ABSTRAK Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas nira aren sebagai pengencer alternatif dalam proses pembekuan (kriopreservasi) semen kambing boer.Kriopreservasi semen kambing boer menggunakan pengencer tris-gliserol-kuning telur (P1 73-7-20%), nira aren-gliseol-kuning telur(masing-masing P2 74-6-20%, P3 73-7-20%, dan P4 72-8-20%) dan andromed (P5 tanpa mengandung kuning telur dan gliserol). Parameter evaluasi meliputi motilitas, viabilitas, dan membrane plasma utuh setelah pengenceran, ekuilibrasi dan thawing. Evaluasi motilitas pasca thawing menunjukkan P5 52% berbeda nyata (P<0.05) dengan P1 42%, selanjutnya P5 dan P1 berbeda sangat nyata (P<0.05) dengan P2 8%, P3 6% dan P4 12%. Viabilitas pasca thawing menunjukkan P5 65,4% tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05) dengan P1 61,8%, akan tetapi P5 dan P1 berbeda sangat nyata (P<0.05) dengan P2 26,2%, P3 29,8%, dan P4 34%. Membran plasma utuh (MPU) pasca thawing menunjukkan P5 66,2% tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05) dengan P1 65,4%, akan tetapi keduanya berbeda sangat nyata (P<0.05) dengan P2 39%, P3 38%, dan P4 36,2%. Disimpulkan kriopreservasi semen kambing boer dengan pengencer nira aren dan gliserol pada konsentrasi berbeda belum dapat dipergunakan sebagai sumber bibit berdasarkan standar nasional Indonesia.Kata Kunci : Kambing boer, semen, nira arenABSTRACTThe experiment was conducted to determine the effect of sugar palm juice as alternative extender for cryopreservation process of boer semen.Tris-glycerol-egg yolk (P1 73-7-20%), Sugar palm juice-glyserol-egg yolk (P2 74-6-20%, P373-7-20%, dan P4 72-8-20%), and andromed (P5) used as a extender in the cryopreservation process of boer semen. Sperm motility (%), live sperm (%) and sperm membrane integrity (%) were recorded after diluted, equilibration and freeze-thawing. Result of post thawing motility showed that P5 52% was significantly different (P <0.05) with P1 42%, then P5 and P1 were significantly different (P <0.05) with P2 8%, P3 6% and P4 12%. Viability after thawing showed P5 65.4% was not significantly different (P> 0.05) with P1 61.8%, but P5 and P1 significantly different (P <0.05) with P2 26.2%, P3 29.8 %, and P4 34%. Spermmembrane integrity post-thawing showed P5 66.2% was not significantly different (P> 0.05) with P1 65.4%, but both were very significantly different (P <0.05) with P2 39%, P3 38% and P4 36.2%. Conclusions, sugar palm juice-glycerol-egg yolk with differentconcentrationsineffectively as an alternative extenderin cryopreservation of boer semen.Keywords: boer goat, semen, sugar palm juice
Background: fertility rates using horse frozen-thawed semen remain lower than in other livestock species. This fact further suggests that horse semen hold intrinsic sensitivity to cryoinjury that must be investigated. Moreover, there is a substantial influence of genetic factors and diluent choice upon horse cryopreservation outcome. Collectively, these genetic and technical properties of horse semen could be explored to identify factors or conditions that may increase semen viability after freeze-thawing. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of diluents Botu-Crio®,Lactose-EDTA®, and INRA-82® on cryopreserved semen from stallions with high (HFA) and low freezability (LFA).Materials, Methods & Results: frozen-thawed semen was evaluated for motility, membrane integrity, and sperm DNA fragmentation using the thermoresistance test (TRT). Comparisons for each parameter were done in a pair-wise fashion between HFA and LFA semen at one-hour intervals during the TRT (0 h - 4 h). Sperm motility in HFA, regardless of the diluent, was larger (P < 0.05) than LFA, both on 0h and 1h. In the 2h evaluation, sperm motility using Botu-Crio® and Lactose-EDTA® was greater (P < 0.05) for HFA. Analysis of sperm membrane integrity was similar between HFA and LFA semen (P > 0.05) at 0 h and 3 h. Sperm DNA fragmentation was lower (P < 0.05) in HFA semen at 0 h and 1 h. Discussion: frozen-thawed semen from stallions of high freezing ability showed