2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 60-90
Mehshan Ahad ◽  
Muhammad Fayyaz

Human gender recognition is one the most challenging task in computer vision, especially in pedestrians, due to so much variation in human poses, video acquisition, illumination, occlusion, and human clothes, etc. In this article, we have considered gender recognition which is very important to be considered in video surveillance. To make the system automated to recognize the gender, we have provided a novel technique based on the extraction of features through different methodologies. Our technique consists of 4 steps a) preprocessing, b) feature extraction, c) feature fusion, d) classification. The exciting area is separated in the first step, which is the full body from the images. After that, images are divided into two halves on the ratio of 2:3 to acquire sets of upper body and lower body. In the second step, three handcrafted feature extractors, HOG, Gabor, and granulometry, extract the feature vectors using different score values. These feature vectors are fused to create one strong feature vector on which results are evaluated. Experiments are performed on full-body datasets to make the best configuration of features. The features are extracted through different feature extractors in different numbers to generate their feature vectors. Those features are fused to create a strong feature vector. This feature vector is then utilized for classification. For classification, SVM and KNN classifiers are used. Results are evaluated on five performance measures: Accuracy, Precision, Sensitivity, Specificity, and Area under the curve. The best results that have been acquired are on the upper body, which is 88.7% accuracy and 0.96 AUC. The results are compared with the existing methodologies, and hence it is concluded that the proposed method has significantly achieved higher results.

2020 ◽  
Vol 163 (6) ◽  
pp. 1156-1165
Juan Xiao ◽  
Qiang Xiao ◽  
Wei Cong ◽  
Ting Li ◽  
Shouluan Ding ◽  

Objective To develop an easy-to-use nomogram for discrimination of malignant thyroid nodules and to compare diagnostic efficiency with the Kwak and American College of Radiology (ACR) Thyroid Imaging, Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS). Study Design Retrospective diagnostic study. Setting The Second Hospital of Shandong University. Subjects and Methods From March 2017 to April 2019, 792 patients with 1940 thyroid nodules were included into the training set; from May 2019 to December 2019, 174 patients with 389 nodules were included into the validation set. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to develop a nomogram for discriminating malignant nodules. To compare the diagnostic performance of the nomogram with the Kwak and ACR TI-RADS, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Results The nomogram consisted of 7 factors: composition, orientation, echogenicity, border, margin, extrathyroidal extension, and calcification. In the training set, for all nodules, the area under the curve (AUC) for the nomogram was 0.844, which was higher than the Kwak TI-RADS (0.826, P = .008) and the ACR TI-RADS (0.810, P < .001). For the 822 nodules >1 cm, the AUC of the nomogram was 0.891, which was higher than the Kwak TI-RADS (0.852, P < .001) and the ACR TI-RADS (0.853, P < .001). In the validation set, the AUC of the nomogram was also higher than the Kwak and ACR TI-RADS ( P < .05), each in the whole series and separately for nodules >1 or ≤1 cm. Conclusions When compared with the Kwak and ACR TI-RADS, the nomogram had a better performance in discriminating malignant thyroid nodules.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-25
Kwabena Adu ◽  
Yongbin Yu ◽  
Jingye Cai ◽  
Victor Dela Tattrah ◽  
James Adu Ansere ◽  

The squash function in capsule networks (CapsNets) dynamic routing is less capable of performing discrimination of non-informative capsules which leads to abnormal activation value distribution of capsules. In this paper, we propose vertical squash (VSquash) to improve the original squash by preventing the activation values of capsules in the primary capsule layer to shrink non-informative capsules, promote discriminative capsules and avoid high information sensitivity. Furthermore, a new neural network, (i) skip-connected convolutional capsule (S-CCCapsule), (ii) Integrated skip-connected convolutional capsules (ISCC) and (iii) Ensemble skip-connected convolutional capsules (ESCC) based on CapsNets are presented where the VSquash is applied in the dynamic routing. In order to achieve uniform distribution of coupling coefficient of probabilities between capsules, we use the Sigmoid function rather than Softmax function. Experiments on Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center (GWCMC), Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) and Mendeley CXR Pneumonia datasets were performed to validate the effectiveness of our proposed methods. We found that our proposed methods produce better accuracy compared to other methods based on model evaluation metrics such as confusion matrix, sensitivity, specificity and Area under the curve (AUC). Our method for pneumonia detection performs better than practicing radiologists. It minimizes human error and reduces diagnosis time.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 ◽  
pp. 153303382110119
Wen-Ting Zhang ◽  
Guo-Xun Zhang ◽  
Shuai-Shuai Gao

