scholarly journals Evaluation of Liquid Based Cytology (LBC) and Conventional Pap’s Smear Test as Methods of Cervical Cancer Screening

Mehdi Ashik Chowdhury ◽  
Asim Ranjan Barua ◽  
- Asaduzzaman ◽  
Mohammad Mahabubul Hoque ◽  
DM Arifur Rahman

Background: Cervical cancer screening can actually prevent most cervical cancers and also facilitates early detection which allows fruitful treatment.Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of Liquid-based cytology (LBC) with conventional Pap smear test.Methods: This crosssectional study was conducted between March 2015 and June 2017. A total of 72 women participated in this study attending the Out-Patient Department (OPD) of Gynaecology (Colposcopy Clinic) of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh, for VIA test. The smears prepared by the conventional Pap smear method and Liquid-based cytology method were observed by two independent observers in Department of Pathology of the same institution.Results: The mean age of the patients was 40.22±12.29 years. Considering histopathology as gold standard, in conventional Pap smear preparation our data suggested its sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 92.2%, accuracy 91.7%, positive predictive value 58.3% and negative predictive value 98.3%. In contrast, in Liquid-based cytology, we found its sensitivity 75.0%, specificity 90.6%, accuracy 88.9%, positive predictive value 50.0% and negative predictive value 96.7%.Conclusion: LBC has practical advantages over conventional preparation by producing monolayer of cells, smaller area to screen, reproducibility and availability of doing adjunct molecular techniques from residual sample. However, conventional preparation shows better sensitivity and positive predictive value and almost similar specificity, negative predictive value and accuracy with LBC.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 06 No. 01 January’22 Page: 36-40

2019 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 22-25
Subi Basnyat ◽  
Gehanath Baral ◽  
Karishma Malla

Aims: To evaluate Liquid Based Cytology (LBC) diagnostic performance compared with Conventional Pap Smear (CPS) for cervical cancer screening and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the two cytology methods with gold standard cervical biopsy. Methods: This is a hospital based cross-sectional study conducted from April 2017 to April 2018 in 110 sample randomly selected at gynecology OPD in Paropakar Maternity and Women’s Hospital. Paired samples (CPS and LBC) were taken from the same patient. Abnormal epithelial lesion detected in LBC and CPS was sent for biopsy. Bethedsa reporting system was followed and data analyzed in terms of diagnostic accuracy. Results: LBC vs CPS for satisfactory report was 96.4% vs 91.8% while unsatisfactory was 3.6% vs 1.8% (p=0.02). The detection of premalignant lesions was ASCUS 2.7%, HSIL 4.5%, ASCUS-H 1.8% and LSIL 0.9% by LBC while by CPS- ASC-US 0.9%, HSIL 3.6%, LSIL 1.8% and ASC-H 0.9% were detected. The sensitivity and specificity of LBC vs CPS was 100% vs 88% and 81.8% vs 99% respectively. The positive predictive and negative predictive value of LBC vs CPS was 81.8% vs 88% and 100% vs 99% respectively. Conclusions: Cell pick-up was satisfactory in both LBC and CPS. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of CPS is similar whereas the positive predictive value of LBC is less than its sensitivity. Cervical cancer screening with CPS is effective alternative over LBC by its cost and level of accuracy.

