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Author(s):  
Manuel Ramirez-Garrastacho ◽  
Cristina Bajo-Santos ◽  
Aija Line ◽  
Elena S. Martens-Uzunova ◽  
Jesus Martinez de la Fuente ◽  
...  

AbstractProstate cancer is a global cancer burden and considerable effort has been made through the years to identify biomarkers for the disease. Approximately a decade ago, the potential of analysing extracellular vesicles in liquid biopsies started to be envisaged. This was the beginning of a new exciting area of research investigating the rich molecular treasure found in extracellular vesicles to identify biomarkers for a variety of diseases. Vesicles released from prostate cancer cells and cells of the tumour microenvironment carry molecular information about the disease that can be analysed in several biological fluids. Numerous studies document the interest of researchers in this field of research. However, methodological issues such as the isolation of vesicles have been challenging. Remarkably, novel technologies, including those based on nanotechnology, show promise for the further development and clinical use of extracellular vesicles as liquid biomarkers. Development of biomarkers is a long and complicated process, and there are still not many biomarkers based on extracellular vesicles in clinical use. However, the knowledge acquired during the last decade constitutes a solid basis for the future development of liquid biopsy tests for prostate cancer. These are urgently needed to bring prostate cancer treatment to the next level in precision medicine.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2901
Author(s):  
Mahendra Rai ◽  
Avinash P. Ingle ◽  
Joanna Trzcińska-Wencel ◽  
Magdalena Wypij ◽  
Shital Bonde ◽  
...  

Nanobiotechnology is considered to be one of the fastest emerging fields. It is still a relatively new and exciting area of research with considerable potential for development. Among the inorganic nanomaterials, biogenically synthesized silver nanoparticles (bio-AgNPs) have been frequently used due to their unique physicochemical properties that result not only from their shape and size but also from surface coatings of natural origin. These properties determine antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and many more activities of bio-AgNPs. This review provides the current state of knowledge on the methods and mechanisms of biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles as well as their potential applications in different fields such as medicine, food, agriculture, and industries.


2021 ◽  
Vol 288 (1961) ◽  
Author(s):  
Elleard F. W. Heffern ◽  
Holly Huelskamp ◽  
Sonya Bahar ◽  
R. Fredrik Inglis

Phase transitions are an important and extensively studied concept in physics. The insights derived from understanding phase transitions in physics have recently and successfully been applied to a number of different phenomena in biological systems. Here, we provide a brief review of phase transitions and their role in explaining biological processes ranging from collective behaviour in animal flocks to neuronal firing. We also highlight a new and exciting area where phase transition theory is particularly applicable: population collapse and extinction. We discuss how phase transition theory can give insight into a range of extinction events such as population decline due to climate change or microbial responses to stressors such as antibiotic treatment.


Author(s):  
Siddhant Vasantrao Wadmare ◽  

Advertising could be a powerful communication force and important selling tool serving to to sell goods, services, images, and ideas through channel of knowledge and persuasion. It is highly visible force within the society. All people receive several advertising messages daily. It is essential to the success of any sort of business and business. Non-business organization like government, school and universities, and Public Service teams employ a lot of and a lot of advertising ways. It’s one of the elements of the selling and communication method. Advertising win over folks to shop for merchandise. All advertising contains each info and persuasion. Nowadays we are able to say advertising could be a communication, marketing, public-relation, info and persuasion method. This study is to look at however a client connects with promotional techniques utilized by advertising business in India. The advertising business in India is dynamic at a really quick pace. The promotional techniques that square measure currently being employed by the businesses is that specialize in a social cause and mistreatment folk as their whole representatives instead of mistreatment celebrity faces. Television, typically known as “king” of the advertising media has been perpetually facing challenges from not solely the digital medium, however conjointly from the web ads and social networking sites .In alternative words we are able to say that it’s a complete psychological treatment of the buyer and a really artistic and exciting area also.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 75-77
Author(s):  
Siddhant Vasantrao Wadmare ◽  

Advertising could be a powerful communication force and important selling tool serving to to sell goods, services, images, and ideas through channel of knowledge and persuasion. It is highly visible force within the society. All people receive several advertising messages daily. It is essential to the success of any sort of business and business. Non-business organization like government, school and universities, and Public Service teams employ a lot of and a lot of advertising ways. It’s one of the elements of the selling and communication method. Advertising win over folks to shop for merchandise. All advertising contains each info and persuasion. Nowadays we are able to say advertising could be a communication, marketing, public-relation, info and persuasion method. This study is to look at however a client connects with promotional techniques utilized by advertising business in India. The advertising business in India is dynamic at a really quick pace. The promotional techniques that square measure currently being employed by the businesses is that specialize in a social cause and mistreatment folk as their whole representatives instead of mistreatment celebrity faces. Television, typically known as “king” of the advertising media has been perpetually facing challenges from not solely the digital medium, however conjointly from the web ads and social networking sites .In alternative words we are able to say that it's a complete psychological treatment of the buyer and a really artistic and exciting area also.


2021 ◽  
Vol 67 (2) ◽  
pp. 25-32
Author(s):  
Xiukun Lin ◽  
Rukset Attar ◽  
Iqra Mobeen ◽  
Ishmuratova Margarita Yulaevna ◽  
Aliye Aras ◽  
...  