Background: Leukemia is a common malignant disease in the human blood system. Many researchers have proposed circulating microRNAs as biomarkers for the diagnosis of leukemia. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of circulating miRNAs in the diagnosis of leukemia. Methods: A comprehensive literature search (updated to October 13, 2020) in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Wanfang database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) was performed to identify eligible studies. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and area under the curve (AUC) for diagnosing leukemia were pooled for both overall and subgroup analysis. The meta-regression and subgroup analysis were performed to explore heterogeneity and Deeks’ funnel plot was used to assess publication bias. Results: 49 studies from 22 publications with a total of 3,489 leukemia patients and 2,756 healthy controls were included in this meta-analysis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio and area under the curve were 0.83, 0.92, 10.8, 0.18, 59 and 0.94, respectively. Subgroup analysis shows that the microRNA clusters of plasma type could carry out a better diagnostic accuracy of leukemia patients. In addition, publication bias was not found. Conclusions: Circulating microRNAs can be used as a promising noninvasive biomarker in the early diagnosis of leukemia.

Yoonyoung Lee ◽  
Kisook Kim

Patients who undergo abdominal surgery under general anesthesia develop hypothermia in 80–90% of the cases within an hour after induction of anesthesia. Side effects include shivering, bleeding, and infection at the surgical site. However, the surgical team applies forced air warming to prevent peri-operative hypothermia, but these methods are insufficient. This study aimed to confirm the optimal application method of forced air warming (FAW) intervention for the prevention of peri-operative hypothermia during abdominal surgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to provide a synthesized and critical appraisal of the studies included. We used PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library CENTRAL to systematically search for randomized controlled trials published through March 2020. Twelve studies were systematically reviewed for FAW intervention. FAW intervention effectively prevented peri-operative hypothermia among patients undergoing both open abdominal and laparoscopic surgery. Statistically significant effect size could not be confirmed in cases of only pre- or peri-operative application. The upper body was the primary application area, rather than the lower or full body. These findings could contribute detailed standards and criteria that can be effectively applied in the clinical field performing abdominal surgery.

2021 ◽  
pp. 159101992110191
Muhammad Waqas ◽  
Weizhe Li ◽  
Tatsat R Patel ◽  
Felix Chin ◽  
Vincent M Tutino ◽  

Background The value of clot imaging in patients with emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) treated with thrombectomy is unknown. Methods We performed retrospective analysis of clot imaging (clot density, perviousness, length, diameter, distance to the internal carotid artery (ICA) terminus and angle of interaction (AOI) between clot and the aspiration catheter) of consecutive cases of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and its association with first pass effect (FPE, TICI 2c-3 after a first attempt). Results Patients ( n = 90 total) with FPE had shorter clot length (9.9 ± 4.5 mm vs. 11.7 ± 4.6 mm, P = 0.07), shorter distance from ICA terminus (11.0 ± 7.1 mm vs. 14.7 ± 9.8 mm, P = 0.048), higher perviousness (39.39 ± 29.5 vs 25.43 ± 17.6, P = 0.006) and larger AOI (153.6 ± 17.6 vs 140.3 ± 23.5, P = 0.004) compared to no-FPE patients. In multivariate analysis, distance from ICA terminus to clot ≤13.5 mm (odds ratio (OR) 11.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.65–46.15, P = 0.001), clot length ≤9.9 mm (OR 7.34; 95% CI 1.8–29.96, P = 0.005), perviousness ≥ 19.9 (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.84–7.6, P = 0.09) and AOI ≥ 137°^ (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.55–29.8, P = 0.011) were independent predictors of FPE. The optimal cut off derived using Youden’s index was 6.5. The area under the curve of a score predictive of FPE success was 0.816 (0.728–0.904, P < 0.001). In a validation cohort ( n = 30), sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of a score of 6–10 were 72.7%, 73.6%, 61.5% and 82.3%. Conclusions Clot imaging predicts the likelihood of achieving FPE in patients with MCA ELVO treated with the aspiration-first approach.

