International Journal of Human and Health Sciences (IJHHS)
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Published By International Journal Of Human And Health Sciences Ijhhs

2523-692x
Updated Wednesday, 21 July 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 412
Author(s):  
Vaulin Vladimir Ivanovich ◽  
Singeev Sergey Aleksandrovich

Background: The article presents the results of a study of ensuring fire safety in medical and preventive institutions (LPI) on the example of the central city hospital.Objectives: Research is aimed at improving the fire safety of hospital complexes and hospitals in modern conditions.Materials and Methods: The study used the methods of system analysis of scientific research and statistical data on ensuring fire safety, methods of structural analysis of the practice of ensuring fire safety of hospital complexes, mathematical methods for calculating the evacuation of people from a building and the spread of a fire in a building, methods for calculating the economic efficiency of means of support fire safety.Results and Discussion: Based on the analysis of fire statistics in healthcare facilities in Russia, it is concluded that it is advisable to improve the fire safety of hospitals and hospital complexes in modern conditions. The point of view is expressed that along with the fact that fire safety in hospitals is observed, the analysis indicates the existing problems in the practice of implementation.Conclusion: In order to increase the level of fire safety, it is possible to introduce: a modern fire alarm system; video of control systems and monitoring of safety of objects on the territory of the medical facility; installation of automatic fire extinguishing systems in fire-hazardous premises; installation of additional emergency lighting and reflectors indicating the direction of evacuation in case of fire and smoke; carrying out organizational and practical measures to ensure the safety of patients in a medical institution in an emergency situation (ES), namely, it is proposed to develop a memo of actions for patients in the hospital complex on inpatient treatment in case of an emergency with a list in the instruction log; provision of medical facilities with individual rescue equipment and provision of hospitals and hospital complexes with highrise buildings with modern evacuation means.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 412-417


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 381
Author(s):  
Shaorin Tanira

Background: From health monitoring to health education and from behaviour change to falls sensing and health alerts to the simple pleasure of communication and connectedness, the mobile technologies (smartphone applications) are changing the lives of older adults.Objective: To examine current evidence of use of smartphones by older adults for health purposes (including communication, education, and health monitoring), and understand gaps and challenges in order to inform the design of future systems given the ubiquity of mobile phone technology.Methods: MEDLINE, CINAHL and Google scholar databases were searched from October 2016 to January 2017. Keywords used include ‘smartphone apps’, ‘mobile phone’, ‘chronic disease’, ‘chronic condition’, ‘older adults’ and ‘elderly’. A total of 12 articles were selected for quality assessment and grading of evidence.Results: Twelve different articles were found and categorized into nine different clinical domains with specific health related interventions. Articles were focused on diabetes care (2 articles), followed by COPD (2 articles), heart disease (1 article), Alzheimer’s/dementia Care (2 articles), osteoarthritis and pain management (1 article), fall prevention (1 article), colon cancer (1 article), palliative care (1 article), chronic kidney disease (1 article). Areas of interest studied included feasibility, acceptability, functionality and thereby determining their effectiveness. There were many different clinical domains; however, most of the studies were pilot studies. Current work in using mobile phones for older adult use are spread across a variety of clinical domains. Findings from different studies indicate that the use of mobile phone interventions has the potential to support successful management of chronic conditions and health behaviour change in older adults.Conclusion: Perceived benefits and willingness to use the smartphone apps are high; however, technical training and cost are main concerns. A common problem with elderly users was their reluctance to press buttons due to the fear of breaking something which has been resolved by touch screen technology of the smartphones. However, the advanced user clicked around the screen until he found what he was looking for, while the others spent a lot of time observing the screen and trying to determine the correct step. Promotion of user-friendly apps are expected especially for older adults having a diminished physical and cognitive abilities.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 381-387


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 377
Author(s):  
Abdus Salam

Abstract not availableInternational Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 377-380


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 424
Author(s):  
ND Withanage ◽  
S Perera ◽  
H Peiris ◽  
S Prathapan ◽  
LV Athiththan

