limiting factor
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Edna M. Bonfim-Silva ◽  
Tulio Martinez-Santos ◽  
Tonny J. A. da Silva ◽  
Rackel D. de S. Alves ◽  
Everton A. R. Pinheiro ◽  

ABSTRACT Subsurface soil compaction and nutritional stress are among the main factors that limit the yield of crops. Using forest residues, such as wood ash, is a viable option in the chemical recovery of soils and can promote vigorous root development in soils with subsurface compaction. The objective of this study was to indicate the most adequate dose of wood ash for efficient management of this residue applied in rotational crops cultivated in soils with subsurface compaction. Safflower plants (Carthamus tinctorius), a rotational crop with a deep taproot system, were grown in clay soil fertilized with different doses of ash and with induced levels of compaction in the subsurface layer. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, under a 4 × 5 factorial scheme, composed of four doses of wood ash (8.0, 16.0, 24.0, and 32.0 g dm-3) and five levels of soil bulk density (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8 kg dm-3), with four replicates. Crop growth variables (plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, and SPAD chlorophyll index) were evaluated at 15, 45, and 75 days after emergence. The results indicated that soil compaction was the most limiting factor to the vegetative development of safflower, regardless of the ash dose. The interaction between the wood ash dose and bulk density, when present, showed that the best growth response occurred for ash dose of 25 g dm-3 for a soil bulk density of 1.2 kg dm-3.

2022 ◽  
Vol 266 ◽  
pp. 109446
Lucia Ripari ◽  
Joe Premier ◽  
Elisa Belotti ◽  
Hendrik Bluhm ◽  
Christine Breitenmoser-Würsten ◽  

HortScience ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 57 (2) ◽  
pp. 181-190
Shih-wei Lin ◽  
Tsung-han Lin ◽  
Cynthia Kung Man Yee ◽  
Joyce Chen ◽  
Yen-wei Wang ◽  

High temperature stress is a major limiting factor for pepper productivity, which will continue to be a problem under climate change scenarios. Developing heat tolerant cultivars is critical for sustained pepper production, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. In fruiting crops, like pepper, reproductive tissues, especially pollen, are the most sensitive to high temperature stress. Typically, pollen viability and germination are assessed through staining and microscopy, which is tedious and potentially inaccurate. To increase efficiency in assessing pollen traits of pepper, the use of impedance flow cytometry (IFC) has been proposed. We conducted three independent experiments to determine the most effective methodology to use IFC for evaluating pollen traits for heat tolerance in pepper. Seven floral developmental stages were evaluated, and stages 3, 4, and 5 were found to best combine high pollen concentration and activity. Flowers in development stages 3, 4, or 5 were then heat treated at 41, 44, 47, 50, and 55 °C or not heat treated (control). The critical temperature to assess heat tolerance using IFC was found to be 50 °C, with a reduction in pollen activity and concentration occurring at temperatures greater than 47 °C. Twenty-one entries of pepper were then accessed for pollen traits using the staining and IFC methods over 2 months, April (cooler) and June (hotter). Growing environment was found to be the greatest contributor to variability for nearly all pollen traits assessed, with performance during June nearly always being lower. PBC 507 and PBC 831 were identified as being new sources of heat tolerance, based on using IFC for assessing pollen. Pollen viability determined by staining and pollen activity determined using IFC were significantly positively correlated, indicating that IFC is an efficient and accurate method to assess pollen traits in pepper. This work provides a basis for further research in this area and supports more efficient breeding of heat-tolerant cultivars.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 216
Charles Krasnow ◽  
Carmit Ziv

Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a widely grown vegetable crop that is nutritious and flavorful and economically important for growers worldwide. A significant limiting factor in the postharvest storage and long-distance transport of peppers is gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. The pathogen is widespread in nature, highly aggressive, and able to cause disease at cool refrigerated temperatures during transport and storage. Fungicides have been relied on in the past to reduce bell pepper rots in storage; however, concern over residues on the fruit and environmental degradation have heightened the importance of natural and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) solutions that effectively limit disease. Essential oils, plant extracts, inorganic chemicals, biocontrols, defense activators, hot water treatments, and modified storage conditions have been tested to reduce losses from gray mold. Despite significant amounts of research on natural methods of control of B. cinerea postharvest, research specific to gray mold in peppers is limited. The objective of this review is to summarize the research conducted with environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical fungicides to control this important pathogen of peppers postharvest. To ensure a steady supply of healthy and nutritious produce, more research is needed on the development, use, and application of non-hazardous Botrytis control methods. Until an effective solution is found, using a combined approach including environmental controls, sanitation, and GRAS products remain paramount to limit Botrytis fruit rot of peppers postharvest.

