chi square test
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2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Dr. Smitha Sambrani ◽  

Massive open online courses (MOOCs) is created greater prominence as a modern learning system mainly due to the advanced progress made in the area of Learning and Teaching Technology and. Covid pandemic also had open opportunities for Online Learning Platforms. Present study has focused on learners’ experience with various MOOCs platforms through online reviews and ratings, which were collected from Google play store and appbot application. Seven MOOCs platforms namely Coursera, edX, Udemy, Swayam, LinkedIn , Khan Academy and Upgrad are reviewed in this paper. The main objective is to compare the select MOOCs platforms in the area of users’ experience. Total number of reviews and rating has been taken for the study is 63, 652. The time frame of sample data was taken for last one year that is from 5th April, 2020 to 5th April, 2021. Sentiment analysis and chi-square test is applied to analyze the difference among the different MOOCs platforms. The major outcomes were the reviews and ratings of different platform found with very good uses experience.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Saeed Mastour Alshahrani ◽  
Abdullah F. Alghannam ◽  
Nada Taha ◽  
Shurouq Saeed Alqahtani ◽  
Abrar Al-Mutairi ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on various health conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on body weight and body mass index (BMI) in Saudi Arabia. We used electronic health records obtained from a healthcare system representing five hospitals in three different regions in the Kingdom to examine the change in weight utilizing a longitudinal design. The study included all adults who had visited outpatient clinics in two different time points, pre-2020 (years 2018 and 2019 prior to COVID-19) and post-2020 (the year 2021). Weight and BMI changes in percentages were described. Also, bivariate chi-square test, paired t-test, and multivariable multinomial logistic regression model were used for the analyses. A total of 165,279 individuals were included in the study. On average, a significant weight gain of 0.33 kg (95% CI: 0.29–0.36) was observed in our study. Approximately 10% of the population had shifted to either overweight or obese BMI classes during the study period, as 4.8% of those with normal BMI pre-2020 had shifted to overweight or obese classes at post-2020, and 5.1% of those who were overweight had shifted to obese class. Also, 23.1% of the population had gained 5% or more of their pre-2020 weight, while 17% had lost 5% or more. Young individuals were over three times more likely to gain 5% or more than older individuals (OR: 3.34; 95% CI: 3.12–3.56). Females had 24% higher odds to gain 5% or more of their pre-2020 weight than males (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.21–1.27). Diabetics were 27% more likely to lose 5% or more than non-diabetics (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.23–1.31). Our findings provide insights into the impact of COVID-19 on weight and population health. Further investment in interventions for weight management is warranted during similar circumstances such as lockdowns due to infection waves or new variants. Future studies are also needed to explore the modifications that have occurred during the pandemic in the weight-related lifestyle factors such as dietary choices and physical activity levels.

J Vini Mary Antony ◽  
Pratibha Ramani

The routine procedure to prepare a Pap smear is done by fixing the slides with 95% ethanol immediately after the sample is taken. This study was performed to determine the alternative method of air-drying and rehydration prior to alcohol fixation instead of conventional method. Paired buccal smears were collected from 50 patients who participated in the study. One set was labeled as (Wet fixed in 95% ethanol) WF and the other one Air-dried fixed (ARF) rehydrated and fixed with coconut oil. The staining quality of the slides was assessed with respect to nuclear details and cytoplasmic details, cytoplasmic staining and background staining. Single blinded study was done. The results were analyzed by Chi square test to compare the defined parameters between the two groups. Air-dried fixed (ARF) slides with coconut oil was significantly better with regard to clearance of background. There was statistically significant difference between the air dried smear rehydrated with coconut oil and normal wet fixed smear. So air dried smear rehydrated with coconut oil can be used as an alternative to wet fixed smear.