Objective: Present study was aimed to develop a regression model for selected sociodemographic, behavioural and occupational factors with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) and lumbar disc hearniation and degeneration (LDHD) in a selected population in comparison to healthy individuals.Materials & Methods: The study was conducted using 104 cases with disc herniation and controls (n=104) without LDH. Analysis was conducted in sub groups of patients with LDH (n=67) and LDHD (n=37) in comparison to control subjects. Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to all participants to gather information.Results & Discussion: Among the cases 35.6 % presented with LDHD while 64.4 % had only LDH. Among the socio-demographic characters, body mass index <25 kgm-2 was a significant protective factor for both LDHD (OR=0.31; 95% CI=0.13-0.72) and LDH (OR=0.39; 95% CI=0.20-0.77). Involvement in daily activities with heavy (OR=5.1; 95 % CI=2.1-11.8) and moderate strain (OR=3.1; 95 % CI=1.5-6.6) to back, sitting more than eight hours per day (OR=5.1; 95 % CI=1.0-25.7), smoking (OR=5.0; 95 % CI=1.5-16.4) and sleeping in supine position (OR=2.09; 95% CI=1.09-4.06) were significant risk factors for LDH. Only daily physical activities with heavy strain act as a significant risk factor (OR=3.1; 95 % CI=1.1-8.5) for the development of LDHD. Types of mattresses used did not have a significant difference among cases and controls. Majority of cases (56.7 %) did not know the causative factor that led to LDH. According to the regression model, BMI, smoking and involvement in physical activities with moderate and heavy strain to back were considered as significant risk factors for the development of LDH or LDHD.Conclusion: In regression model BMI, smoking and daily physical activities with moderate and heavy strain to back were found to be the significant risk factors for development of LDH or LDHD.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 424-434


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 388
Author(s):  
Mohd Akhtar Ali ◽  
Hamiduddin

Qarābādhīn can be termed as pharmacopoeia, contains compiled form of compound formulations or recipes. Importance of Qarābādhīn gradually increased and acquired an imperative status. The history of Qarābādhīn starts from Chiron, Aesculapius, Hippocrates, Dioscorides and Galen in Greco-Roman era. Many of early and medieval Islamic and Arab physicians play vital role and immense original contribution in this discipline and authored important and essential Qarābādhīn with systemic and scientific approaches. Although some of them could not reach the present day, many of the manuscripts can be found in various libraries across the world. Since the Arab Caliphates appreciated and patronized the fields of medicine acquired from Greeks and worked for its development, this period also known as “Greco-Arabic era”. In this work the evaluation of Qarābādhīn (particularly written in Arabic or Greek language) was done in historical and regulatory perspective particularly in Greek era and later on in Medieval Islamic era. The findings of the review indicate the importance and regulatory status of Qarābādhīn and provide information about it. It can be helpful to explore Qarābādhīn and related publications of Greek and Medieval Islamic Arabic period, which gives foundations for the present-day pharmacopeias. Since these documents also take into account ethical considerations, its utility in the fields of medicine and medical ethics should be investigated.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 388-404


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 418
Author(s):  
Shahzaib Maqbool ◽  
Maryam Haider ◽  
Ather Iqbal ◽  
Arham Ihtesham ◽  
Waleed Inayat Mohamed ◽  
...  