2020 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Lei Xi ◽  
Chunqing Yang

AbstractObjectivesThe main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of alpha-l-fucosidase (AFU) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).MethodsStudies that explored the diagnostic value of AFU in HCC were searched in EMBASE, SCI, and PUBMED. The sensitivity, specificity, and DOR about the accuracy of serum AFU in the diagnosis of HCC were pooled. The methodological quality of each article was evaluated with QUADAS-2 (quality assessment for studies of diagnostic accuracy 2). Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) analysis was performed. Statistical analysis was conducted by using Review Manager 5 and Open Meta-analyst.ResultsEighteen studies were selected in this study. The pooled estimates for AFU vs. α-fetoprotein (AFP) in the diagnosis of HCC in 18 studies were as follows: sensitivity of 0.7352 (0.6827, 0.7818) vs. 0.7501 (0.6725, 0.8144), and specificity of 0.7681 (0.6946, 0.8283) vs. 0.8208 (0.7586, 0.8697), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 7.974(5.302, 11.993) vs. 13.401 (8.359, 21.483), area under the curve (AUC) of 0.7968 vs. 0.8451, respectively.ConclusionsAFU is comparable to AFP for the diagnosis of HCC.

2020 ◽  
pp. archdischild-2020-320549
Fang Hu ◽  
Shuai-Jun Guo ◽  
Jian-Jun Lu ◽  
Ning-Xuan Hua ◽  
Yan-Yan Song ◽  

BackgroundDiagnosis of congenital syphilis (CS) is not straightforward and can be challenging. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of an algorithm using timing of maternal antisyphilis treatment and titres of non-treponemal antibody as predictors of CS.MethodsConfirmed CS cases and those where CS was excluded were obtained from the Guangzhou Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of syphilis programme between 2011 and 2019. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) in two situations: (1) receiving antisyphilis treatment or no-treatment during pregnancy and (2) initiating treatment before 28 gestational weeks (GWs), initiating after 28 GWs or receiving no treatment for syphilis seropositive women.ResultsAmong 1558 syphilis-exposed children, 39 had confirmed CS. Area under the curve, sensitivity and specificity of maternal non-treponemal titres before treatment and treatment during pregnancy were 0.80, 76.9%, 78.7% and 0.79, 69.2%, 88.7%, respectively, for children with CS. For the algorithm, ROC results showed that PPV and NPV for predicting CS were 37.3% and 96.4% (non-treponemal titres cut-off value 1:8 and no antisyphilis treatment), 9.4% and 100% (non-treponemal titres cut-off value 1:16 and treatment after 28 GWs), 4.2% and 99.5% (non-treponemal titres cut-off value 1:32 and treatment before 28 GWs), respectively.ConclusionsAn algorithm using maternal non-treponemal titres and timing of treatment during pregnancy could be an effective strategy to diagnose or rule out CS, especially when the rate of loss to follow-up is high or there are no straightforward diagnostic tools.

2020 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Bo Yao ◽  
Wen-juan Liu ◽  
Di Liu ◽  
Jin-yan Xing ◽  
Li-juan Zhang

