficient management of this residue applied in rotational crops cultivated in soils with subsurface compaction. Safflower plants (Carthamus tinctorius), a rotational crop with a deep taproot system, were grown in clay soil fertilized with different doses of ash and with induced levels of compaction in the subsurface layer. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, under a 4 × 5 factorial scheme, composed of four doses of wood ash (8.0, 16.0, 24.0, and 32.0 g dm-3) and five levels of soil bulk density (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8 kg dm-3), with four replicates. Crop growth variables (plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, and SPAD chlorophyll index) were evaluated at 15, 45, and 75 days after emergence. The results indicated that soil compaction was the most limiting factor to the vegetative development of safflower, regardless of the ash dose. The interaction between the wood ash dose and bulk density, when present, showed that the best growth response occurred for ash dose of 25 g dm-3 for a soil bulk density of 1.2 kg dm-3.

2019 ◽  
pp. 1375-1382
Tulio Martinez Santos ◽  
Edna Maria Bonfim Silva ◽  
Tonny José Araújo da Silva ◽  
Ana Paula Alves Barreto Damasceno

Soil compaction is a big limitation to food production in agriculture. Wood ash is an agro-industrial residue generated by the burning of biomass in boilers for energy production. It can be used as a corrective agent and fertilizer of the soil. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the root system of safflower cultivated under bulk density levels and wood ash doses in dystrophic Oxisol. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with a randomized block design under a 5x5 factorial scheme composed of 5 wood ash doses (0, 8, 16, 24, 32 g dm-3) and 5 bulk density levels (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 Mg m-3) with 4 replicates. The soil was collected from 0-0.20 m depth layer. Later it was incubated with the respective wood ash doses. Each experimental unit consisted of a pot made of three PVC (polyvinyl chloride) rings, in which the layers of 0.1-0.2 m were compacted. At 75 days after emergence, the plants were cut, their roots washed and the volume and dry mass checked. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and subsequent regression test, both at 5% probability. Soil densities negatively influenced the root system development and culture of safflower. Application of wood ash doses of 20 to 24 g dm-3 significantly improved root development of plant.

2020 ◽  
pp. 1131-1139 ◽  
Adalto José de Souza Linhares ◽  
Wainer Gomes Gonçalves ◽  
Savio Menezes Cabral ◽  
Marlete Ferreira de Brito ◽  
Eduardo Valcacer Brandstetter ◽  

Integrated crop-livestock systems maximize land use, infrastructure and labor; diversify production; and minimize costs, thereby reducing risks and adding value to agricultural products. However, growing mechanically harvested crops can negatively affect soil structure, reducing plant biomass productivity. The present study aimed to evaluate soil compaction and its effects on the forage productivity of sunflower and Brachiaria brizantha cv. BRS Paiaguas during the second cropping period. The experiment was conducted as a split-plot randomized complete block design with four replications. Four compaction levels represented by traffic from an agricultural tractor were established: 0 (absence of compaction), 2, 10 and 30 passes over the same spot. Two forage systems were established in the subplots: sunflower grown solely as a monocrop (40,000 plants ha-1) or intercropped with Paiaguas palisadegrass (10 plants linear m-1). The following parameters were quantified: soil bulk density, plant height, capitulum diameter and 1000-achene weight for sunflower; stem length and the leaf/stem ratio for Paiaguas palisadegrass; and total and partitioned forage productivity. The results showed that sunflower was highly sensitive to soil compaction and that the development and productivity of this species decreased in response to the greatest bulk density, which in turn affected the Paiaguas palisadegrass. Overall, intercropping is recommended for increased forage productivity.

2011 ◽  
Vol 91 (6) ◽  
pp. 957-964 ◽  
C. Halde ◽  
A. M. Hammermeister ◽  
N. L. Mclean ◽  
K. T. Webb ◽  
R. C. Martin

Halde, C., Hammermeister, A. M., McLean, N. L., Webb, K. T. and Martin, R. C. 2011. Soil compaction under varying rest periods and levels of mechanical disturbance in a rotational grazing system. Can. J. Soil Sci. 91: 957–964. In Atlantic Canada, data are limited regarding the effect of grazing systems on soil compaction. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of intensive and extensive rotational pasture management treatments on soil bulk density, soil penetration resistance, forage productivity and litter accumulation. The study was conducted on a fine sandy loam pasture in Truro, Nova Scotia. Each of the eight paddocks was divided into three rotational pasture management treatments: intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. Mowing and clipping were more frequent in the intensive than in the semi-intensive treatment. In the extensive treatment, by virtue of grazing in alternate rotations, the rest period was doubled than that of the intensive and semi-intensive treatments. Both soil bulk density (0–5 cm) and penetration resistance (0–25.5 cm) were significantly higher in the intensive treatment than in the extensive treatment, for all seasons. Over winter, bulk density decreased significantly by 6.8 and 3.8% at 0–5 and 5–10 cm, respectively. A decrease ranging between 40.5 and 4.0% was observed for soil penetration resistance over winter, at 0–1.5 cm and 24.0–25.5 cm, respectively. The intensive and semi-intensive treatments produced significantly more available forage for grazers annually than the extensive treatment. Forage yields in late May to early June were negatively correlated with spring bulk density.