Objective: Despite remarkable progress in scientific methods and measures against infectious disease transmission, the prevalence of infectious diseases is still on the rise in resource-poor countries. Hand hygiene is considered an effective way of fighting against deadly infectious diseases. Our study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and hand hygiene practices among mothers of children presenting for routine paediatric check-up in the department of paediatrics in a tertiary care hospital of Rawalpindi.Materials and Methods: It’s a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 400 mothers from the paediatric department of the Holy family hospital (HFH), Rawalpindi. A convenient sampling technique was used to select the study participants. A semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire that included demographic details, knowledge, attitude, and practice levels were assessed through validated questionnaires used in previously published studies. Descriptive statistics were used for demographic details and chi-square analysis was used to find an association between handwashing practice with knowledge and attitude. A P<0.05 was taken as significant. Data analysis was done through SPSS.v.23.Results and Discussion: In total, 400 females participated in the study and the mean age (±SD) was 32.4±10.2 years. The mean age of children was 31.2±12.2 months. The level of good handwashing knowledge and attitude was 93% and 60% respectively. However, the level of good handwashing practice was just 40%. The age of mothers, residential area, occupation, socioeconomic status, and the level of knowledge regarding handwashing, showed significant association with handwashing practices.Conclusion: In our study handwashing practice among mothers was relatively low. Age of mothers, residential area, occupation, socioeconomic status, and the level of knowledge regarding handwashing, were significantly associated with handwashing practices.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 418-423


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 405
Author(s):  
Maide Barış

Germline genetic intervention (GGI) has been one of the most discussed topics within the bioethics literature since 2012, when the programming of CRISPR/Cas9 for a specifically targeted gene region has become possible. While some authors are optimistic about what GGI may offer, others strongly disagree and refute the use of this technology for different reasons. This paper will aim to examine one of the most widespread arguments against GGI, namely “heritability” argument, comprehensively. Firstly, it will aim to examine the moral importance of the germline. Secondly, it will try to understand three possible assumptions of the heritability argument. Then it will try to respond to these assumptions and argue that they are neither scientifically supportable nor rationally solid for rejecting GGI altogether.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 405-411


Author(s):  
Abdul Rashid Abdul Rahman

The year 2020 has been dominated by a communicable disease which most did not see coming and are ill- prepared to handle. While daily headlines the world over are dominated by new cases and death from COVID-19, other major health issues must not take a back seat. As of 30thNovember this year, 357 people have died of COVID-19 in Malaysia,while close to 15,000 Malaysians died of Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) alone. With IHD and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) being the number 1 and number 3 causes of death (15% and 8% of all death, respectively) our focus on COVID-19 must not distract us from the ‘elephant in the room’. Evidence from UK showed that while hospitalization due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has significantly decreased by 50%, out of hospital cardiac arrest has significantly increased by 56%; and in hospital mortality from AMI has increased by at least 35% during the pandemic. Patients are shying away from coming for scheduled follow ups, and there has been a reduction in guideline recommended care for NCD. This is confounded by early scare which suggested that treatment of risk factors for NCDs, especially for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, may increase susceptibility to and worsen prognosis for patients with COVID-19. Since COVID-19 is a new entity, latest evidence generated are mainly from observational studies with few clinical trials with the exception of vaccine trials. What do we know about management of NCD in the COVID-era?Since the discovery that SARS-COV-2 virus attached itself to the ACE2 receptors before entering cells, alarm bells were sounded that patients treated with RAAS inhibitors may be susceptible to and have worse prognosis. Withup to 60% of hypertensiveworldwide taking this class of drugs, the concern is understandable. Reassuringly, 6 observational studies from 4 countries and 1 RCT from a 5th country showed this not to be true. Studies from China and Italy showed that those on RAAS inhibitors have better prognosis and this has triggered an RCT which hypothesized that pre-treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers may be beneficial in preventing pulmonary damage in these patients. Another RCT is looking at recombinant human ACE2 as treatment for patients with COVID-19. In diabetic patients, an observational study from New York showed those on statin has reduced mortality compared to non-user and in a large UK based primary care setting there was no increased risk of COVID-19 among patients prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors. The SGLT2 inhibitors have been proven to improve clinical outcome including mortality in diabetics and could be safely used to treat patients during the pandemic. Based on a nationwide retrospective cohort in the UK, overall mortality was higher for diabetics admitted to ICU or HDU and with greatest mortality impact in younger patients.The next few months will see more prospective intervention studies publishedaddressing the various unanswered questions. It is worth remembering that substandard care is responsible for upto 84% of CV death. Hence, we shouldnot let our guards down with NCDs even when the world’s attention is focused on COVID-19.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue: 2021 Page: S10


