sperm quality
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 841-854
Lucas Emanuel Ferreira Canuto ◽  
Lorenzo Garrido Teixeira Martini Segabinazzi ◽  
Endrigo Adonis Braga de Araújo ◽  
Luis Fernando Mercês Chaves Silva ◽  

Cooling and freezing processes cause physical and chemical damage to sperm by cold shock and oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two antioxidants on sperm parameters of cooled and frozen-thawed ram semen diluted in an egg yolk-based extender. Semen was collected from 30 rams and processed in two consecutive experiments to test the inclusion of different concentrations of quercetin and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in an egg yolk-based semen extender. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was added as a solvent to the semen extender in a ratio of 1 mL DMSO for 90 mg of quercetin and 1 mL DMSO for 880 mg of BHT. After collection, semen was diluted at 200 × 106 motile sperm/mL (control) and split into different groups in each experiment. In experiment 1, semen was diluted with the extender containing quercetin (Q5, 5 μg/mL; Q10, 10 μg/mL; Q15, 15 μg/mL) or DMSO alone (DMSO1, 0.055 μL DMSO per mL; DMSO2, 0.165 μL DMSO per mL). In experiment 2, semen was diluted with the extender with BHT (BHT1, 0.5 μg/mL; BHT2, 1 μg/mL; BHT3, 1.5 μg/mL) or DMSO alone (DMSO3, 0.375 μL DMSO per mL; DMSO4, 1.125 μL DMSO per mL). After dilution, the semen was divided into two aliquots. Treated ram sperm samples were also subjected to different storage methods. The first set of samples was cooled at 5 °C for 24 h, whereas the second set of samples was frozen-thawed. Sperm motility parameters and plasma membrane integrity (PMI) were evaluated immediately after dilution (0h) and 24 h after cooling and in the frozen-thawed samples via computer-assisted sperm analysis and epifluorescence microscopy, respectively. The inclusion of quercetin or BHT did not affect sperm motility parameters or PMI of fresh, cooled, or frozen-thawed sperm in this study (P < 0.05). However, further studies are needed to test the effects of these antioxidants on the fertility of cryopreserved ram semen.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 973
Federica Barbagallo ◽  
Sandro La La Vignera ◽  
Rossella Cannarella ◽  
Laura M. Mongioì ◽  
Vincenzo Garofalo ◽  

Obesity is a major current public health problem of global significance. A progressive sperm quality decline, and a decline in male fertility, have been reported in recent decades. Several studies have reported a strict relationship between obesity and male reproductive dysfunction. Among the many mechanisms by which obesity impairs male gonadal function, sirtuins (SIRTs) have an emerging role. SIRTs are highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylases that play a role in gene regulation, metabolism, aging, and cancer. SIRTs regulate the energy balance, the lipid balance, glucose metabolism, and adipogenesis, but current evidence also indicates a role for SIRTs in male reproduction. However, the majority of the studies have been conducted in animal models and very few have been conducted with humans. This review shows that SIRTs play an important role among the molecular mechanisms by which obesity interferes with male fertility. This highlights the need to deepen this relationship. It will be of particular interest to evaluate whether synthetic and/or natural compounds capable of modifying the activity of SIRTs may also be useful for the treatment of obesity and its effects on gonadal function. Although few studies have explored the role of SIRT activators in obesity-induced male infertility, some molecules, such as resveratrol, appear to be effective in modulating SIRT activity, as well as counteracting the negative effects of obesity on male fertility. The search for strategies to improve male reproductive function in overweight/obese patients is a challenge and understanding the role of SIRTs and their activators may open new interesting scenarios in the coming years.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 204
Jordi Ribas-Maynou ◽  
Yentel Mateo-Otero ◽  
Marina Sanchez-Quijada ◽  
Sandra Recuero ◽  
Ariadna Delgado-Bermúdez ◽  

