Microbial Population
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 2350
Author(s):  
Aleksandr Bulaev ◽  
Aleksandra Nechaeva ◽  
Yuliya Elkina ◽  
Vitaliy Melamud

Tank bio-oxidation is a biohydrometallurgical technology widely used for metal recovery from sulfide concentrates. Since carbon availability is one of the key factors affecting microbial communities, it may also determine the rate of sulfide concentrate bio-oxidation. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the effect of carbon sources on the bio-oxidation of the concentrate containing 56% pyrite and 14% arsenopyrite at different temperatures (40 and 50 °C) in stirred tank reactors. CO2 was supplied into the pulp of the first reactor (about 0.01 L/min) and 0.02% (w/v) molasses was added to the pulp of the second one, and no additional carbon sources were used in the control tests. At 40 °C, 77% of pyrite and 98% of arsenopyrite were oxidized in the first reactor, in the second one, 73% of pyrite and 98% of arsenopyrite were oxidized, while in the control reactor, 27% pyrite and 93% arsenopyrite were oxidized. At 50 °C, in the first reactor, 94% of pyrite and 99% of arsenopyrite were oxidized, in the second one, 21% of pyrite and 94% of arsenopyrite were oxidized, while in the control reactor, 10% pyrite and 92% arsenopyrite were oxidized. The analysis of the microbial populations in the reactors revealed differences in the total number of microorganisms and their species composition. Thus, it was shown that the use of various carbon sources made it possible to increase the intensity of the concentrate bio-oxidation, since it affected microbial populations performing the process.


Author(s):  
Shakhzada Ibragimova ◽  
Revathy Ramachandran ◽  
Fahad R. Ali ◽  
Leonard Lipovich ◽  
Samuel B. Ho

The recent increases in cancer incidences have been linked to lifestyle changes that result in obesity and metabolic syndrome. It is now evident that these trends are associated with the profound changes that occur in the intestinal microbiome, producing altered microbial population signatures that interact, directly or indirectly, with potentially pro-carcinogenic molecular pathways of transcription, proliferation, and inflammation. The effects of the entire gut microbial population on overall health are complex, but individual bacteria are known to play important and definable roles. Recent detailed examinations of a large number of subjects show a tight correlation between habitual diets, fecal microbiome signatures, and markers of metabolic health. Diets that score higher in healthfulness or diversity such as plant-based diets, have altered ratios of specific bacteria, including an increase in short-chain fatty acid producers, which in turn have been linked to improved metabolic markers and lowered cancer risk. Contrarily, numerous studies have implicated less healthy, lower-scoring diets such as the Western diet with reduced intestinal epithelial defenses and promotion of specific bacteria that affect carcinogenic pathways. In this review, we will describe how different dietary patterns affect microbial populations in the gut and illustrate the subsequent impact of bacterial products and metabolites on molecular pathways of cancer development, both locally in the gut and systemically in distant organs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 470-475
Author(s):  
Adekemi Olubukola Shokalu ◽  
James Israel ◽  
Olatunji Mosunmola ◽  
Oyedeji Eniola ◽  
Elum Gift ◽  
...  

Abstract The use of several solutions as floral preservatives in extending the vase life of cut flowers has been an all-time research objective to meet the demands of florists and buyers. One of the major problems faced with the longevity of cut flowers is the accumulation of microorganism in the vase floral solution. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of Aloe vera gel and Silver thiosulphate solutions used as vase solution on the microbial population of Heliconia cut flowers. The experiment was carried out in the plant physiology laboratory, Floriculture programme, National Horticultural Research Institute, (NIHORT); Ibadan, Nigeria (7O25” N and 3O52” E). Six treatments supplemented with 1% sucrose were used in this experiment, they include; 1%, 2% and 4% Aloe vera gel solutions, 0.5% and 1% Silver thiosulphate solutions and distilled water (which serve as control) labeled AV1, AV2, AV3, STS1, STS2 and CO respectively. All treatments used for the vase life of Heliconia cut flowers were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different in the parameters analyzed as compared to the control. The vase life, relative fresh weight and relative water content of Heliconia cut flowers were best with Aloe vera gel solutions compared to the control with AV3 recording the longest vase life of 12 days (58.21%). The microbial population in the vases of the cut flowers was greatly reduced with the application of the silver thiosulphate solutions (STS1 and STS2) compared with the control with STS2 recording the lowest microbial colony at 32.67 CFU mL-1. Promoting the use of organic floral preservatives should be encouraged as it is eco-friendly and cost effective. The result of the study reveals that the use of 4% Aloe vera solution has the potential to reduce microbial growth and also enhance the longevity of the cut flowers.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
ZhiQi Xiao ◽  
ZhanXi Lin