Author(s):  
Zaitul Akmal AZ ◽  
Salmah N ◽  
ND Ismail ◽  
Muhammad Akmal MN ◽  
Khairatul Nainey K

Introduction: In Malaysia, the rate of adolescents involved in sexual activities has increased and starts at an earlier age. Data from NHMS 2017 showed that 7.3% among surveyed 13 to 17 years-old adolescents have already had sex. The rate of teenage pregnancies is also increasing at 3.7-3.9% between the years 2009 until 2011. Therefore, an effective SRH Programme should be conducted in schools to equip them with adequate knowledge regarding this subject.Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 145 randomly selected secondary school students aged 13 to 15 years old, attending the SRH Programme in a secondary school in Cheras, Selangor, Malaysia. The objective of this programme is to deliver knowledge and promote awareness among adolescents regarding SRH. The programme consists of intervention using adolescent-friendly module and games. A pre- and post-test were given to the participants to evaluate the effectiveness of the programme using the validated SRH questionnaire (Malay version). The questionnaire consists of fourteen and six items for knowledge and attitude, respectively.Results: The result showed an increase in the mean knowledge score (±SD) after the SRH Programme at the school from 7.25 ± 2.44 for pre-test to 9.70 ± 3.17 for post-test. The mean difference in pre- and post-test was 2.45 (95% CI: 2.02, 2.87) and was statistically significant (p<0.001). In terms of attitudes, the majority of the students felt that they have enough knowledge to make a gooddecision regarding sexual reproductive health issues after the SRH programme. However, there was only a small increment with regards to their attitudes on assertiveness.Conclusion: This study demonstrated an increase in the level of knowledge among adolescents in Cheras after the SRH programme using the adolescent-friendly module and games. However, there is no significant change in attitude among adolescents regarding SRH.Future SRH programmes need to be done regularly to instil positive attitudes among adolescents in dealing withsexual reproductive dilemmas.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue: 2021 Page: S20


Author(s):  
Huzairi Sani ◽  
Nada Syazana Zulkufli ◽  
Iman Wahidah ◽  
Nurul Afiqah ◽  
Nur Sabrina ◽  
...  

Introduction: Deafness is the inability to hear or impaired hearing. In 2018, more than 40,000 Malaysians were registered with hearing loss. Sign languages use visualization and facial expression to convey conversational meaning. However not many healthcare workers are able to converse in sign language thus hampering effective communication with deaf patientsObjective: To evaluate the effectiveness of sign language in increasing awareness amongst medical students on healthcare access difficulties faced by the deaf.Methods: Four medical students underwent sign language classes at the Malaysian Federation of Deaf before being formally assessed and certified by an instructor. A video on common questions used in the clinical setting using sign language was then developed and shown to a cohort of 224 medical students in UiTM. Awareness on the importance of sign language amongst the cohort was surveyed before and after watching the video. The four medical students were also assessed on their awareness and communication proficiency before and after attending classes. Post- and pre-test responses were analysed using Wilcoxon signed rank test and paired sample T-test.Results: The number of students who were aware of the importance of sign language in the clinical setting increased from 39.7% (N=89) to 98.2% (N=220) after watching the video. The four medical students’ post-test scores also increased significantly after attending sign language classes (Mean +2.43, p<0.01). Significant improvement in basic knowledge of sign language and ability to demonstrate signs such as self-introduction and gathering medical history were observed (p=0.046). In totality, awareness of the challenges faced by deaf-mute patients when communicating with healthcare workers increased significantly (p=0.046).Conclusion: Sign language is essential in improving communication between deaf patients and healthcare workers. It is therefore imperative that healthcare personnel gain basic skills in sign language to improve communication and provide better medical services to the deaf community.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue: 2021 Page: S11


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