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Diemisson O. Nunes ◽  
João H. de S. Favaro ◽  
Hamilton C. de O. Charlo ◽  
Arcângelo Loss ◽  
Antônio C. Barreto ◽  

ABSTRACT Special corn is cultivated all year conventionally round; however, its productivity increases when grown under a no-tillage system (NTS). This study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of sweet and green corn cultivated under residues of different cover crops and the NTS implantation stages. Two experiments were carried out in the randomized block design, with four replications, in each of the three areas. The experiments consisted of evaluating the sweet and green corn, simultaneously, in three areas at different stages of development of NTS: initial (1 year), transition (7 years), and consolidation (19 years) with six types of cover crops: Signal grass (SG), Pearl millet (PM), Sunn hemp (SH), a mixture of SG + SH, SG + PM, and PM + SH. The dry matter (DM) production of the cover crops, the productivity of husked and unhusked ears, straw, and grain yield were evaluated. The SH had the highest dry mass production among the studied cover crops in all phases of the NTS. The phase of the NTS did not influence the productivity of ears with or without husk in green corn. The cultivation of sweet corn in transition and consolidation areas of the NTS showed better yields when compared to the initial phase of the system.

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
L. R. Silva ◽  
A. P. C. Moura ◽  
B. V. Gil ◽  
A. Rohr ◽  
S. M. Z. Almeida ◽  

Abstract Understanding morphological and physiological changes under different light conditions in native fruit species in juveniles’ stage is important, as it indicate the appropriate environment to achieve vigorous saplings. We aimed to verify growth and morphophysiological changes under shade gradient in feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret) to achieve good quality saplings adequate to improve cultivation in orchards. The saplings were grown for twenty-one-month under four shading treatments (0%, 30%, 50%, and 80%). Growth, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf anatomy parameters were evaluated. Saplings under full sun and 30% shade had higher height and diameter growth and dry mass accumulation due to higher photosynthesis rate. As main acclimatization mechanisms in feijoa saplings under 80% shade were developed larger leaf area, reduced leaf blade thickness, and enhanced quantum yield of photosystem II. Even so, the net CO2 assimilation and the electron transport rate was lower and, consequently, there was a restriction on the growth and dry mass in saplings under deep shade. Therefore, to obtain higher quality feijoa saplings, we recommend that it be carried out in full sun or up to 30% shade, to maximize the sapling vigor in nurseries and, later, this light environment can also be used in orchards for favor growth and fruit production.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Edson Aparecido dos Santos ◽  
Uelson Sabino da Silva-Filho ◽  
Gabriela Madureira Barroso ◽  
Jordana Stein Rabelo ◽  
Edmar Isaías de Melo ◽  

Abstract Trees occurring on the margins of agricultural areas can mitigate damage from residual herbicides. Rhizospheric microbial activity associated with trees is one of the main remedial capacity indicators. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rhizospheric microbiological activity in tree species subjected to the herbicides atrazine and sulfentrazone via the rhizosphere. The experiment was designed in four blocks and a 6 × 3 factorial scheme. The first factor consisted of six tree species from Brazil and the second of atrazine, sulfentrazone, and water solutions. Four herbicide applications were performed via irrigation. The total dry mass of the plants, mycorrhizal colonization, number of spores, basal respiration of the rhizospheric soil, and survival rate of bioindicator plants after phytoremediation were determined. Trichilia hirta had higher biomass when treated with atrazine and sulfentrazone. Herbicides decreased the microbial activity in Triplaris americana and did not affect the microbiological indicators of Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba, and Toona ciliata. Fewer bioindicator plants survived in soil with Triplaris americana and sulfentrazone. Microbiological indicators were influenced in different ways between species by the presence of herbicides in the rhizosphere.

Osvaldo Matsuo ◽  
Claudemir Zucareli ◽  
Eduardo H. Horácio ◽  
Luiz A. R. Alves ◽  
Otavio J. G. A. Saab

ABSTRACT Although the isolated effects of the cyanobacteria Anabaena cylindrica and the bacteria Azospirillum brasilense are well-known, the co-inoculation of both can promote other benefits to corn plants’ biological nitrogen fixation and growth. The aim was to evaluate the initial growth and chloroplast pigment levels of corn hybrids co-inoculated with A. brasilense and A. cylindrica. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse conditions using the completely randomized design in a factorial scheme 2 × 4 with two hybrids, Balu 184 and Balu 280 Pro, and four inoculation treatments: no inoculation, inoculation of A. cylindrica, inoculation of A. brasilense, and the co-inoculation of A. cylindrica + A. brasilense. Co-inoculation resulted in higher root growth and dry mass of the aerial part in both hybrids; however, the hybrid Balu 280 Pro presented higher responsivity. The co-inoculation of A. brasilense and A. cylindrica increased initial corn growth without altering the photosynthetic pigment levels.