2017 ◽  
pp. 7-14
Chidi Okorie Onwuka ◽  
Ima-Obong A. Ekanem

Objective: Cervical cancer is potentially preventable but still remains a leading cause of cancer mortality in in developing countries like Nigeria. Cytology-based screening programmes are difficult to maintain in these countries. Developing a cheap and reliable alternative is an important public health measure in these regions. This study was carried out to compare the utility of VIA and Pap smear as Cervical cancer screening methods in HIV-infected and non HIV-infected women. Methodology: Between March, 2013 and March, 2014, 461 consenting women, comprising 231 HIV positive women (HPW) and 230 HIV negative women (HNW) were recruited and screened for cervical cancer using conventional Pap smear and VIA simultaneously in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. The Pap smear findings were classified using the 2001 Bethesda system. Patients with a positive Pap smear or abnormal VIA findings were recalled for biopsy. The results of the two tests were compared using biopsy as the gold standard. Results: The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for VIA were 100%,80%,76.9%, and 100%, respectively compared to 80%, 100%, 100%, and 88.2% for conventional Pap smear. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid for cervical cancer screening is not specific but has a high negative predictive value. Conclusion: This study does not support a “see-and-treat” approach in cervical cancer management using VIA only. In resource-challenged areas, VIA can be applied on a large scale basis in primary screening for cervical cancer so as to triage, women who will benefit from further evaluation before applying the appropriate treatment.

2018 ◽  
Vol 56 (214) ◽  
pp. 917-923
Niresh Thapa ◽  
Muna Maharjan ◽  
Girishma Shrestha ◽  
Narayani Maharjan ◽  
Deborah Lindell ◽  

Introduction: In Nepal, cervical cancer is the most common female cancer. Unfortunately, there is no uniform effective screening system available all around the country. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cytology, Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and with Lugol’s Iodine alone or in combination to detect a pre-cancerous lesion in rural Nepal.Methods: It is an analytical cross-sectional study. Convenience sampling technique was used to select participants who were apparently healthy, married, non- pregnant women of aged 20-65 years for cervical cancer screening program. Screening tests were performed on all eligible women (n=2143) after socio-demographic and reproductive health data collection. A biopsy was applied as a gold standard test. Cross-tabulations were used to describe the test sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value at a 95% confidence interval. Diagnostic odds ratio was also calculated. Results: A majority, 2143 (94%), of women accepted and participated in this study. The sensitivity vs specificity of cytology, VIA, and VILI was 57.1% vs 98.3%, 71.4% vs 88.8% and 78.6% vs 85.1%, and of the co-testing of ‘Both positive VIA and VILI’ and ‘Either positive VIA or VILI’ was 64.3% vs 85.7% and 90.1% vs 83.7% respectively. Negative predictive value of all tests exceeded 99.7%. Cytology had the highest Diagnostic odds ratio (64.9), followed by the co-test ‘Either positive VIA or VILI’ (27.7).Conclusions: Cervical cancer screening by co-testing ‘Either positive VIA or VILI’ is more useful than cytology; VIA and or VILI are easy, safe, feasible and well-accepted tests in a low resource setting, Nepal.

2017 ◽  
Vol 35 (15_suppl) ◽  
pp. e17025-e17025
Tetsuji Kurokawa ◽  
Akiko Shinagawa ◽  
Yoko Chino ◽  
Motohiro Kobayashi ◽  
Yoshio Yoshida

e17025 Background:The estimated age-standardized incidence rate for cervical cancer is higher in Japan than in North America and the UK. It is important to improve cancer screening. The introduction of HPV testing with cytology for triage of those that test positive for cervical cancer screening has been challenging. The Fukui Cervical Cancer Screening (FCCS) study was designed to determine the best cervical cancer screening method in the Japanese population. We performed a subanalysis using baseline data of FCCS study to determine the performance of cytology, the human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and cotesting with cytology and HPV testing, and to evaluate whether the stratification of HPV16, HPV18, and 12 other hrHPV types appropriately balances risks and harms in the Japanese cancer screening population. Methods:The study enrolled 7,584 women aged 25 years or older undergoing routine screening. All women underwent liquid-based cytology (LBC) and cobas HPV testing. Women with abnormal cytology regardless of the HPV status, women with positive hrHPV results regardless of cytology results, and women randomly selected from among those with normal cytology and negative hrHPV results were referred for colposcopy. Results:The prevalence of hrHPV, HPV16, and HPV18 was 6.8%, 1.2%, and 0.5%, respectively. The estimated sensitivities for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or worse for cytology, HPV testing, and cotesting with cytology and HPV testing were 71%, 92%, and 100%, respectively. The estimated positive predictive values for cytology, HPV testing, and cotesting with cytology and HPV testing were 33%, 21% and 21%, respectively. Using a strategy whereby those with abnormal cytology or positive HPV16 genotype undergo colposcopy and biopsy results in a sensitivity of 85% and a positive predictive value of 33%. This strategy results in improved sensitivity while at the same time maintains the positive predictive value compared to screening with cytology alone. Conclusions:Baseline data from the FCCS study suggests that strategy of using colposcopy for women with abnormal cytology and/or HPV16 positivity appropriately balances risks and harms for Japanese women. Clinical trial information: UMIN000025977.