Abstract Background Early diagnosis of sepsis is very important. It is necessary to find effective and adequate biomarkers in order to diagnose sepsis. In this study, we compared the value of sialic acid and procalcitonin for diagnosing sepsis. Methods Newly admitted intensive care unit patients were enrolled from January 2019 to June 2019. We retrospectively collected patient data, including presence of sepsis or not, procalcitonin level and sialic acid level. Receiver operating characteristic curves for the ability of sialic acid, procalcitonin and combination of sialic acid and procalcitonin to diagnose sepsis were carried out. Results A total of 644 patients were admitted to our department from January 2019 to June 2019. The incomplete data were found in 147 patients. Finally, 497 patients data were analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve for the diagnosis of sepsis with sialic acid, procalcitonin and combination of sialic acid and procalcitonin were 64.2, 78.3%, 0.763; 67.9, 84.0%, 0.816 and 75.2, 84.6%, 0.854. Moreover, sialic acid had good values for diagnosing septic patients with viral infection, with 87.5% sensitivity, 82.2% specificity, and 0.882 the area under the curve. Conclusions Compared to procalcitonin, sialic acid had a lower diagnostic efficacy for diagnosing sepsis in critically ill patients. However, the combination of sialic acid and procalcitonin had a higher diagnostic efficacy for sepsis. Moreover, sialic acid had good value for diagnosing virus-induced sepsis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
pp. 175628482199474
Xiaoqi Ye ◽  
Ying Wang ◽  
Harry H. X. Wang ◽  
Rui Feng ◽  
Ziyin Ye ◽  

Background and Aims: Elevated fecal calprotectin (FC) levels have been reported to correlate with histological activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the accuracy of FC for evaluating histological activity of UC remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of FC for evaluating histological activity of UC, based on updated definitions. Methods: Related studies were retrieved from the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Adult participants diagnosed with UC were included when sufficient data could be extracted to calculate the accuracy of FC for evaluating histological activity. The primary outcome was histological response, and the secondary outcome was histological remission, defined according to a recently updated position paper of European Crohn’s and Colitis Organization. Statistics were pooled using bivariate mixed-effects models. The area under the curve was estimated by summary receiver-operating characteristic curves. Results: Nine studies were included, from which 1039 patients were included for the analysis of histological response and 591 patients for histological remission. For the evaluation of histological response, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve were 0.69 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52–0.82], 0.77 (95% CI: 0.63–0.87), and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.76–0.83), respectively. For the evaluation of histological remission, the corresponding estimates were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.71–0.81), 0.71 (95% CI: 0.62–0.78), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.75–0.82), respectively. FC had a higher accuracy in studies using Nancy Index. For histological response, the cut-off values of FC ranged from 50 to 172 µg/g, and the sensitivity was higher in studies with FC cut-off values >100 µg/g (0.77 versus 0.65). Conclusion: FC is a valuable biomarker for assessing histological activity in patients with UC. A cut-off value of 100–200 µg/g is more appropriate to spare patients from an unnecessary endoscopy and biopsy.

2021 ◽  
Suhong Zhao ◽  
Peipei Chen ◽  
Guangrui Shao ◽  
Baijie Li ◽  
Huikun Zhang ◽  

Abstract Objective: To assess the diagnostic ability of abbreviated protocols of MRI (AP-MRI) compared with unenhanced MRI (UE-MRI) in mammographically occult cancers in patients with dense breast tissue.Materials and Methods: The retrospective analysis consisted of 102 patients without positive findings on mammography who received preoperative MRI full diagnostic protocols (FDP) between January 2015 and December 2018. Two breast radiologists read the UE, AP, and FDP. The interpretation times were recorded. The comparisons of the sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve of each MRI protocol, and the sensitivity of these protocols in each subgroup of different size tumors used the Chi-square test. The paired sample t-test was used for evaluating the difference of reading time of the three protocols.Results: Among 102 women, there were 68 cancers and two benign lesions in 64 patients and 38 patients had benign or negative findings. Both readers found the sensitivity and specificity of AP and UE-MRI were similar (p>0.05), whereas compared with FDP, UE had lower sensitivity (Reader 1/Reader 2: p=0.023, 0.004). For different lesion size groups, one of the readers found that AP and FDP had higher sensitivities than UE-MRI for detecting the lesions ≤10 mm in diameter (p=0.041, p=0.023). Compared with FDP, the average reading time of UE-MRI and AP was remarkably reduced (p < 0.001).Conclusion: AP-MRI had more advantages than UE-MRI to detect mammographically occult cancers, especially for breast tumors ≤10 mm in diameter.

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