soil bulk density
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Edna M. Bonfim-Silva ◽  
Tulio Martinez-Santos ◽  
Tonny J. A. da Silva ◽  
Rackel D. de S. Alves ◽  
Everton A. R. Pinheiro ◽  

ABSTRACT Subsurface soil compaction and nutritional stress are among the main factors that limit the yield of crops. Using forest residues, such as wood ash, is a viable option in the chemical recovery of soils and can promote vigorous root development in soils with subsurface compaction. The objective of this study was to indicate the most adequate dose of wood ash for efficient management of this residue applied in rotational crops cultivated in soils with subsurface compaction. Safflower plants (Carthamus tinctorius), a rotational crop with a deep taproot system, were grown in clay soil fertilized with different doses of ash and with induced levels of compaction in the subsurface layer. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, under a 4 × 5 factorial scheme, composed of four doses of wood ash (8.0, 16.0, 24.0, and 32.0 g dm-3) and five levels of soil bulk density (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8 kg dm-3), with four replicates. Crop growth variables (plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, and SPAD chlorophyll index) were evaluated at 15, 45, and 75 days after emergence. The results indicated that soil compaction was the most limiting factor to the vegetative development of safflower, regardless of the ash dose. The interaction between the wood ash dose and bulk density, when present, showed that the best growth response occurred for ash dose of 25 g dm-3 for a soil bulk density of 1.2 kg dm-3.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 841
Martha Lustosa Carvalho ◽  
Felipe Bonini da Luz ◽  
Renato Paiva de Lima ◽  
Karina Maria Vieira Cavalieri-Polizeli ◽  
João Luís Nunes Carvalho ◽  

Removing sugarcane straw to increase bioenergy production can generate significant income to the industry. However, straw contributes to the regulation of soil functions and consequently supports the provision of ecosystem services, such as water flow regulation. Thus, straw removal may hinder the provision of these services, especially in mechanized sugarcane production systems, which have soil compaction problems due to machinery traffic. In this study, we assess a six-year experiment in Brazil with four rates of straw removal: 0 Mg ha−1 (TR), 5 Mg ha−1 (HR), 10 Mg ha−1 (LR), and 15 Mg ha−1 (NR) remaining straw. Using attributes, such as soil bulk density, porosity, water infiltration, runoff, saturated hydraulic conductivity and available water-holding capacity, as indicators of key soil functions, we calculated a soil-related ecosystem service (ES) index for water flow regulation provision. The ES index revealed that water flow regulation was low regardless of the straw management (0.56, 0.63, 0.64 and 0.60 for TR, HR, LR and NR, respectively). It can be a consequence of soil compaction caused by machinery traffic throughout the successive cycle, whose straw was unable to mitigate this issue. Thus, by the end of the sugarcane cycle (sixth ratoon), straw removal had little effect on soil physical and hydraulic indicators, and consequently had little impact on the provision of the soil-related ES associated with water flow regulation. Nevertheless, straw management should be planned to consider other functions and soil-related ES benefited by straw retention.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Michal Allman ◽  
Zuzana Dudáková ◽  
Martin Jankovský ◽  
Mária Vlčková ◽  
Vladimír Juško ◽  

Soil disturbance and compaction are inherent in ground-based harvesting operations. These changes are affected by numerous factors, related mainly to the technical parameters of the machines, soil conditions, and the technology used. This study aimed to analyze the changes of surface layers of soil caused by skidder traffic without loads on the Cambisols of Western Carpathians. We observed changes in the soil bulk density and penetration resistance. The results showed that only machine traffic caused a 0.32 to 0.35 (g cm−3) increase in soil bulk density. Besides machine traffic, bulk density was affected by soil moisture content. Penetration resistance of soil increased by 0.15 to 1.04 (MPa) after traffic of 40 machines. Penetration resistance showed a lower increase after traffic, and regression and correlation analysis proved a relationship between penetration resistance, skeleton content, and penetration depth, besides the number of machine passes (r = 0.33–0.55). Observing the changes in the physical properties of soils caused by machine traffic allows for a more detailed view of the effects of forest harvesting machinery on forest soils.