1970 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 7-12 ◽  
Divya Hegde ◽  
Harish Shetty ◽  
Prasanna K Shetty ◽  
Supriya Rai ◽  
Lakshmi Manjeera ◽  

Aim: A study to assess the role of visual inspection with acetic acid VIA as an alternative to Pap smear in screening program for cervical cancer in low resource settings. Method: Two hundred and twenty five women in reproductive age group attending the Gynecology department at K.S Hegde Charitable Hospital were enrolled in the study. A Papanicolaou smear and visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid was done. All women then underwent colposcopy using the video colposcope. All patients who tested positive on screening then underwent colposcopy guided biopsy. Pap smear of Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and above was taken as abnormal. The statistical test used was chi square test and results were computed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12.0. Results: Out of 225 patients, VIA was positive in 27(12%) patients and Pap smear was abnormal in 26(11.7%). There were 15 LSIL, 6 high Grade Squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 5 were squamous cell carcinoma. On biopsy, there were 15 mild dysplasia, 2 moderate dysplasia, 4 severe dysplasia and 3 squamous cancers. Pap smear had a sensitivity of 83%, specificity of 98%, and positive predictive value of 80 % and negative predictive value of 97.9%. VIA had a sensitivity of 70.8%, specificity of 95%, and positive predictive value of 62.9 % and negative predictive value of 96.5%. Conclusion: Since diagnostic values of VIA is comparable to Pap smear, and it performs well in detecting high grade lesion we conclude that VIA can be used as a screening modality for cervical cancer in low resource settings. Keywords: Cervical cancer in low resource settings, Pap smear- colposcopy, visual inspection with acetic acid   DOI: NJOG 2011; 6(1): 7-12

2020 ◽  
Vol 18 (3) ◽  
pp. 426-430
Bigya Shrestha ◽  
Karishma Malla Vaidya ◽  
Rijuta Joshi

Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in developing countries. Cervical cancer generally develops slowly over a period of 10-15 years. Incidence and mortality related to cervical cancer both have declining in developed countries because of effective screening programs through Papanicolaou smear. Therefore, cervical cancer can be prevented through implementation of different methods of screening programs like visual inspection of cervix with application of acetic acid visual inspection with acetic acid, liquid based cytology and human papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid. The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of  visual inspection with Acetic Acid with liquid based cytology in cervical cancer screening taking cervical biopsy as a gold standard. Methods: The study was conducted at Paropakar Maternity and Women’s Hospital, Kathmandu. One hundred forty four patients underwent visual inspection with acetic acid and liquid based cytology test followed by biopsy for confirmation of the lesion, when required. Data were obtained and statistically analyzed. Results: Out of 144 screened patients, 62 (43.05%) were positive in visual inspection with acetic acid test. Eighteen (12.5%) cases were positive in liquid based cytology. Thirteen women were positive with both tests. Thirty-nine cases underwent histopathological examination including 13 cases who were positive in both tests. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for visual inspection with acetic acid was 81.25%, 65.22%, 61.90% and 83.33%, whereas for liquid based cytology it was 100%, 91.30%, 88.89% and 94.87% respectively. Conclusions: Liquid based cytology was more efficacious to diagnose atypical cells with higher sensitivity and specificity in comparison to that of  visual Inspection with Acetic Acid test. Keywords: Cervical cancer; liquid based cytology; visual inspection with acetic acid

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