2022 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 37-58

The analysis will be conducted for standard weekly (SW) 22 to 47 of monsoon and post monsoon season at south Gujarat. The standard weekly rainy days analysis of binomial distribution for monsoon season of Navsari on chi-square test on binomial distribution was found in standard week (SW) 22 to 31, 33 and standard week (SW) 35 to 39 and post monsoon in standard week (SW) 41 to 44 shows significant. The result also reveals that the monsoon season SW 32 and 34 and post monsoon season SW 40, 45, 46 and 47 revealed non-significant result. Analysis reveals the rainfall is not equally distributed during SW 32, 34, 40, 45, 16 and 47, so that the test of binomial distribution is a good fit. Monsoon season rainfall data of Navsari, Bharuch and Valsad reveals that the normal distribution at 10, 20 and 30% probability levels for the month of June, July, August and September shows the possibility of increasing rainy days occurrence. The Navsari and Bharuch districts during post monsoon season rainfall of months of October and November reveals decreasing tendency except Valsad district. The binomial distribution fit only those standard weeks in which rainfall is not equally distributed. The standard weekly rainy days analysis of binomial distribution on chi-square test in Bharuch was found that standard week (SW) 25 only 10% of monsoon season and in post monsoon standard week (SW) 42 and 47 shows non significant (5 and 10% level of significant) result, but SW 25 found significant at 5% level. In case of Valsad district, standard week 22 to 39 of monsoon season and in post monsoon season 41, 42, 43 and 46 standard weeks shows significant result. The result reveals that the monsoon season of Bharuch standard weeks 22 to 39 except from 25 and post monsoon 40, 41, 43, 44, 45 and 46 shows significant result. Further, in Valsad district standard weeks 40, 44, 45 and 47 shows significant result. The trend analysis of rainy days shows that increasing trend in monsoon season and decreasing trend in post monsoon season of Navsari, Bharuch and Valsad districts. From above results observed that the rainfall distribution is not equally distributed so test of binomial distribution at above given standard week is a good fit. The data also shows that, decreasing tendency in rainfall was observed except Valsad district. 

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Alla Belousova ◽  
Yuliya Mochalova ◽  
Yulya Tushnova

Currently, during the pandemic, the forced transition to distance learning carries a number of problems. These problems affect various aspects of education, including the study of students’ attitudes to distance learning. The purpose of this research is to study the features of the subjective attitude of schoolchildren and students to distance learning. This research involved 140 secondary school students (average age M = 10.7, SD = 7.2 (66.3% men)) and 30 university students (average age M = 22.5, SD = 2.4 (20% men)). The methods used were a questionnaire, Chi-square test and Criterion φ*. Fisher angular transformation. The study showed that schoolchildren do not intend to continue studying in the distance form if they choose, with a generally positive attitude towards distance learning. The self-assessment of motivation to study in a distance format has not changed, both among schoolchildren and students. Students are more likely to have a positive attitude to distance learning than schoolchildren. The variety of choices of advantages and disadvantages of distance learning is greater among students than among schoolchildren. The perspective of this study is thus to study the factors that determine the positive and negative attitudes to distance learning.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Fernanda Cristina Barbosa Pereira Queiroz ◽  
Christian Luiz Da Silva ◽  
Nilton Cézar Lima ◽  
Jamerson Viegas Queiroz ◽  
Carmem Kistemacher Barche ◽  