Yang Wang ◽  
Limin Zhang ◽  
Jin Chen ◽  
Ling Feng ◽  
Fangbing Li ◽  

In this study, the plant communities at five succession stages (herbage, herbage-shrub, shrub, tree-shrub, and tree) in the Zhenning Karst Plateau area of Guizhou were examined. The changes of plant functional characteristics in different succession stages were analyzed, as was the relationship between functional traits and environmental factors. The main results include the following. (1) During the succes-sion process, plant height, leaf dry matter mass, leaf area, leaf nitrogen content, and leaf phosphorus content gradually increased, whereas leaf thickness and specific leaf area decreased, and leaf C:P ratio and leaf N:P ratios did not change significantly. (2) Soil organic matter, soil total nitrogen, soil total phosphorus, soil C:N, soil C:P, and soil C:K increased at first and then decreased, reaching a peak at the tree-shrub stage. Soil total potassium fluctuated and soil bulk density gradually decreased and reached the lowest value at the tree-shrub stage. (3) Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the plant community shifted from a nutri-ent-poor soil environment to a nutrient-rich environment. Soil total phosphorus, soil C:K, soil organic mat-ter, soil C:N, and soil bulk density were the key environmental factors affecting the change of functional traits. (4) Structural equation modeling suggests that that specific leaf area and leaf nitrogen content had more sensitive responses to soil nutrient resources and environmental factors, respectively.

2022 ◽  
pp. 593-599
Narges Kariminejad ◽  
Mohsen Hosseinalizadeh ◽  
Hamid Reza Pourghasemi

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (20) ◽  
pp. 112-117
Lucia Macrii ◽  
Dorin Cebanu ◽  
Dionisie Zaharco

The soil health can be deduced by chemical, biological and physical properties. This triad of features influence each other and equally determines soil quality and fertility. The paper includes the study regarding physical state of the chernozem soil characterized by bulk density – soil physical property that estimate soil compaction. The study took place in long-term field experiments of the Selectia Research Institute of Field Crop located in the North part of Moldova. The experimental data were obtained in 2019-2020 agriculture year. The soil bulk density, studied in different crop rotations and fertilization systems, was determined under winter wheat agrocenosis after harvesting in the 0-40 cm soil layer. The researches has shown that chernozem soil bulk density registered more favorable indices in crop rotations that include: perennial legumes and grasses in a mixture or only perennial legumes; less row crops - which means minimizing tillage (mechanic disturbance of soil). Regarding fertilization systems – the soil compaction is lower on the plots with adequate amount of organic fertilizer.