Abstract In order to explore the difference of soil microbial population structure and abundance before and after planting JunCao"Oasis No. 1" in saline-alkali soil, verify the improvement effect of JunCao"Oasis No. 1" on microbial population structure and abundance in saline-alkali soil. Samples were collected from the blank saline area with and without JunCao"Oasis NO.1" and no plant growth on the surface, respectively, as Experimental group soil samples (S.Y.1-S.Y.8) and Blank group soil samples (K.B.1-K.B.8).16sDNA high-throughput sequencing technology was used for sequencing analysis respectively, and the diversity of microbial population abundance between them was compared and analyzed.The results showed that the diversity of microbial population abundance in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the blank group, and the diversity of microbial population abundance in the experimental group was significantly different from that in the blank group, indicating that the composition of microbial population in the experimental group was significantly different from that in the blank group. In the OTU cluster analysis, the number of OTU clusters in the Experimental group soil samples (S.Y.1-S.Y.8) was significantly higher than that in the Blank group soil samples (K.B.1-K.B.8). In the sample complexity analysis of α-diversity analysis, the richness and diversity of microbial population in soil samples of Experimental group (S.Y.1-S.Y.8) were significantly higher than that in soil samples of Blank group (K.B.1-K.B.8), which was clearly reflected in the Species accumulation boxplot and Graph of species diversity. In the β-diversity analysis, PcoA, PCA and NMDS analysis methods were used to analyze the difference of microbial population diversity between Experimental soil samples (S.Y.1-S.Y.8) and Blank soil samples (K.B.1-K.B.8). The results showed that the diversity of microbial population in Experimental soil sample (S.Y.1-S.Y.8) was significantly different from that in Blank soil sample (K.B.1-K.B.8). In this paper, 16sDNA high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the diversity of microbial population abundance between Blank soil samples and Experimental soil samples, and it was proved that JunCao"Oasis No. 1" had good saline-alkali soil improvement characteristics. It can effectively increase the abundance of microbial population in saline-alkali soil, so as to restore the microbial population ecosystem in saline-alkali soil, which has important application value in soil saline-alkali control.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Parul Chaudhary ◽  
Anuj Chaudhary ◽  
Heena Parveen ◽  
Alka Rani ◽  
Govind Kumar ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Since the World’s population is increasing, it’s critical to boost agricultural productivity to meet the rising demand for food and reduce poverty. Fertilizers are widely used in traditional agricultural methods to improve crop yield, but they have a number of negative environmental consequences such as nutrient losses, decrease fertility and polluted water and air. Researchers have been focusing on alternative crop fertilizers mechanisms to address these issues in recent years and nanobiofertilizers have frequently been suggested. “Nanophos” is a biofertilizer and contains phosphate-solubilising bacteria that solubilises insoluble phosphate and makes it available to the plants for improved growth and productivity as well as maintain soil health. This study evaluated the impact of nanophos on the growth and development of maize plants and its rhizospheric microbial community such as NPK solubilising microbes, soil enzyme activities and soil protein under field condition after 20, 40 and 60 days in randomized block design. Results Maize seeds treated with nanophos showed improvement in germination of seeds, plant height, number of leaves, photosynthetic pigments, total sugar and protein level over control. A higher activity of phenol, flavonoid, antioxidant activities and yield were noticed in nanophos treated plants over control. Positive shift in total bacterial count, nitrogen fixing bacteria, phosphate and potassium solubilizers were observed in the presence of nanophos as compared to control. Soil enzyme activities were significantly (P < 0.05) improved in treated soil and showed moderately correlation between treatments estimated using Spearman rank correlation test. Real time PCR and total soil protein content analysis showed enhanced microbial population in nanophos treated soil. Obtained results showed that nanophos improved the soil microbial population and thus improved the plant growth and productivity. Conclusion The study concluded a stimulating effect of nanophos on Zea mays health and productivity and indicates good response towards total bacterial, NPK solubilising bacteria, soil enzymes, soil protein which equally showed positive response towards soil nutrient status. It can be a potential way to boost soil nutrient use efficiency and can be a better alternative to fertilizers used in the agriculture.


