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Megan B. Sands ◽  
Ian Wee ◽  
Meera Agar ◽  
Janette L. Vardy

Abstract Purpose Delirium leads to poor outcomes for patients and careers and has negative impacts on staff and service provision. Cancer rates in elderly populations are increasing and frequently, cancer diagnoses are a co-morbidity in the context of frailty. Data relating to the epidemiology of delirium in hospitalised cancer patients are limited. With the overarching purpose of improving delirium detection and reducing the morbidity and mortality of delirium in cancer patients, we reviewed the epidemiological data and approach to delirium detection in hospitalised, adult oncology patients. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched from January 1996 to August 2017. Key concepts were delirium, cancer, inpatient oncology and delirium screening/detection. Results Of 896 unique studies identified; 91 met full-text review criteria. Of 12 eligible studies, four applied recommended case ascertainment methods to all patients, three used delirium screening tools alone or with case ascertainment tools sub-optimally applied, four used tools not recommended for delirium screening or case ascertainment, one used the Confusion Assessment Method with insufficient information to determine if it met case ascertainment status. Two studies presented delirium incidence rates: 7.8%, and 17% respectively. Prevalence rates ranged from 18–33% for general medical or oncology wards; 42–58% for Acute Palliative Care Units (APCU); and for older cancer patients: 22% and 57%. Three studies reported reversibility; 26% and 49% respectively (APCUs) and 30% (older patients with cancer). Six studies had a low risk of bias according to QUADAS-2 criteria; all studies in the APCU setting were rated at higher risk of bias. Tool selection, study flow and recruitment bias reduced study quality. Conclusion The knowledge base for improved interventions and clinical care for adults with cancer and delirium is limited by the low number of studies. A clear distinction between screening tools and diagnostic tools is required to provide an improved understanding of the rates of delirium and its reversibility in this population.

Tuba Seven Menevse ◽  
Yasemin Kendir Demirkol ◽  
Busra Gurpinar Tosun ◽  
Elvan Bayramoglu ◽  
Melek Yildiz ◽  

Abstract Background There is a significant challenge of attributing specific diagnoses to patients with primary adrenal insufficiency of unknown etiology other than congenital adrenal hyperplasia (non-CAH PAI). Specific diagnoses per se may guide personalized treatment or may illuminate pathophysiology. Objective Investigation of the efficacy of steroid hormone profiles and high-throughput sequencing methods in establishing the etiology in non-CAH PAI of unknown origin. Design Paediatric patients with non-CAH PAI whose etiology could not be established by clinical and biochemical characteristics were enrolled. Genetic analysis was performed using targetedgene panel sequencing (TPS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES). Plasma adrenal steroids were quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared to that of controls. Setting Eighteen pediatric endocrinology clinics. Patients Forty-one patients (17 females, median age: 3 months, range: 0-8 years) with non-CAH PAI of unknown etiology. Results A genetic diagnosis was obtained in 29 (70.7%) patients by TPS. Further molecular diagnosis could not be achieved by WES. Compared to healthy control group, patients showed lower steroid concentrations, most significantly in cortisone, cortisol, and corticosterone (p<0.0001, area under the ROC curve: 0.96, 0.88, 0.87, respectively). Plasma cortisol<4 ng/mL, cortisone<11 ng/mL, and corticosterone<0.11 ng/mL had >95% specificity to ensure the diagnosis of non-CAH PAI of unknown etiology. Conclusion Steroid hormone profiles are highly sensitive for the diagnosis of non-CAH PAI of unknown etiology, while they are unlikely to point out a specific molecular diagnosis. TPS is an optimal approach in the molecular diagnosis of these patients with high efficacy, while little additional benefit is expected from WES.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Juan M. González-Morena ◽  
Francisco J. Sánchez-Gómez ◽  
Yolanda Vida ◽  
Ezequiel Pérez-Inestrosa ◽  
María Salas ◽  

Allergic reactions to antibiotics are a major concern in the clinic. ß-lactam antibiotics are the class most frequently reported to cause hypersensitivity reactions. One of the mechanisms involved in this outcome is the modification of proteins by covalent binding of the drug (haptenation). Hence, interest in identifying the corresponding serum and cellular protein targets arises. Importantly, haptenation susceptibility and extent can be modulated by the context, including factors affecting protein conformation or the occurrence of other posttranslational modifications. We previously identified the glycolytic enzyme α-enolase as a target for haptenation by amoxicillin, both in cells and in the extracellular milieu. Here, we performed an in vitro study to analyze amoxicillin haptenation of α-enolase using gel-based and activity assays. Moreover, the possible interplay or interference between amoxicillin haptenation and acetylation of α-enolase was studied in 1D- and 2D-gels that showed decreased haptenation and displacement of the haptenation signal to lower pI spots after chemical acetylation of the protein, respectively. In addition, the peptide containing lysine 239 was identified by mass spectrometry as the amoxicillin target sequence on α-enolase, thus suggesting a selective haptenation under our conditions. The putative amoxicillin binding site and the surrounding interactions were investigated using the α-enolase crystal structure and molecular docking. Altogether, the results obtained provide the basis for the design of novel diagnostic tools or approaches in the study of amoxicillin-induced allergic reactions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mitchel R. Stacy