2011 ◽  
Vol 28 (4) ◽  
pp. 194-198 ◽  
Oscar Bustos ◽  
Andrew Egan

Abstract A study of soil compaction associated with four harvesting systems—a forwarder working with a mechanized harvester and a rubber-tired cable skidder, a farm tractor, and a bulldozer, each of them coupled with a chainsaw felling—was conducted in a group selection harvest of a mixed hardwood stand in Maine. The bulldozer system was associated with the highest percentage differences in soil bulk density measured in machine tracks (16.9%), trail centerlines (15.7%), and harvested group selection units (13.1%) versus adjacent untrafficked areas, whereas the forwarder system was associated with the lowest percentage differences in soil bulk density measured in machine tracks (3.5%), trail centerlines (1.2%), and harvested group selection units (6.3%) versus adjacent untrafficked areas. Results will help to inform loggers and foresters on equipment selection, harvest planning, and the conservation of forest soils and soil productivity.

2002 ◽  
Vol 82 (2) ◽  
pp. 147-154 ◽  
C. H. Li ◽  
B. L. Ma ◽  
T. Q. Zhang

Soil compaction associated with inappropriate maneuvering of field equipment, and/or modern cropping system negatively affect soil physical properties, and thus, may limit microbial activities and biochemical processes, which are important to nutrient bioavailability. An experiment was carried out using the pot-culture technique to determine the effect of bulk density on soil microbial populations and enzyme activities in an Eutric Cambisol sandy loam soil (United Nations’ classification) planted with maize (Zea mays L.) in the Experimental Farm of Henan Agricultural University, Henan, China (34°49′N, 113°40′E). Numbers of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes and the enzyme activities of invertase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase, urease, protease, and phosphatase were determined at various stages during the plant growing season. Microbial numbers were negatively and linearly related to soil bulk density. With increases in soil bulk density from 1.00 to 1.60 Mg m-3, total numbers of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes declined by 26-39%. The strongest correlations between the soil microbial population and bulk density occurred at the plant growth stages of the 6 fully expanded leaf (V6) and anthesis (R1), with R2 > 0.90 (P< 0.01) for all three microorganism categories. Increasing soil bulk density was related quadratically to the activities of soil invertase and polyphenol oxidase, protease and catalase. It appears that the greatest activities of most soil enzymes occurred at a bulk density of 1.0 to 1.3 Mg m-3, which are optimum for most field crops. The plant growth stages also had an important impact on soil enzyme activities and microbial populations, with strong positive associations between soil microorganisms and enzyme activities with crop growth. Key words: Maize, soil enzymes, microbial population, soil compaction, bulk density, Zea mays

1988 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 120-123 ◽  
Stephen G. Shetron ◽  
John A. Sturos ◽  
Eunice Padley ◽  
Carl Trettin

Abstract The change in wheel track surface soil bulk densities was determined after a mechanized thinning in a northern red oak stand. Mean bulk density values of the 0 to 5 cm surface of the wheel tracks immediately after felling, bunching, and skidding were: 0.80 g/cc on the high use areas; 0.77 g/cc on the low use areas; and 0.42 g/cc in the undisturbed areas. No significant differences in surface soil bulk densities were found between several loading treatments using a four-wheel drive articulated forwarder. The data indicate that initial passes of the equipment produce most of the disturbance. No significant recovery in wheel track soil bulk densities occurred during the year following harvest regardless of treatment. North. J. Appl. For. 5:120-123, June 1988.

2012 ◽  
Vol 88 (03) ◽  
pp. 306-316 ◽  
Richard Kabzems

Declines in forest productivity have been linked to losses of organic matter and soil porosity. To assess how removal of organic matter and soil compaction affect short-term ecosystem dynamics, pre-treatment and year 1, 5 and 10 post-treatment soil properties and post-treatment plant community responses were examined in a boreal trembling aspen (Populus tremuloidesMichx.)-dominated ecosystem in northeastern British Columbia. The experiment used a completely randomized design with three levels of organic matter removal (tree stems only; stems and slash; stems, slash and forest floor) and three levels of soil compaction (none, intermediate [2-cm impression], heavy [5-cm impression]). Removal of the forest floor initially stimulated aspen regeneration and significantly reduced height growth of aspen (198 cm compared to 472–480 cm) as well as white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) height (82 cm compared to 154–156 cm). The compaction treatments had no effect on aspen regeneration density. At Year 10, heights of both aspen and white spruce were negatively correlated with upper mineral soil bulk density and were lowest on forest floor + whole tree removal treatments. Recovery of soil properties was occurring in the 0 cm to 2 cm layer of mineral soil. Bulk density values for the 0 cm to 10 cm depth remained above 86% of the maximum bulk density for the site, a soil condition where reduced tree growth can be expected.