2022 ◽  
Caroline Wyatt

Bipolar disorder, like many neuropsychiatric conditions, can be studied from a number of perspectives; from observation of behaviour, to study of cognitive dysfunction, through to changes at the molecular and genetic level. A consequence of this way of working is that there is inadequate communication between different levels of analysis, such that insufficient thought is given to whether a theoretical model derived from behavioural work fits with neurobiological data, and vice versa. Such limitations represent a key limiting factor in successful translation. Therefore, this paper takes a dominant theoretical model of bipolar disorder, based on that by Gray (1994) and developed by Alloy et al., (2015) as a basis to propose that the foundational pathology in bipolar is reward hypersensitivity, and to review how recent diverse neurobiological, cognitive and behavioural findings fit with this understanding. Executive Function deficits, partially derived from heritable structural changes are suggested as a foundation through which reward hypersensitivity develops to disorder, and CANA1C polymorphism-induced hyperactivity, further serves to drive the system towards reward seeking goals, through interaction with dopaminergic systems. This action is supplemented by a genetic predisposition for cognitive regulatory dysfunction, leading to improper modulation of emotive and reward networks. Specifically, deficits in top-down limbic modulation leads to behaviours disproportionally driven by limbic and reward circuitry; this pathology strengths over time through use. This therefore eventually results in substantial regional disconnect, reflected in epigenetic changes to neurotransmitters and observable histological changes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Ni An ◽  
Zhenjie Li ◽  
Xiaodi Yan ◽  
Hainan Zhao ◽  
Yajie Yang ◽  

AbstractThe lung is one of the most sensitive tissues to ionizing radiation, thus, radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) stays a key dose-limiting factor of thoracic radiotherapy. However, there is still little progress in the effective treatment of RILI. Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate1, Rac1, is a small guanosine triphosphatases involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis. Thus, Rac1 may be an important molecule that mediates radiation damage, inhibition of which may produce a protective effect on RILI. By establishing a mouse model of radiation-induced lung injury and orthotopic lung tumor-bearing mouse model, we detected the role of Rac1 inhibition in the protection of RILI and suppression of lung tumor. The results showed that ionizing radiation induces the nuclear translocation of Rac1, the latter then promotes nuclear translocation of P53 and prolongs the residence time of p53 in the nucleus, thereby promoting the transcription of Trp53inp1 which mediates p53-dependent apoptosis. Inhibition of Rac1 significantly reduce the apoptosis of normal lung epithelial cells, thereby effectively alleviating RILI. On the other hand, inhibition of Rac1 could also significantly inhibit the growth of lung tumor, increase the radiation sensitivity of tumor cells. These differential effects of Rac1 inhibition were related to the mutation and overexpression of Rac1 in tumor cells.

2022 ◽  
Natália dos Reis Ferreira ◽  
Carlos Miguel Marto ◽  
Aleli Tôrres Oliveira ◽  
Maria João Rodrigues ◽  
Marcos Fabio DosSantos

Abstract Background Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD) is a generic term applied to describe musculoskeletal disorders that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), the masticatory muscles and the related structures. TMD comprises two groups of disorders, namely intra-articular TMD and masticatory muscle disorders. There is still difficulty in establishing the effectiveness of different therapeutic modalities for TMD with robust evidence, despite the large volume of publications in the area. The lack of outcomes standardization may represent a limiting factor in the search for scientific evidence. Objective This study aims to develop a core outcome sets (COS) for clinical trials in intra-articular TMD and masticatory muscle disorders. Methods The protocol for determining the COS-TMD will consist of three phases: 1. Synthesis of TMD Management Intervention Outcomes. The identification of outcomes will be carried out through a systematic review, which will include randomized clinical trials that evaluated the effectiveness of interventions used in TMD management. 2. Through a two-round international Delphi survey, the list of outcomes will be scored by three panels of stakeholders. 3. A representative sample of key stakeholders will be invited to participate in a face-to-face meeting where they can discuss the results of the Delphi survey and determine the final core set. Conclusions The implementation of this protocol will determine the COS-TMD, which will be made available for use in all TMD clinical studies. The use of COS when planning and reporting TMD clinical trials will reduce the risk of publication bias and enable proper comparison of results found by different studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jonathan Sherman ◽  
Ajit Subramaniam ◽  
Maxim Y. Gorbunov ◽  
Ana Fernández-Carrera ◽  
Rainer Kiko ◽  