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic disorder of non-coronary arteries that is associated with vascular stenosis and/or occlusion. PAD affecting the lower extremities is characterized by a variety of health-related consequences, including lifestyle-limiting intermittent claudication, ulceration of the limbs and/or feet, increased risk for lower extremity amputation, and increased mortality. The diagnosis of lower extremity PAD is typically established by using non-invasive tests such as the ankle-brachial index, toe-brachial index, duplex ultrasound, and/or angiography imaging studies. While these common diagnostic tools provide hemodynamic and anatomical vascular assessments, the potential for non-invasive physiological assessment of the lower extremities has more recently emerged through the use of magnetic resonance- and nuclear medicine-based approaches, which can provide insight into the functional consequences of PAD-related limb ischemia. This perspectives article specifically highlights and discusses the emerging applications of clinical nuclear medicine techniques for molecular imaging investigations in the setting of lower extremity PAD.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 173
Clara Guido ◽  
Clara Baldari ◽  
Gabriele Maiorano ◽  
Angela Mastronuzzi ◽  
Andrea Carai ◽  

Pediatric brain tumors represent the most common types of childhood cancer and novel diagnostic and therapeutic solutions are urgently needed. The gold standard treatment option for brain cancers in children, as in adults, is tumor resection followed by radio- and chemotherapy, but with discouraging therapeutic results. In particular, the last two treatments are often associated to significant neurotoxicity in the developing brain of a child, with resulting disabilities such as cognitive problems, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory dysfunctions/deficits. Nanoparticles have been increasingly and thoroughly investigated as they show great promises as diagnostic tools and vectors for gene/drug therapy for pediatric brain cancer due to their ability to cross the blood–brain barrier. In this review we will discuss the developments of nanoparticle-based strategies as novel precision nanomedicine tools for diagnosis and therapy in pediatric brain cancers, with a particular focus on targeting strategies to overcome the main physiological obstacles that are represented by blood–brain barrier.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Christine Kim ◽  
Pahriya Ashrap ◽  
Deborah J. Watkins ◽  
Bhramar Mukherjee ◽  
Zaira Y. Rosario-Pabón ◽  

Background/Aim: The association between heavy metal exposure and adverse birth outcomes is well-established. However, there is a paucity of research identifying biomarker profiles that may improve the early detection of heavy metal-induced adverse birth outcomes. Because lipids are abundant in our body and associated with important signaling pathways, we assessed associations between maternal metals/metalloid blood levels with lipidomic profiles among 83 pregnant women in the Puerto Rico PROTECT birth cohort.Methods: We measured 10 metals/metalloid blood levels during 24–28 weeks of pregnancy. Prenatal plasma lipidomic profiles were identified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics. We derived sums for each lipid class and sums for each lipid sub-class (saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated), which were then regressed on metals/metalloid. False discovery rate (FDR) adjusted p-values (q-values) were used to account for multiple comparisons.Results: A total of 587 unique lipids from 19 lipid classes were profiled. When controlling for multiple comparisons, we observed that maternal exposure to manganese and zinc were negatively associated with plasmenyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (PLPE), particularly those containing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) chains. In contrast to manganese and zinc, arsenic and mercury were positively associated with PLPE and plasmenyl-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC).Conclusion: Certain metals were significantly associated with lipids that are responsible for the biophysical properties of the cell membrane and antioxidant defense in lipid peroxidation. This study highlighted lipid-metal associations and we anticipate that this study will open up new avenues for developing diagnostic tools.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 489
Alexander Dolgoborodov ◽  
Boris Yankovsky ◽  
Sergey Ananev ◽  
George Valyano ◽  
Galina Vakorina

The results of experiments to determine the role of structural schemes for the ignition of a mechanically activated thermite mixture Al–CuO and the formation of its combustion flame are presented. The reaction initiated in the bulk of the experimental assembly transforms into torch combustion in an open space. The dynamics of the volume of the flame reaction region was determined. The stage of flame formation has a stochastic character, determined by the random distribution of the reaction centres in the initial volume of the components. A high-speed camera, a pyrometer and electro contact sensors were used as diagnostic tools. The ultimate goal of the study was to optimize the conditions for the flame formation of this mixture for its effective use with a single ignition of various gas emissions.