A pandemia COVID-19 intensificou a diversidade de tecnologias de aprendizagem na educação superior, de maneira impositiva, desmistificou usos remotos, à fronteira da totalidade do ensino à distância a todos cursos superiores, em atendimento aos protocolos sanitários. Todavia, os eixos de aprendizagem (Ensino-Pesquisa-Extensão), tiveram que se adequar ao emprego das tecnologias educacionais. Sob essa abordagem, emergem questões, buscando examinar impactos que os docentes vivenciaram na pandemia para assegurar continuidade de tais eixos. Os dados contaram com 560, respostas válidas, de docentes da educação superior, distribuídos em todas regiões do Brasil. O estudo de abordagem quantitativa contou com o método da estatística não paramétrica, teste qui-quadrado, teste exato de Fischer e U de Mann Whitney. Resultados demonstraram que a adaptação e adoção de novas estratégias aos eixos de aprendizagem foram superadas pelos docentes sem identificações de impactos notórios que gerassem barreiras ou impeditivos. Entretanto, as relações familiares e sociais, assim como a saúde mental e física dos docentes, despertaram como impactos percebidos. Estudos foram sugeridos empregando expectativas diversas, sob contextos que analisem a exclusão digital e a saúde mental como interseccionalidade e enfoque de discussão em período pandêmico e pós-pandemia em países em desenvolvimento.   The pandemic COVID-19 intensified the diversity of learning technologies in higher education, in an imposing way, demystified remote uses, to the border of the totality of distance learning to all higher education courses, in attendance to sanitary protocols. However, the learning axes (Teaching-Research-Extension) had to adapt to the use of educational technologies. Under this approach, questions emerge, seeking to examine the impacts that the teachers experienced in the pandemic to ensure the continuity of these axes. The data counted on 560 valid answers from teachers of higher education, distributed in all regions of Brazil. The quantitative approach study relied on the non-parametric statistical method, chi-square test, Fischer's exact test, and Mann Whitney's U test. Results showed that the adaptation and adoption of new strategies to the learning axes were overcome by the teachers without the identification of notorious impacts that would generate barriers or impediments. However, family and social relationships, as well as the mental and physical health of the faculty members aroused as perceived impacts. Studies were suggested employing diverse expectations under contexts that analyze digital exclusion and mental health as intersectionality and focus of discussion in pandemic and post-pandemic period in developing countries.

Ravi K. S. ◽  
Kiran M. Naik ◽  
Nikethan . ◽  
Aniketh V. R.

<p><strong>Background:</strong> The aim of this study to determine the relationship between the peritonsillar infiltration of ropivacaine hydrochloride and haemorrhage in patients undergoing tonsillectomy.</p><p><strong>Methods </strong>This prospective study was conducted in the department of otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery, Adichunchanagiri institute of medical sciences, B. G. Nagara, Mandya district. A sample size of 30 patients which satisfied the inclusion criteria were included in the study. <strong></strong></p><p>Ropivacaine (0.75%)<strong> </strong>was locally infiltrated on the right side (R-side) in the peri-tonsillar region before the surgery. The left side was considered as the control side. Intra-operative blood loss was estimated separately for both the sides. The data from the study will be analysed using chi square test and Student t test technique.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The 17 (56.7%) females and 13 (43.3%) males participated in the study. Majority of the cases belonged to &lt;10 years of age group. By analysing the data, blood loss was found to be higher on the left side (control side) compared to the right side on which peri-tonsillar infiltration of ropivacaine was given. The association between the blood loss on the right side and the left side (control side) was found to be significant (p&lt;0.0001).<strong></strong></p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Based on the result of our study it can be derived that the peri-tonsillar infiltration of Ropivacaine (0.75%) is very effective in reducing intra-operative bleeding and at the same time providing a better bloodless field during surgery. Hence, we recommend the use of peri-tonsillar infiltration of Ropivacaine (0.75%) in view of better management of intra-operative blood lossissn.2454-5929.ijohns20220041</p>

2022 ◽  
pp. 152660282110709
Antonios Vitalis ◽  
Alena Shantsila ◽  
Mark Kay ◽  
Rajiv K. Vohra ◽  
Gregory Y. H. Lip