Nubia M. F. Bertino ◽  
Leilson C. Grangeiro ◽  
João P. N. da Costa ◽  
Romualdo M. C. Costa ◽  
Rodolfo R. de A. Lacerda ◽  

ABSTRACT Micronutrients structurally constitute several enzymes and act as a cofactor of essential proteins to maintain cell function, thereby contributing to crop growth and yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the leaf content, growth, accumulation of micronutrients, classification and yield of onion as a function of fertilization with boron, cooper and zinc in two years of cultivation. The experiments were carried out from June to November in 2018 and 2019, in a soil classified as Ultisol, both at the Rafael Fernandes Experimental Farm, belonging to the Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido, in the municipality of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 15 treatments and four replicates. The treatments consisted of application of doses of B, Cu and Zn, in two experiments. Contents of B, Cu and Zn in the diagnostic leaf, growth, accumulation of B, Cu and Zn in the leaf, bulb and total, classification and commercial, non-commercial and total yields were evaluated. Application of B, Cu and Zn did not influence the number of leaves, relation of bulb shape, leaf, bulb, and total dry mass and yield of onion. Application of B, Cu and Zn, respectively at doses of 1-2-1 kg ha-1 favored a greater accumulation of B, Zn and Cu in the bulb. Higher number of leaves, leaf dry mass, bulb dry mass, total dry mass, class 1 bulbs and non-commercial yield were produced in Experiment 1.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 79
Ismael Gaião da Costa ◽  
José Wilson da SiIva ◽  
Gheysa Coelho Silva ◽  
Mario de Andrade Lira Junior ◽  
Cybelle Souza de Oliveira ◽  

The objective of this research was to evaluate the correlations between variables related to the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in segregating generations of cowpea and to unfold these correlations in direct and indirect effects, through path analysis. An outdoor bench experiment was conducted at Carpina Experimental Sugarcane Station of, located at the Zona da Mata region of the State of the Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil (Federal Rural University of Pernambuco), between March and April 2016. The seeds were planted in 20 cm × 30 cm polyethylene bags, using a substrate composed of a mixture of vermiculite and sand washed in a ratio of 1:1. Bradyrhizobium references, recommended for culture, were used as a mixture of two strains. Parental and F2, F3 and F4 generations were evaluated in a randomized block design with four replicates. Data collection was performed 45 days after the emergency (DAE). Phenotypic correlations and path analysis of the number of nodules per plant (NN), nodules dry mass (NDM), dry roots mass (DRM), dry mass of aerial part (DMAP), nodulation efficiency (NODE) and nitrogen accumulated in the aerial part (NAAP). The phenotypic correlations between the variables related to the BNF showed high magnitudes, demonstrating that there is a great influence of each of the variables on the others, furthermore the path analysis of the coefficients indicated that all the primary components (NN, NDM, DRM, DMAP and NODE) must be considered when it is desired to increase the NAAP in segregating generations of cowpea.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 506
Jie Lu ◽  
Zhiqiang Huang ◽  
Yusheng Liu ◽  
Huimin Wang ◽  
Min Qiu ◽  

Flavonoids have important biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant and whitening, which is a potential functional food raw material. However, the biological activity of Fengdan peony flavonoid is not particularly clear. Therefore, in this study, the peony flavonoid was extracted from Fengdan peony seed meal, and the antioxidant, antibacterial and whitening activities of the peony flavonoid were explored. The optimal extraction conditions were methanol concentration of 90%, solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:35 g:mL, temperature of 55 °C and time of 80 min; under these conditions, the yield of Fengdan peony flavonoid could reach 1.205 ± 0.019% (the ratio of the dry mass of rutin to the dry mass of peony seed meal). The clearance of Fengdan peony total flavonoids to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, hydroxyl radical and 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical could reach 75%, 70% and 97%, respectively. Fengdan peony flavonoid could inhibit the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Fengdan peony flavonoid on S. aureus, B. anthracis, B. subtilis and C. perfringens were 0.0293 mg/mL, 0.1172 mg/mL, 0.2344 mg/mL and 7.500 mg/mL, respectively. The inhibition rate of Fengdan peony flavonoid on tyrosinase was 8.53–81.08%. This study intensely illustrated that the antioxidant, whitening and antibacterial activity of Fengdan peony total flavonoids were significant. Fengdan peony total flavonoids have a great possibility of being used as functional food materials.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 51-56
Agáta Fargašová ◽  
Katarína Szárazová