2021 ◽  
Vol 888 (1) ◽  
pp. 012075
Author(s):  
W P Sahroni ◽  
I G Permana ◽  
Despal

Abstract Rumen degradable protein (RDP) needs to be balanced with the adequacy of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) and energy for optimal microbial growth. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the optimal level of the RDP:RUP ratio and the energy level of dairy cattle rations using the in vitro method. The rumen inoculum used to carry out this research, was obtained from two bull rumen fistulated of Friesian Holstein. The treatments consisted of 3 levels of RDP:RUP ratio, namely 50:50, 55:45 and 60:40, while the energy levels consisted of total digestible nutrient (TDN) levels of 65.6% and 68.6%. The experimental design was a factorial randomized block, while data were analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan multi range’s test. The result showed the ratio of RDP:RUP had an effect on DMD, OMD, NH3, and rumen microbe. Furthermore, the higher TDN content increased significantly DMD, OMD, total VFA, and partial VFA. The increase in the microbial population was associated with a rise in total VFA and NH3 concentrations. This research concluded, the rations with RDP:RUP (60:40) ratio increased the population of bacteria and protozoa, while the availability of ammonia in the rumen, and the high level of TDN provided a higher supply of VFA, DMD, and OMD.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (5) ◽  
pp. 01-05
Author(s):  
Alagbe, J.O ◽  
Oluwafemi R.A ◽  
Halima Abdullahi

The objective of the present study was to determine effect of dietary inclusion of (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) oil mixture (GIGM) on the growth performance and caecal microbial population of broiler chickens. One hundred and fifty one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated into 5 treatments with three replicates consisting of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. Birds in treatment 1 (T1) was fed basal diet with 0 % inclusion of GIGM while T2, T3, T4 and T5 were given 0.1 %, 0.2 %, 0.3 % and 0.4 % respectively. Clean feed and water were offered ad libitum and all other management practices were strictly observed throughout the experiment which lasted for 56 days. Results obtained were used to determine weight gain (WG), average daily weight gain (ADWG), total feed intake (TFI), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and microbial population of E.coli, Salmonella spp and Lactobacillus spp. ADWG, ADFI and FCR were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) influenced by the dietary inclusion of GIGM. ADWG were highest in T5 (47.80 g), T4 (45.75 g) and T3 (45.09 g), intermediate in T2 (39.59 g) and lowest in T1 (30.72 g). Lactobacillus spp increased as the level of dietary inclusion of GIGM increases (P ˂ 0.05). E.coli and Salmonella spp counts were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) different among the treatments. It was concluded that GIGM could be included in the diet of broilers up to 0.4 % without causing any deleterious effect on the performance and health of birds.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
ZhiQi Xiao ◽  
ZhanXi Lin

In order to explore the difference of soil microbial population structure and abundance before and after planting JunCao"Oasis No. 1" in saline-alkali soil, verify the improvement effect of JunCao"Oasis No. 1" on microbial population structure and abundance in saline-alkali soil. Samples were collected from the blank saline area with and without JunCao"Oasis NO.1" and no plant growth on the surface, respectively, as Experimental group soil samples (S.Y.1-S.Y.8) and Blank group soil samples (K.B.1-K.B.8).16sDNA high-throughput sequencing technology was used for sequencing analysis respectively, and the diversity of microbial population abundance between them was compared and analyzed. The results showed that the diversity of microbial population abundance in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the blank group, and the diversity of microbial population abundance in the experimental group was significantly different from that in the blank group, indicating that the composition of microbial population in the experimental group was significantly different from that in the blank group. In this paper, 16sDNA high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the diversity of microbial population abundance between Blank soil samples and Experimental soil samples, and it was proved that JunCao"Oasis No. 1" had good saline-alkali soil improvement characteristics. It can effectively increase the abundance of microbial population in saline-alkali soil, so as to restore the microbial population ecosystem in saline-alkali soil, which has important application value in soil saline-alkali control.


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