Purpose Various studies, mainly from North America, report worse outcomes in ethnic minority populations submitted to revascularization for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Limited nationwide data in relation to ethnicity are available from Europe. Objective The objective of the study is to compare the outcomes of femoral angioplasty/stenting procedures among different ethnic groups in England during the 10-year period from 2006 to 2015. Materials and Methods The “Hospital Episode Statistics” database has been searched using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision ( ICD-10) codes to identify all cases of femoral angioplasty or stenting from English NHS Hospitals between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2015. Subsequent mortality, second open or endovascular infrainguinal procedures, and major amputations on the same side within 2 years after the first procedure have been recorded. Patients were broadly categorized according to ethnicity as whites, Asians, and blacks. Chi-square test was used to demonstrate significant differences among ethnic groups and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using white ethnic group as reference. Results A total number of 70 887 femoral endovascular procedures were recorded in patients from the 3 ethnic groups. Two-year mortality in whites, Asians, and blacks was 18.3%, 22.1%, and 19.5% (p<0.001); rates of second endovascular procedure were 12.1%, 13.1%, and 13.5% (p=0.24); rates of open infrainguinal procedure were 5.6%, 4.5%, and 8.0% (p<0.001); and rates of major amputation were 4.8%, 4.1%, and 7.0% (p<0.001), respectively. Mortality was higher in Asians (OR=1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.10-1.45, p<0.01) compared with whites. On the contrary, blacks underwent more open arterial operations (OR=1.48, 95% CI=1.19-1.83, p<0.01) and more amputations (OR=1.49, 95% CI=1.18-1.87, p<0.01). There were no significant differences in the rates of second endovascular procedures. Conclusion Two-year mortality after femoral angioplasty/stenting is higher in Asians, whereas risk of limb loss is higher in blacks compared with whites. Reasons of these ethnic differences in outcomes following femoral endovascular procedures for PAD merit further study.

Javeria Sajid ◽  
Muhammad Naveed Riaz

Objective: To examine the immediate and mediate inferences among depressive adults with and without brain damage. Methods: The descriptive, comparative study was conducted from November 6 to June 19, 2019, in Sargodha, Pakistan, and comprised depressive adults of either gender enrolled from various local mental health facilities. After applying Stroop test to identify brain damage, the subjects were divided into adults with brain damage in group A, and adults without brain damage in group B. Logical inferences of both groups were identified using three decision situations, and the findings were compared between the groups. Results: Of the 170 individuals approached, 120(70.5%) were included; 60(50%) in each of the two groups. Overall, there were 76(63%) males and 44(37%) females. The overall age range 18-60 years, with 105(88%) being young adults aged 18-49 years. Chi-Square Test was applied to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that Group A exhibited higher frequency of immediate inferences on three conditions of certainty (55, 53, 58) as compared to Group B (23, 21, 20) while group B exhibited higher frequency on mediate inferences on the conditions of certainty (37, 39, 40) as compared to Group A (5, 7, 2). Group A exhibited higher frequency of immediate inferences on three conditions of risk (54, 55, 56) as compared to Group B (14, 23, 22) ----Continue

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 164-172
Dyah Suryani

Ownership of basic sanitation facilities of the house is one of the conditions of a healthy home. Health problems in the home environment can not be separated from the level of knowledge, attitude, income of the head of the family and the number of dependents of the head of the family. It is seen that there are still people who do not have thoughts about the importance of basic sanitation for their lives and there are still many people who do not have basic sanitation facilities. The purpose of this study is to find out the factors related to the ownership of basic household sanitation facilities in Selumar Water Village, Sijuk Subdistrict, Belitung Regency.This study uses observational analytics method with cross sectional approach. The samples in this study numbered 101 samples, using proportional random sampling method. Research instruments are questionnaires and checklists. Data analysis is performed using Chi square test. Bivariate analysis results show there is a relationship between the level of knowledge and the ownership of basic household sanitation facilities p value=0.000, there is a relationship between attitude with the ownership of basic household sanitation facilities p value=0.005, there is a relationship between the level of income and the ownership of basic household sanitation facilities p value=0.000, there is a relationship between the number of family members and the ownership of basic household sanitation facilities p value=0.016. The level of knowledge, attitude, income level and number of family members relates to the ownership of basic household sanitation facilities in Selumar Water Village, Sijuk Subdistrict, Belitung Regency

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