There has been an exponential growth in the field of molecular oncology and cutting-edge research has enabled us to develop a better understanding of therapeutically challenging nature of cancer. Based on the mechanistic insights garnered from decades of research, puzzling mysteries of multifaceted nature of cancer have been solved to a greater extent. Our rapidly evolving knowledge about deregulated oncogenic cell signaling pathways has allowed us to dissect different oncogenic transduction cascades which play critical role in cancer onset, progression and metastasis. Pharmacological targeting of deregulated pathways has attracted greater than ever attention in the recent years. Henceforth, discovery and identification of high-quality biologically active chemicals and products is gaining considerable momentum. There has been an explosion in the dimension of natural product research because of tremendous potential of chemopreventive and pharmaceutical significance of natural products. Schisandrin is mainly obtained from Schisandra chinensis. Schisandrin has been shown to be effective against different cancers because of its ability to inhibit/prevent cancer via modulation of different cell signaling pathways. Importantly, regulation of non-coding RNAs by schisandrin is an exciting area of research that still needs detailed and comprehensive research.   However, we still have unresolved questions about pharmacological properties of schisandrin mainly in context of its regulatory role in TGF/SMAD, SHH/GLI, NOTCH and Hippo pathways.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (16) ◽  
pp. 8460
Author(s):  
Jose Cesar Rosa Neto ◽  
Philip C. Calder ◽  
Rui Curi ◽  
Philip Newsholme ◽  
Jaswinder K. Sethi ◽  
...  

Macrophages and lymphocytes demonstrate metabolic plasticity, which is dependent partly on their state of activation and partly on the availability of various energy yielding and biosynthetic substrates (fatty acids, glucose, and amino acids). These substrates are essential to fuel-based metabolic reprogramming that supports optimal immune function, including the inflammatory response. In this review, we will focus on metabolism in macrophages and lymphocytes and discuss the role of fatty acids in governing the phenotype, activation, and functional status of these important cells. We summarize the current understanding of the pathways of fatty acid metabolism and related mechanisms of action and also explore possible new perspectives in this exciting area of research.


Author(s):  
Ramamoorthy Ramesh ◽  
Sasikanth Manipatruni

Electric field control of magnetism is an extremely exciting area of research, from both a fundamental science and an applications perspective and has the potential to revolutionize the world of computing. To realize this will require numerous further innovations, both in the fundamental science arena as well as translating these scientific discoveries into real applications. Thus, this article will attempt to bridge the gap between condensed matter physics and the actual manifestations of the physical concepts into applications. We have attempted to paint a broad-stroke picture of the field, from the macroscale all the way down to the fundamentals of spin–orbit coupling that is a key enabler of the physics discussed. We hope it will help spur more translational research within the broad materials physics community. Needless to say, this article is written on behalf of a large number of colleagues, collaborators and researchers in the field of complex oxides as well as current and former students and postdocs who continue to pursue cutting-edge research in this field.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 60-90
Author(s):  
Mehshan Ahad ◽  
◽  
Muhammad Fayyaz

Human gender recognition is one the most challenging task in computer vision, especially in pedestrians, due to so much variation in human poses, video acquisition, illumination, occlusion, and human clothes, etc. In this article, we have considered gender recognition which is very important to be considered in video surveillance. To make the system automated to recognize the gender, we have provided a novel technique based on the extraction of features through different methodologies. Our technique consists of 4 steps a) preprocessing, b) feature extraction, c) feature fusion, d) classification. The exciting area is separated in the first step, which is the full body from the images. After that, images are divided into two halves on the ratio of 2:3 to acquire sets of upper body and lower body. In the second step, three handcrafted feature extractors, HOG, Gabor, and granulometry, extract the feature vectors using different score values. These feature vectors are fused to create one strong feature vector on which results are evaluated. Experiments are performed on full-body datasets to make the best configuration of features. The features are extracted through different feature extractors in different numbers to generate their feature vectors. Those features are fused to create a strong feature vector. This feature vector is then utilized for classification. For classification, SVM and KNN classifiers are used. Results are evaluated on five performance measures: Accuracy, Precision, Sensitivity, Specificity, and Area under the curve. The best results that have been acquired are on the upper body, which is 88.7% accuracy and 0.96 AUC. The results are compared with the existing methodologies, and hence it is concluded that the proposed method has significantly achieved higher results.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (6) ◽  
pp. 1507
Author(s):  
Soyoung Choi ◽  
Li Guo ◽  
Maria Francesca Cordeiro

Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), including the retina. Similar to brain microglia, retinal microglia are responsible for retinal surveillance, rapidly responding to changes in the environment by altering morphotype and function. Microglia become activated in inflammatory responses in neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). When activated by stress stimuli, retinal microglia change their morphology and activity, with either beneficial or harmful consequences. In this review, we describe characteristics of CNS microglia, including those in the retina, with a focus on their morphology, activation states and function in health, ageing, MS and other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, glaucoma and retinitis pigmentosa, to highlight their activity in disease. We also discuss contradictory findings in the literature and the potential ways of reducing inconsistencies in future by using standardised methodology, e.g., automated algorithms, to enable a more comprehensive understanding of this exciting area of research.


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