Telomere length has attracted much interest as a topic of study in human reproduction; furthermore, the link between sperm telomere length and fertility outcomes has been investigated in other species. This biomarker, however, has not been much explored in other animals, such as pigs, and whether it is related to sperm quality and fertility outcomes remains unknown. The present work aimed to determine the absolute value of telomere length in pig sperm, as well as its relationship to sperm quality parameters and embryo development. Telomere length was determined through quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) in 23 pig sperm samples and data were correlated to quality parameters (motility, morphology, and viability) and in vitro fertilization outcomes. We found that the mean telomere length in pig sperm was 22.1 ± 3.6 kb, which is longer than that previously described in humans. Whilst telomere length was not observed to be correlated to sperm quality variables (p > 0.05), a significant correlation between telomere length and the percentage of morulae 6 days after in vitro fertilization was observed (rs = 0.559; 95%C.I. = (−0.007 to 0.854); p = 0.047). Interestingly, this correlation was not found when percentages of early blastocysts/blastocysts (rs = 0.410; 95%C.I. = (−0.200 to 0.791); p = 0.164) and of hatching/hatched blastocysts (rs = 0.356; 95%C.I. = (− 0.260 to 0.766); p = 0.233) were considered. Through the separation of the samples into two groups by the median value, statistically significant differences between samples with shorter telomeres than the median and samples with longer telomeres than the median were found regarding development to morula (11.5 ± 3.6 vs. 21.8 ± 6.9, respectively) and to early blastocyst/blastocysts (7.6 ± 1.4 vs. 17.9 ± 12.2, respectively) (p < 0.05). In the light of these results, sperm telomere length may be a useful biomarker for embryo development in pigs, as sperm with longer telomeres lead to higher rates of morulae and blastocysts.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 192
Krzysztof Lukaszuk ◽  
Grzegorz Jakiel ◽  
Izabela Wocławek Potocka ◽  
Jolanta Kiewisz ◽  
Jolanta Olszewska ◽  

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a widely used and accepted treatment of choice for oocyte fertilization. However, the quality of sperm selection depends on the accurate visualization of the morphology, which can be achieved with a high image resolution. We aim to correct the conviction, shown in a myriad of publications, that an ultra-high magnification in the range of 6000×–10,000× can be achieved with an optical microscope. The goal of observing sperm under the microscope is not to simply get a larger image, but rather to obtain more detail—therefore, we indicate that the optical system’s resolution is what should be primarily considered. We provide specific microscope system setup recommendations sufficient for most clinical cases that are based on our experience showing that the optical resolution of 0.5 μm allows appropriate visualization of sperm defects. Last but not least, we suggest that mixed research results regarding the clinical value of IMSI, comparing to ICSI, can stem from a lack of standardization of microscopy techniques used for both ICSI and IMSI.

Md Mustahsan Billah ◽  
Saroj Khatiwada ◽  
Margaret J. Morris ◽  
Christopher A. Maloney

AbstractIn the last two decades, evidence from human and animal studies suggests that paternal obesity around the time of conception can have adverse effects on offspring health through developmental programming. This may make significant contributions to the current epidemic of obesity and related metabolic and reproductive complications like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and subfertility/infertility. To date, changes in seminal fluid composition, sperm DNA methylation, histone composition, small non-coding RNAs, and sperm DNA damage have been proposed as potential underpinning mechanism to program offspring health. In this review, we discuss current human and rodent evidence on the impact of paternal obesity/overnutrition on offspring health, followed by the proposed mechanisms, with a focus on sperm DNA damage underpinning paternal programming. We also summarize the different intervention strategies implemented to minimize effects of paternal obesity. Upon critical review of literature, we find that obesity-induced altered sperm quality in father is linked with compromised offspring health. Paternal exercise intervention before conception has been shown to improve metabolic health. Further work to explore the mechanisms underlying benefits of paternal exercise on offspring are warranted. Conversion to healthy diets and micronutrient supplementation during pre-conception have shown some positive impacts towards minimizing the impact of paternal obesity on offspring. Pharmacological approaches e.g., metformin are also being applied. Thus, interventions in the obese father may ameliorate the potential detrimental impacts of paternal obesity on offspring.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yi Lu ◽  
Hao Su ◽  
Jianzhong Zhang ◽  
Yutao Wang ◽  
Hongjun Li

Background: Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a member of methylxanthine chemicals and a type of non-selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, which has been used in male infertility treatment to improve sperm quality and erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment. Mutually tight associations existed between ED and male infertility. Using PTX might kill two birds with one stone by improving sperm quality and erectile function in infertile men with ED.Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched by October 2021. Based on available evidence from observational studies and randomized-controlled trials (RCTs), we conducted a systematic review to summarize the efficacy and safety of PTX in treating ED and male infertility. The protocol of the article was registered and updated in PROSPERO (CRD42021291396).Results: From 202 records, eight studies (7 RCTs) evaluating the role of PTX in ED and three studies (2 RCTs) assessing the efficacy of PTX in male infertility were included in the systematic review. Three studies (100.00%) and two studies (100.00%) reported the beneficial role of PTX in improving sperm progressive motility and normal sperm morphology rate, respectively. In contrast, only one study (33.33%) indicated the favorable role of PTX in enhancing sperm concentration. As for ED, three (60.00%) studies supported the treatment role of PTX alone in ED, and two studies (66.67%) favored the combination use of PTX and selective PDE5Is compared with selective PDE5Is alone. Safety analysis showed that PTX was a well-tolerated drug in ED and male infertility treatment.Conclusion: Given the association between ED and male infertility and satisfying findings from available evidence, PTX administration for the simultaneous treatment of poor sperm quality and mild ED in infertile men will highly enhance the treatment compliance. However, the finding should be treated carefully until validated by further studies.