The dry and fresh biomass and metal concentration (Cr, Ni) in roots and shoots of mustard (S. alba L.) seedlings was evaluated in laboratory experiments with three types of washing waste-waters from cutlery production line. All tested washing waters reduced root dry mass, where-as the dry mass of shoots was either not affected or it increased. The effect of tested washing waters was stronger on fresh mass production than on dry mass production. This indicates problems in water reception and translocation. While the accumulation of Cr was higher in the roots, Ni was distributed equally through the whole plant seedling. Cr uptake in the roots and shoots was in average about 1.7 and 7.3 times, respectively, lower than that of Ni. Ni percentage uptake from washing waters in the roots and shoots was nearly equal and range from 10.2 to 15.8%.

Ewelina Matras ◽  
Anna Gorczyca ◽  
Ewa Pociecha ◽  
Sebastian Wojciech Przemieniecki ◽  
Magdalena Oćwieja

AbstractThe aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of three types of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different physicochemical properties and silver ions delivered in the form of silver nitrate (AgNO3) at the concentration of 50 mg L−1 on germination and initial growth of monocots (common wheat, sorghum) and dicots (garden cress, white mustard). The AgNPs were prepared using trisodium citrate (TCSB-AgNPs), tannic acid (TA-AgNPs), and cysteamine hydrochloride (CHSB-AgNPs). They exhibited comparable shape, size distribution, and an average size equal to 15 ± 3 nm which was confirmed with the use of transmission electron microscopy. The electrokinetic characteristics revealed that CHSB-AgNPs have positive, whereas TCSB-AgNPs and TA-AgNPs negative surface charge. First, toxicity of the silver compounds was assessed using the Phytotestkit test. Next, after transferring seedlings to pots, shoot length, leaf surface, shoot dry mass, electrolyte leakage measurement, and photosystem II (PSII) efficiency were determined. AgNPs and silver ions delivered in the form of AgNO3 reduced root and shoots length of common wheat, sorghum, and garden cress; leaves surface of garden cress and white mustard; and shoots dry mass of white mustard. The positively charged CHSB-AgNPs and silver ions delivered in the form of AgNO3 showed the greatest inhibition effect. Moreover, silver ions and positively charged CHSB-AgNPs were more toxic to PSII of model plants than negatively charged TCSB-AgNPs and TA-AgNPs. AgNPs impact differed in the case of monocots and dicots, but the size of the changes was not significant, so it concerned individual parameters. The results revealed the interaction strength, which was generally similar in all tested plants, i.e., increasing negative effect in sequence TCSB-AgNPs < TA-AgNPs < silver ions delivered in the form of AgNO3 < CHSB-AgNPs.

Polar Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Fokje L. Schaafsma ◽  
Carmen L. David ◽  
Doreen Kohlbach ◽  
Julia Ehrlich ◽  
Giulia Castellani ◽  

AbstractAllometric relationships between body properties of animals are useful for a wide variety of purposes, such as estimation of biomass, growth, population structure, bioenergetic modelling and carbon flux studies. This study summarizes allometric relationships of zooplankton and nekton species that play major roles in polar marine food webs. Measurements were performed on 639 individuals of 15 species sampled during three expeditions in the Southern Ocean (winter and summer) and 2374 individuals of 14 species sampled during three expeditions in the Arctic Ocean (spring and summer). The information provided by this study fills current knowledge gaps on relationships between length and wet/dry mass of understudied animals, such as various gelatinous zooplankton, and of animals from understudied seasons and maturity stages, for example, for the krill Thysanoessa macrura and larval Euphausia superba caught in winter. Comparisons show that there is intra-specific variation in length–mass relationships of several species depending on season, e.g. for the amphipod Themisto libellula. To investigate the potential use of generalized regression models, comparisons between sexes, maturity stages or age classes were performed and are discussed, such as for the several krill species and T. libellula. Regression model comparisons on age classes of the fish E. antarctica were inconclusive about their general use. Other allometric measurements performed on carapaces, eyes, heads, telsons, tails and otoliths provided models that proved to be useful for estimating length or mass in, e.g. diet studies. In some cases, the suitability of these models may depend on species or developmental stages.

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