А.С. Ильинцев ◽  
Е.Н. Наквасина

Колейность, образующаяся при проходе лесозаготовительной техники во время разработки лесосек при рубке леса, является одним из негативных экологических последствий, связанных с нарушениями почвенно-растительного покрова вырубок, определяющим дальнейшую их реновацию. Негативное влияние от формирования колейности зависит от числа проходов техники и связано с почвенно-климатическими условиями. На опытно-производственном участке ООО «Двинлеспром», территориально расположенном в междуречье С. Двины и Пинеги (Архангельская область, северотаежный лесной район европейской части РФ), изучено влияние разного числа проходов (4, 8, 10) груженого форвадера Ponsse Buffalo King по волоку, не покрытому порубочными остатками. Исходный участок леса представлен ельником черничным V класса бонитета, произрастающим на подзолистой почве на двучленных отложениях, широко распространенных в регионе. На постоянных учетных площадках (20 x 5 м), заложенных в 3 повторениях, провели детальное изучение строения колей, в дне каждой колеи вскрыли почвогрунт и сделали описание горизонтов/слоев почвы, взяли ненарушенные образцы почвы с глубины 0–10 и 10–20 см для определения влажности и плотности сложения. Установлено, что число проходов более определяет глубину, чем ширину колей. Выявлено 6 типов нарушений почвенного покрова по строению почво-грунта на дне колеи, связанных с перемешиванием, сдвиганием и выносом на дневную поверхность оглеенных почвообразующих пород. Показана представленность типов строения дна колеи в зависимости от числа проездов груженого форвардера, а также различия в плотности сложения и влажности почво-грунта. Плотность сложения в толще 0– 20 см при увеличении числа проходов техники закономерно увеличивается до значений, соответствующих почвообразующим породам. При этом доля влаги в толще 0–10 см при увеличении числа проходов повышается, а в толще 10–20 см снижается. Заметные изменения изученных показателей достигаются при восьмикратном проезде груженого форвардера, что позволяет считать это число проездом максимально допустимым на подзолистых почвах на двучленных отложениях в северотаежном лесном районе. The ruts formed after the passage of logging machinery during logging operations are one of the negative environmental consequences associated with disturbances of the soil and vegetation cover of deforestation, which determines their further renovation. The negative impact of the formation of ruts depends on the number of passes of machinery and is associated with soil and climatic conditions. We studied the effect of different number of passes (4, 8, 10) of a loaded Ponsse Buffalo King forvader on a skid trail that is not covered by felling residues. The experimental logging site of LLC Dvinlesprom is located in the watershed between of the Northern Dvina and Pinega (Arkhangelsk region, North Taiga forest region of the European part of the Russian Federation). The original site is represented by a blueberry spruce forest of the V class of bonity, which grows on podzolic soil on binomial deposits and is widely distributed in the region. We laid the permanent accounting pads (20 x 5 m) in 3 repetitions. We conducted a detailed study of the structure of the ruts, at the bottom of each rut, we opened the soil and made a description of the horizons/layers of the soil, took undisturbed soil samples from a depth of 0–10 and 10–20 cm to determine the soil bulk density and moisture content. It was found that the number of passes determines the depth more than the width of the ruts. We identified 6 types of disturbances of the soil cover on the structure of the soil at the bottom of the ruts, associated with mixing, shifting and removal of the gleying soil-forming parent soil to the day surface. We have given the types of the structure of the bottom of the ruts depending on the number of passes of the loaded forwarder, as well as the differences in the soil bulk density and moisture content. The soil bulk density in the thickness of 0–20 cm with an increase in the number of passes of the forwarder naturally increases to the values corresponding to the soil-forming parent soil. At the same time, the proportion of moisture in the thickness of 0–10 cm increases with an increase in the number of passes, and in the thickness of 10–20 cm decreases. Noticeable changes in the studied indicators are achieved with an eight-fold passage of a loaded forwarder, which allows us to consider this number as the maximum permissible passage on podzolic soils on binomial deposits in the north taiga forest area.

Land ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1392
Hafiz Muhammad Rashad Javeed ◽  
Mazhar Ali ◽  
Imtiaz Ahmed ◽  
Xiukang Wang ◽  
Ibrahim Al-Ashkar ◽  

The present investigation was conducted to understand the role of enriched biochar on soil nitrogen and carbon dynamics, leaching losses of nutrients, and growth attributes of wheat. Buffalo slurry (BS) was used to enrich the biochar for 24 h and 2% biochar (SB) or enriched biochar (SEB) was used. Enrichment of biochar with BS as SEB improved the C and N contents of biochar by 33–310% and 41–286% respectively. The application of biochar (SB) and enriched biochar (SEB) reduced the net nitrification by 81% and 94%, ammonification by 48% and 74%, and carbon dioxide by 50% and 92% respectively as compared to control. The leaching losses minerals i.e., C (by 30%), N (by 125%), P (by 50%), K (by 82%), Na (by 9%), Ca (by 24%), and Mg (by 12%) was decreased in SEB treatments compared to control. The soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass (MBC and MBN), wheat agronomy, soil bulk density and soil pore density, mineral uptake from the soil, and mineral contents in the plant body were improved in the SEB as compared to SB and control treatments. Our results revealed that the biochar enrichment process could improve the C and N storage in the soil reservoir and lower the environmental risks to soil and water.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 3592
Zhentao Bai ◽  
Hongguang Liu ◽  
Tangang Wang ◽  
Ping Gong ◽  
Huiqin Li ◽  