Roberta Pecoraro ◽  
Santi Concetto Pavone ◽  
Elena Maria Scalisi ◽  
Carmen Sica ◽  
Sara Ignoto ◽  

Recently, a rising use of wireless internet technologies has been demonstrated. The devices which use these technologies emit a considerable amount of electromagnetic radiation (EMFs) which could interact with the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro influence of electromagnetic fields a 27 GHz on sperm quality in Mytilus galloprovincialis. The experiments were conducted with a no commercial high gain pyramidal horn antenna. Sperm samples, taken from sexually mature males of M. galloprovincialis, were placed in seawater. Once evaluated the number and quality of spermatozoa, sperm cells were exposed to electromagnetic fields. The effect of exposure was evaluated after 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes with light microscope and using Eosin test. All the samples were performed in triplicate and statistical analysis was carried out by one-way ANOVA test. A significative decrease (30%) in sperm motility was ob-served after 10 minutes of exposure and after 30 minutes all sperms were immobile and not vital. The measurement of the Oxidation Reduction Potential (sORP), which evaluates the oxidative damage on spermatozoa, shows how the exposure to 27 GHz has increased the oxidant amount compared to the control groups. This study provides useful data on potential ecological impact of the EMFs on aquatic animals, that currently are poor investigated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. e43211125191
Luana Nayara Gallego Adami ◽  
Valter Luiz Maciel Junior ◽  
João Diego Losano

Male infertility is one important factor among the multifactorial causes of couple infertility, being oxidative stress one of the main related sources. Sperm is a specialized cell extremely susceptible to stress. To understand and mitigate this event, many studies have used different antioxidants, orally or in vitro supplementation, trying to improve sperm quality and function. Considering the extensive available literature regarding approaches and attempts to solve male fertility issues, the aim of this review is evaluating the effects of antioxidant supplementation on sperm, in both humans and experimental models with animals. This review selected original data from PubMed. The keywords used were: antioxidant, sperm, male fertility, antioxidant supplementation, male infertility; and the term "rodents" was added to the descriptors “antioxidant” and “male fertility”. Only studies published in indexed journals, in English, between 2015 and 2019 were included. This review involves i) human sperm and ii) rodent sperm. For the human approach, the search retrieved 496 articles and 80 were included, among which 28 studies were of in vitro antioxidant supplementation, 19 involved oral antioxidant supplementation and the remaining 33 concerned quantification of oxidants and antioxidants already present in the seminal samples. For the rodent approach, 152 articles were retrieved and 52 were included: 3 of varicocele, 11 of diabetes, 10 of therapeutic drugs, 3 of physical exercise, 10 of environmental exposure and 3 of heat stress. The remaining studies involved oxidative stress status in experimental models. Antioxidants use for reproductive purposes is increasing in an attempt to achieve better gametes and embryos. Vitamins C, B and E, selenium and zinc are the most commonly used antioxidants, with remarkable evidences in improving pathophysiological seminal conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Ruixue Zhang ◽  
Hemeng Dong ◽  
Pengpeng Zhao ◽  
Chunmei Shang ◽  
Hang Qi ◽  

Abstract Background Semen cryopreservation has become an essential tool for conservation efforts of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); however, it is severely detrimental to sperm quality. Evidence has shown that antioxidants have the potential to reverse cryopreservation-induced damage in sperm. The purpose of this study was to screen effective antioxidants that could retain sperm quality during cryopreservation and to determine the optimal dose. Seven antioxidant groups, including resveratrol (RSV = 50 μM, RSV = 100 μM, RSV = 150 μM), lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP = 2 mg/mL, LBP = 4 mg/mL), laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP = 1 mg/mL) or combination (LBP = 2 mg/mL, LJP = 1 mg/mL and RSV = 100 μM) were assessed. Results RSV, LBP, LJP, or a combination of RSV, LBP, and LJP added to the freezing medium significantly improved sperm progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and mitochondrial activity during the cryopreservation process. Furthermore, the activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were also improved. The levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde in semen were notably reduced. Hyaluronidase activity and acrosin activity were significantly increased in LBP-treated sperm. However, sperm total motility and DNA integrity were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusions RSV (50 μM) or LBP (2 mg/mL) are the best candidate antioxidants for inclusion in the freezing medium to improve the quality of giant panda spermatozoa during semen cryopreservation.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document