In the Equatorial Atlantic nitrogen availability is assumed to control phytoplankton dynamics. However, in situ measurements of phytoplankton physiology and productivity are surprisingly sparse in comparison with the North Atlantic. In addition to the formation of the Equatorial cold tongue in the boreal summer, tropical instability waves (TIWs) and related short-term processes may locally cause episodic events of enhanced nutrient supply to the euphotic layer. Here, we assess changes in phytoplankton photophysiology in response to such episodic events as well as short-term nutrient addition experiments using a pair of custom-built fluorometers that measure chlorophyll a (Chl a) variable fluorescence and fluorescence lifetimes. The fluorometers were deployed during a transatlantic cruise along the Equator in the fall of 2019. We hypothesized that the Equatorial Atlantic is nitrogen-limited, with an increasing degree of limitation to the west where the cold tongue is not prominent, and that infrequent nitrate injection by TIW related processes are the primary source alleviating this limitation. We further hypothesized phytoplankton are well acclimated to the low levels of nitrogen, and once nitrogen is supplied, they can rapidly utilize it to stimulate growth and productivity. Across three TIW events encountered, we observed increased productivity and chlorophyll a concentration concurrent with a decreased photochemical conversion efficiency and overall photophysiological competency. Moreover, the observed decrease in photosynthetic turnover rates toward the western section suggested a 70% decrease in growth rates compared to their maximum values under nutrient-replete conditions. This decrease aligned with the increased growth rates observed following 24 h incubation with added nitrate in the western section. These results support our hypotheses that nitrogen is the limiting factor in the region and that phytoplankton are in a state of balanced growth, waiting to “body surf” waves of nutrients which fuel growth and productivity.

Rosangela Addesso ◽  
Jo De Waele ◽  
Simona Cafaro ◽  
Daniela Baldantoni

AbstractCaves are usually oligotrophic ecosystems, where the organic matter represents a limiting factor to the hypogeal community and sediments are often a significant energy source. With a view to identifying the energy input influencing the ecological processes occurring in caves, as well as the potential alteration sources of the natural equilibriums, geochemical features of several typologies of clastic sediments from the Pertosa-Auletta Cave (Italy) were investigated. The collected sediments, analyzed for a number of chemical (organic matter, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V, Zn concentrations) and mineralogical (quartz, calcite, dolomite, clay minerals) characteristics, showed a different composition. Overall, their origin is supposed to be allochthonous, related to the important fluviokarst activities interesting the cave in the past, whereas the abundance of calcitic and dolomitic compounds can be autochthonous, being the carbonate the main host rock. The highest concentrations of organic matter, together with C, Cu, Mo, N, P, Pb, S and Zn, highlighted in one sample composed mainly of bats guano, revealed an important bioavailable energy input as well as a pollutant accumulation, mainly of anthropogenic origin.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Leonardo F. Rocha ◽  
Jason P. Bond ◽  
Ahmad M. Fakhoury

Plant-parasitic nematodes represent a substantial constraint on global food security by reducing the yield potential of all major crops. The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is widely distributed across important soybean production areas of the U.S., being the major soybean yield-limiting factor, especially in the Midwestern U.S. Double cropped (DC) soybean is commonly planted following winter wheat. We previously reported double-cropping soybean fields with reduced SCN counts compared to fallow at both R1 growth stage (beginning of flowering) (−31.8%) and after soybean harvest (−32.7%). To test if higher counts of beneficial and SCN antagonistic microorganisms could be correlated with the suppression of SCN in fields previously planted with wheat, three field locations with noted SCN suppression were selected for a metagenomics study. Ten subplots were selected (5 wheat and 5 fallow pre-soybean) from each location. A total of 90 soil samples were selected: 3 fields ×2 treatments × 3 timepoints × 5 replications. Three DNA markers targeted distinct microbial groups: bacteria (16S V4-V5), fungi (ITS2), and Fusarium (tef1). Amplicons were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform (300 bp paired-end). Sequencing datasets were processed in R using the DADA2 pipeline. Fungal populations were affected by location in all sampling periods and differed significantly between DC and fallow plots at soybean planting and after harvest (P < 0.001). Several enriched fungal and bacterial taxa in wheat plots, including Mortierella, Exophiala, Conocybe, Rhizobacter spp., and others, were previously reported to parasitize SCN and other plant-parasitic nematodes, suggesting a potential role of beneficial microbes in suppression of SCN in soybean fields double-cropped with wheat.

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