Abstract The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential and inhibitory effect ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra against lipid peroxidation in goat brain and liver homogenates. The formation of free radicals, highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a normal metabolic process for cellular signaling and countering the antigens. However, they may cause serious damage if they produced at amplified tolls. In addition, metabolic disorders also serve as sources of these reactive species. Although the issue can be addressed through supplements and other phytochemicals. In this study, two plant species were evaluated for their biological potential by employing a spectrum of antioxidant assays. The antioxidant activity was performed by lipid peroxidation assay. The water extract prepared from leaves of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra showed significant (P<0.05) inhibition as compared to control i.e., 522.6±0.06 and 659.97±0.03 µg/mL against iron-induced lipid peroxidation in goat brain homogenate while the inhibitions were 273.54±0.04 and 309.18±0.05 µg/mL against nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation of the brain. The iron and nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also significantly inhibited by leaf extracts of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra in liver homogenates such as 230.63±0.52 and 326.91±0.01 µg/mL (iron-induced) while 300.47±0.07 and 300.47±0.07 µg/mL (nitroprusside induced), respectively. The extracts of Cannabis sativa extract showed promising activity (96.04±0.060%) against DPPH radicals while Morus nigra showed a moderate activity (34.11±0.120%). The results suggest that different accessions ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra are a potential source of antioxidants and have a therapeutic effect against disease induced by oxidative stress and hence can be used for novel drug discovery and development.
Among the oldest domesticated crops, cannabis plants (Cannabis sativa L., marijuana and hemp) have been used to produce food, fiber, and drugs for thousands of years. With the ongoing legalization of cannabis in several jurisdictions worldwide, a new high-value market is emerging for the supply of marijuana and hemp products. This creates unprecedented challenges to achieve better yields and environmental sustainability, while lowering production costs. In this review, we discuss the opportunities and challenges pertaining to the use of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria as crop inoculants to improve productivity. The prevalence and diversity of naturally occurring Pseudomonas strains within the cannabis microbiome is overviewed, followed by their potential mechanisms involved in plant growth promotion and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Emphasis is placed on specific aspects relevant for hemp and marijuana crops in various production systems. Finally, factors likely to influence inoculant efficacy are provided, along with strategies to identify promising strains, overcome commercialization bottlenecks, and design adapted formulations. This work aims at supporting the development of the cannabis industry in a sustainable way, by exploiting the many beneficial attributes of Pseudomonas spp.
Cannabigerol (CBG) is a minor non-psychoactive cannabinoid present in Cannabis sativa L. (C. sativa) at low levels (<1% per dry weight) that serves as the direct precursor to both cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Consequently, efforts to extract and purify CBG from C. sativa is both challenging and expensive. However, utilizing a novel yeast fermentation technology platform, minor cannabinoids such as CBG can be produced in a more sustainable, cost-effective, and timely process as compared to plant-based production. While CBD has been studied extensively, demonstrating several beneficial skin properties, there are a paucity of studies characterizing the activity of CBG in human skin. Therefore, our aim was to characterize and compare the in vitro activity profile of non-psychoactive CBG and CBD in skin and be the first group to test CBG clinically on human skin. Gene microarray analysis conducted using 3D human skin equivalents demonstrates that CBG regulates more genes than CBD, including several key skin targets. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) were exposed in culture to pro-inflammatory inducers to trigger cytokine production and oxidative stress. Results demonstrate that CBG and CBD reduce reactive oxygen species levels in HDFs better than vitamin C. Moreover, CBG inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine (Interleukin-1β, -6, -8, tumor necrosis factor α) release from several inflammatory inducers, such as ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), chemical, C. acnes, and in several instances does so more potently than CBD. A 20-subject vehicle-controlled clinical study was performed with 0.1% CBG serum and placebo applied topically for 2 weeks after sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritation. CBG serum showed statistically significant improvement above placebo for transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and reduction in the appearance of redness. Altogether, CBG’s broad range of in vitro and clinical skin health-promoting activities demonstrates its strong potential as a safe, effective ingredient for topical use and suggests there are areas where it may be more effective than CBD.
Hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) cake is a by-product after cold-pressing of oil from the hempseed, which is rich in protein and fiber. This study investigated the effect of hempseed cake incorporation on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of reconstructed potato chips. Varying levels of hempseed cake (0, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) were added, and the results showed that the addition of hempseed cake at 20% level significantly increased the protein and total dietary fiber content from 2.74 ± 0.62 g/100 g to 9.66 ± 0.28 g/100 g and from 2.76 ± 0.31 g/100 g to 13.57 ± 0.42 g/100 g, respectively. In addition, a 20% reduction in lipid content was observed in the 20% hempseed cake addition group. Furthermore, lightness value (L*) was significantly reduced from 72.23 ± 1.22 to 46.40 ± 1.76, while the hardness was enhanced with a higher level of hempseed cake supplementation in the potato chips sample. Compared with the control (no hempseed cake), the supplement of 20% cake increased the total phenolic content from 0.19 ± 0.01 to 0.26 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g. The ABTS radical scavenging rate was also significantly enhanced with the increased levels of hemp cake. However, the peroxide value and TBARS results showed that the addition of hempseed cake accelerated the lipid oxidation in the sample, possibly due to the highly unsaturated fatty acid residues in the hempseed cake. The results suggested that more research is needed for the incorporation of hempseed cake in potato chips.
This study systematically evaluates the presence of methane mitigating metabolites in two hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) varieties, Futura 75 and Finola. Hemp metabolites were extracted with methanol and fractionated using Solid Phase Extraction (SPE). Extracts, fractions, and the remaining pulp were screened for their methane mitigating potential using an in vitro model of rumen fermentation. The bioactive metabolites were identified with Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). When incubated with a standard feed (maize silage), the extract of Futura 75 significantly reduced methane production compared to that of control (without added extract) and without negative effects on feed degradability and volatile fatty acid patterns. The compounds responsible for the methane mitigating effect were assigned to flavonoid glycosides. However, none of the fractions of Futura 75 or the pulp exhibited similar effect on methane emission. Butyric acid concentration in the fermentation inoculum was significantly increased, which could indicate why methane production was higher, when incubated with the fractions and the pulp. The extract of Finola did not show a similar significant effect, however, there was a numerical tendency towards lower methane production. The difference in methane mitigating properties between Cannabis sativa L. Futura 75 and Finola, could be related to the content of bioactive flavonoids.
The paper presents the preparation and use of pressed solid biofuel of multi-crop plants (fibrous hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.)) as mono, binary and trinomial crops. The results of the investigation show that three main chemical elements (carbon, oxygen and hydrogen) accounted for 93.1 to 94.9% of the biomass pellet content. The moisture content varied from 3.9 to 8.8%, ash content from 4.5 to 6.8% and calorific value from 16.8 to 17.1 MJ·kg−1. It was found that the density (DM) of all variants of pellets was very similar; the faba bean biomass pellets had the highest density of 1195.8 kg·m−3 DM. The initial ash deformation temperature (DT) of burning biomass pellets was detected, which varied from 976 to 1322 °C. High potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations were found in all types of biomass ash. The quantities of heavy metals in pellet ash were not large and did not exceed the permissible values according to Lithuanian legislation. These chemical properties of multi-crop biomass ash allow them to be used in agriculture for plant fertilization.