1997 ◽  
Vol 75 (5) ◽  
pp. 723-729 ◽  
Xiao-Lin Li ◽  
Jun-Ling Zhang ◽  
Eckhard George ◽  
Horst Marschner

The influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus mosseae, on the adverse effects of soil compaction on growth and phosphorus (P) uptake of red clover was studied in a model experiment. The pots used in the experiment had three compartments, a central one with a soil bulk density of 1.3 g ∙ cm−3 and two outer compartments with three different levels of soil bulk density (1.3, 1.6, or 1.8 g ∙ cm−3). The soil in the outer compartments was fertilized with P and was either freely accessible to roots and hyphae, or separated by nets and accessible to hyphae only. At a soil bulk density of 1.3 g ∙ cm−3, mycorrhizal plants did not absorb more P than nonmycorrhizal plants except when access of roots to the outer compartments was restricted by nets. At high soil bulk density, root growth was drastically decreased. However, hyphae of G. mosseae absorbed P even from highly compacted soil, and induced a P-depletion zone of about 30 mm from the root surface. In consequence, at higher soil bulk density shoot P concentration and the total amount of P in the shoot were higher in mycorrhizal than in nonmycorrhizal plants. This experiment showed that hyphae of G. mosseae are more efficient in obtaining P from compacted soil than mycorrhizal or nonmycorrhizal roots of red clover. Key words: arbuscular mycorrhiza, phosphorus, red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), soil bulk density, soil compaction.

1978 ◽  
Vol 58 (2) ◽  
pp. 435-443 ◽  
E. McKYES ◽  
H. H. LE

A 100-plot experiment was performed during the growing season of 1976 in a Ste. Rosalie clay soil, using a randomized complete-block design with 25 treatments of machinery traffic within each of four blocks. Three vehicle contact pressures, four numbers of tractor passes, before or after seeding groups and a control of zero traffic were used to relate the growth and yield variables to wheel traffic and resulting soil compaction. Plant emergence and tasselling were delayed with increasing machinery traffic. The plant growth rate monitored at 29, 44, 60, 74 and 88 days from the seeding time was dramatically different from plot to plot. Growth models at different times of the season were derived in terms of the product of contact pressure and number of passes of the vehicle. Plant and ear moisture contents were higher in plots with heavier traffic treatment. Yield, ear yield and grain yield all decreased with increases in machine contact pressure and passes. The reduction in yield was over 50% in some cases, suggesting that careful traffic planning is essential to obtain better production in agricultural fields. Prediction models were obtained for all the plant growth characteristics in terms of traffic variables for both before- and after-seeding treatments. A relation for yield in terms of soil bulk density was established.

Soil Research ◽  
2011 ◽  
Vol 49 (2) ◽  
pp. 135 ◽  
M. A. Hamza ◽  
S. S. Al-Adawi ◽  
K. A. Al-Hinai

Reducing soil compaction is now an important issue in agriculture due to intensive use of farm machinery in different farm operations. This experiment was designed to study the influence of combinations of external load and soil water on soil compaction. Four soil water levels were combined with four external loads as follows: soil water—air-dry, 50% of field capacity, field capacity, and saturation; external load using different-sized tractors—no load (0 kg), small tractor (2638 kg), medium tractor (3912 kg), and large tractor (6964 kg). Soil bulk density, soil strength, and soil water infiltration rate were measured at 0–100, 100–200, and 200–300 mm soil depths. The 16 treatments were set up in a randomised block design with three replications. Combined increases in soil water and external load increased soil compaction, as indicated by increasing soil bulk density and soil strength and decreasing soil water infiltration rate. There was no significant interaction between soil water and external load for bulk density at all soil depths, but the interaction was significant for soil strength and infiltration rates at all soil depths. The ratio between the weight of the external load and the surface area of contact between the external load and the ground was important in determining the degree of surface soil compaction. Least compaction was produced by the medium tractor because it had the highest tyre/ground surface area contact. In general, the effects of soil water and external load on increasing soil bulk density and soil strength were greater in the topsoil than the subsoil.

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