2022 ◽  
Jacques JL Tamuzi ◽  
Gomer Lulendo ◽  
Patrick Mbuesse

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is also associated with other co-morbidities among with previous and current pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). PTB is a risk factor for COVID-19, both in terms of severity and mortality, regardless of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status. However, there is less information available on COVID-19 associated with PTB in point of view incidence and mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as a high burden TB region. This systematic review served to provide data synthesis of available evidence on COVID-19/PTB incidence and case fatality rates, and mortality rate found in clinical and post-mortem COVID-19/PTB diagnostics in SSA. Methods We conducted a systematic electronic search in the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Medrxix and COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease databases for studies including COVID-19 associated with PTB in sub-Saharan Africa. The main outcomes were the proportion of people with COVID-19 associated to current /or previous PTB and the case fatality associated to COVID-19/PTB. The combination method was based on methodological similarities in the included random effect model studies using Prometa 3 software. We further undertook sensitivity analysis and meta-regression. Results From the 548 references extracted by the literature search, 25 studies were selected and included in the meta-analysis with a total of 191, 250 COVID-19 infected patients and 11, 452 COVID-19 deaths. The pooled COVID-19/PTB incidence was 2% [1%-3%] and mortality of 10% [4%-20%]. The pooled estimates for case fatality rate among COVID-19/PTB were 6% [3%-11%] for clinical PTB diagnostic and 26% [14%-48%] for post-mortem PTB diagnostic. Meta-regression model including the effect sizes and cumulative COVID-19 cases (P= 0.032), HIV prevalence (P= 0.041) and TB incidence (P= 0.002) to explained high heterogeneity between studies. Conclusion As a summary, the incidence of TB associated with COVID-19 and case fatality rates are higher in SSA. However, COVID-19 associated to TB may be underreported in the studies conducted in SSA as the post-mortem TB diagnostic was higher. Large-scale cohort studies that adequately clear tool on previous and/or current TB diagnostic tools are required to confirmed COVID-19/TB incidence and case fatality in SSA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yasunobu Yamashita ◽  
Reiko Ashida ◽  
Masayuki Kitano

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) describes long-standing inflammation of the pancreas, which leads to irreversible and progressive inflammation of the pancreas with fibrosis. CP also leads to abdominal pain, malnutrition, and permanent impairment of exocrine/endocrine functions. However, it is difficult to assess CP pathologically, and imaging modalities therefore play an important role in the diagnosis and assessment of CP. There are four modalities typically used to assess CP. Pancreatic duct features are assessed with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, ERCP is a rather invasive diagnostic modality for CP, and can result in adverse events such as post-ERCP pancreatitis. Computed tomography (CT) is often the most appropriate initial imaging modality for patients with suspected CP, and has high diagnostic specificity. However, CT findings typically only appear in advanced stages of CP, and it is difficult to detect early CP. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) provides superior spatial resolution compared with other imaging modalities such as CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and is considered the most reliable and efficient diagnostic modality for pancreatic diseases. The EUS-based Rosemont classification plays an important role in diagnosing CP in clinical practice. Evaluation of tissue stiffness can be another option to assess the diagnosis and progression of CP, and MRI and EUS can be used to assess CP not only with imaging, but also with elasticity measurement. MR and EUS elastography are expected to provide new alternative diagnostic tools for assessment of fibrosis in CP, which is difficult to evaluate pathologically.

Joanna D Stachowska ◽  
Monika B Gamża ◽  
Claire Mellor ◽  
Ella N Gibbons ◽  
Marta J Krysmann ◽  

We present a simple strategy to generate a family of carbon dot/iron oxide nanoparticles (C/Fe-NPs) that relies on the thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in the presence of a highly fluorescent carbon-rich precursor, while polyethylene glycol serves as the passivation agent. By varying the molar ratio of the reactants, a series of C/Fe-NPs have been synthesized with tuneable elemental composition in terms of C, H, O, N, Fe. The quantum yield is enhanced from 6% to 9% as the carbon content increases from 27% to 36%, while the room temperature saturation magnetization is improved from 4.1 emu/g to 17.7 emu/g as the iron content is enriched from 17 to 31%. In addition, the C/Fe-NPs show excellent antimicrobial properties, minimal cytotoxicity and demonstrate promising bioimaging capabilities, thus showing great potential for the development of advanced diagnostic tools.

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