greater motility at all analysis, irrespectively of diluent choice, suggesting a strong influence of genetic factors on cryopreservation outcome. Membrane integrity was similar immediately after thawing but did differ later on other TRT time-points, irrespectively of diluent choice. As observed for motility, it was expected that sperm cells of stallions of HFA would show higher membrane integrity than their LFA counterparts. Sperm DNA fragmentation was quite low for both groups, as described in horses. Surprisingly, sperm DNA fragmentation incidence was constant throughout the analysis for both HFA and LFA. It was initially envisioned that increased DNA fragmentation would be found in semen from LFA stallions, since it is caused by multiple origins such as genetic factors. In conclusion, the semen diluent affects horse sperm motility after thawing, particularly from stallions with lower semen freezability.
Boar semen is voluminous and ejaculated as jets or fractions of pre-sperm, sperm rich
(SRF) and post-sperm rich fractions. Recent studies have reported more resilient characteristics
of sperm in initial portions of SRF towards cold shock and cryopreservation. The present study
was conducted to assess the quality of specific fractions of SRF, namely, first 10mL of SRF (F1)
and rest of SRF (F2) in Large white Yorkshire (LWY) boar semen. Ejaculates were collected
using gloved-hand technique and were subjected to quality assessments of volume, pH, sperm
progressive motility, concentration, plasma membrane integrity, abnormality, acrosome integrity
and sperm membrane cholesterol. Upon statistical analysis, significant differences were noticed
in volume, pH, sperm concentration and sperm membrane cholesterol between fractions of the
Cannabis sativa L. is a medicinally important weed of family Cannabaceae generally grows along road-sides and waste-lends in Punjab, Pakistan. In the present study, antifungal effect of leaf extract of this weed was assessed against Aspergillus flavipes. Methanolic leaf extract of the weed was partitioned into five fractions using organic solvents of variable polarities. A range of concentrations (1.562 to 200 mg mL-1) of each fraction was used in laboratory bioassays. n-Butanol fraction showed the highest antifungal activity followed by chloroform and n-hexane fractions causing 68–82%, 52–82% and 42–82% decrease in biomass of A. flavipes. Ethyl acetate showed a moderate antifungal potential while aqueous fraction showed the least antifungal activity causing 47–76% and 38–73% reduction in fungal biomass, respectively. This study concludes that n-butanol fraction of leaf extract of C. sativa is highly effective in controlling growth of A. flavipes.
Ocimum gratissimum L. is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of bacterial infections and anaemia. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of O. gratissimum leaf extract on phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced anaemia and toxicity in rats.
The experimental rats were divided into five groups (A–E) (n=6/sex/group). Each rat in groups B–E was intraperitoneally administered 50 mg/kg of PHZ for two consecutive days. Group A (normal control) did not receive any PHZ, group B (negative control), group C received orally 5 mg/kg ferrous sulphate whereas groups D and E received 200 and 400 mg/kg O. gratissimum leaf extract respectively, for 14 days.
Red blood cell count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and high-density lipoprotein increased significantly (p<0.05) whereas low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein decreased in extract-treated groups when compared to the negative control. O. gratissimum (400 mg/kg extract) and standard drug (5 mg/kg ferrous sulphate) significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase.
The results of this study indicate that O. gratissimum leaf extract has a restorative effect on the phenylhydrazine-induced metabolic distortions in the blood, liver, and kidney, and therefore could be used therapeutically as an anti-anaemic tonic.