To explore the potential of smashing ridge tillage irrigation, it is necessary to investigate how smashing ridge tillage technology with mulched drip irrigation affects soil water, salinity, and cotton yield in saline fields. We conducted a two-year (2020–2021) field experiment to study the effects of different smashing ridge tillage depths on soil bulk density, moisture, salinity, dry matter production, yield, and its constituents (effective bolls, 100-bell weight). There were three smashing ridge tillage depths: A (20 cm), B (40 cm), and C (60 cm), with traditional tillage as the CT. The results showed that all of the smashing ridge tillage could reduce soil bulk density, improve the utilization and uptake of deep soil water during the rapid growth period, and reduce the soil salt content. Compared with the CT treatment, the average soil bulk density of the 0–60 cm soil layer in treatments A, B, and C in 2020 and 2021 decreased by 3.05%, 5.87%, 10.09%, and 1.65%, 4.48%, and 8.49%, respectively. The average soil water content in the 0–120 cm soil layer at the flowering and boll stage decreased by 3.68%, 6.28%, 9.04%, and 3.59%, 6.52%, and 9.98%, respectively; the soil salt content in the 0–120 cm soil layer at the boll opening stage decreased by 4.21%, 6.75%, 11.95%, and 5.47%, 24.25%, and 54.13%, respectively. Cotton dry matter production and yield tended to increase with an increasing depth of smash ridge tillage. Treatment C obtained the maximum dry matter production, seed cotton yield, effective bolls, and 100-boll weight. The dry matter production at the boll opening stage was significantly increased by 17.16% and 15.91%, and the yield was significantly increased by 65.24% and 84.14% in treatments C in 2020 and 2021, respectively, compared to CT. The smashing ridge tillage of 60 cm can optimize the structure of the soil tillage layer and also reduce soil salinity and increase yield, which is the suitable depth of smashing ridge tillage for saline cotton fields in the south of Xinjiang. The findings of the study can provide some theoretical basis and practical experience for the improvement of saline soils and sustainable agricultural development in South Xinjiang, China.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Fangfang Wang ◽  
Yongzhe Chen ◽  
Ting Li ◽  
Cong Wang ◽  
Dongbo Wang ◽  

Both livestock grazing and soil freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) can affect the soil-atmosphere exchange of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in grasslands. However, the combined effects of grazing and FTCs on GHG fluxes in meadow steppe soils remain unclear. In this study, we collected soils from paired grazing and enclosed sites and conducted an incubation experiment to investigate the effect of grazing on soil GHG fluxes in the meadow steppes of Inner Mongolia during three FTCs. Our results showed that FTCs substantially stimulated the emissions of soil N2O and CO2 and the uptake of CH4 in the meadow steppes. However, compared with enclosure treatments, grazing significantly reduced the cumulative N2O, CO2 and CH4 fluxes by 13.3, 14.6, and 26.8%, respectively, during the entire FTCs experiment. The soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON), NH4+-N and NO3–-N, significantly increased after three FTCs and showed close correlations with N2O and CO2 emissions. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that the increase in NO3–-N induced by FTCs dominated the variance in N2O emissions and that DOC strongly affected CO2 emissions during thawing periods. However, long-term grazing reduced soil substrate availability and microbial activity and increased soil bulk density, which in turn decreased the cumulative GHG fluxes during FTCs. In addition, the interaction between grazing and FTCs significantly affected CO2 and CH4 fluxes but not N2O fluxes. Our results indicated that livestock grazing had an important effect on soil GHG fluxes during FTCs. The combined effect of grazing and FTCs should be taken into account in future estimations of GHG budgets in both modeling and experimental studies.

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