sperm concentration
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2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Wei Wu ◽  
Yiqiu Chen ◽  
Yuting Cheng ◽  
Qiuqin Tang ◽  
Feng Pan ◽  

Abstract Background Several studies have suggested adverse effects of particulate matter (PM) exposure on male reproductive health; few have investigated the association between PM exposure and semen quality in a large population of fertile men. Methods We evaluated 14 parameters of semen quality in 1554 fertile men in Nanjing from 2014 to 2016. Individual exposure to particular matter ≤10 μm in diameter (PM10) and ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) during key periods of sperm development (0-90, 0-9, 10-14, 15-69, and 70-90 days before semen collection) were estimated by inverse distance weighting interpolation. Associations between PM exposure and semen quality were estimated using multivariable linear regression. Results Higher 90-days average PM2.5 was in association with decreased sperm motility (2.21% for total motility, 1.93% for progressive motility per 10 μg/m3 increase, P <  0.001) and four quantitative aspects of sperm motion (curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), and amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), P <  0.01). The association between PM2.5 exposure and semen quality were generally stronger for the earlier exposure window (70-90 days prior to ejaculation) than for recent exposure (0-9, 10-14, or 15-69 days). In the subgroup of men who had normal sperm parameters (n = 1019), similar results were obtained. Ninety-days PM10 exposure was associated only with decreased VCL and VAP and was not related to sperm concentration. Conclusions Exposure to PM2.5 adversely affects semen quality, specifically lower sperm motility, in fertile men. Graphical abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (6) ◽  
pp. 715-725
S. V. Pichugova ◽  
V. A. Chereshnev ◽  
Ya. B. Beikin

Introduction. The prevalence of andrological diseases among adolescents and young adults resulting in lowered reproductive potential has been noted to progressively increase. At the same time, the number of couples starting to manage reproductive issues after 35–40 years of age highlighting the onset of male androgen deficiency continues to rise. Therefore, the analysis of spermogram as the key element in assessing male reproductive potential is better to conduct at different age periods of man's life.Aim: to compare spermogram parameters in different age groups of patients with reproductive pathology.Materials and Мethods. The analysis of spermograms in adolescents with left-sided grade II–III varicocele aged 17 years and in infertile males aged 22–48 years was performed. Semen analysis was conducted in accordance with the standards of the 5 th edition of the World Health Organization and included the following parameters: semen volume (ml), sperm concentration (million/ml), total sperm count (million), acidity, viscosity, progressive motility, total motility, viability, morphology, detected mucus, leukocytes, amyloid bodies, lecithin grains as well as sperm aggregation and agglutination. The stained preparations were used to assess the morphology of spermatozoa and spermatogenesis cells. According to the spermogram data obtained, the following conclusions were drawn: normozoospermia, oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia. Statistical analysis was performed by using Statistica 10.0 software (StatSoft Inc., USA). The normality distribution was assessed using the χ2 test. Quantitative parameters were presented as arithmetic means and standard deviations (M ± SD). Assessing significance of differences was performed by using the Student's t-test, whereas inter-parameter correlation relations were analyzed by using the linear Pearson's correlation coefficient. A significance level between inter-group parameters was set at p < 0.05.Results. It was found that adolescents with varicocele vs. adult men had significantly decreased ejaculate volume. In particular, the average ejaculate volume in adolescents and adult men was 2.32 ± 1.22 ml and 3.50 ± 1.44 ml, respectively, so that the larger number of young patients were noted to have ejaculate volume below 1.5 ml. Compared to young subjects, aged patients had decreased sperm concentration (35.88 ± 25.74 versus 72.20 ± 49.32 million/ml) and total sperm count (120.58 ± 91.72 versus 173.07 ± 163.92 million). Young patients were found to have significantly superior data in all categories of sperm motility, whereas infertile men were diagnosed with impaired sperm motility. In particular, adolescents were featured with the average number of spermatozoa displaying fast and slow translational movement comprising 17.12 ± 11.04 % and 29.30 ± 12.29 %, respectively, the proportion of progressive motility spermatozoa was 46.20 ± 19.82 %. In contrast, similar parameters in adult men were 5.10 ± 6.36 %, 19.80 ± 9.61 %, and 24.95 ± 11.23 %, respectively. In infertile men prevalence of lacked spermatozoa with rapid forward movement was 46 (46.0 %), in adolescents – 8 (8.6%), whereas rate of immotile spermatozoa in infertile men, on average, accounted for 53.10 ± 14.56 %, in adolescents – 34.40 ± 21.83 %. In addition, adolescents with varicocele had significantly fewer spermatozoa with normal morphology – 14.14 ± 8.06 % (in adult men – 30.08 ± 17.94 %), there were more abundant defects in the sperm head – 58.01 ± 12.43 % (in men – 48.83 ± 18.95 %) and flagella – 17.24 ± 6.31 % (in men – 10.29 ± 6.21 %). The data obtained showed that adolescents were more often diagnosed with normozoospermia – in 49 (52.7 %) cases, in infertile men – in 12 (12.0 %) cases, whereas in aged men asthenozoospermia was detected in 82 (82.0 %) cases, in adolescents – 5 (5.4 %) cases.Conclusion. The abnormalities in the spermogram revealed in adolescents may be associated with unestablished spermatogenesis. Normozoospermia more common in adolescents with varicocele may evidence about preserved reproductive potential. Impaired sperm motility in aged patients seems to be related to the formation of oxidative stress and damage to spermatozoa by reactive oxygen species due to combined age-related changes, cumulation of the negative effects of environmental and lifestyle factors, as well as comorbidities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yi Lu ◽  
Hao Su ◽  
Jianzhong Zhang ◽  
Yutao Wang ◽  
Hongjun Li

Background: Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a member of methylxanthine chemicals and a type of non-selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, which has been used in male infertility treatment to improve sperm quality and erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment. Mutually tight associations existed between ED and male infertility. Using PTX might kill two birds with one stone by improving sperm quality and erectile function in infertile men with ED.Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched by October 2021. Based on available evidence from observational studies and randomized-controlled trials (RCTs), we conducted a systematic review to summarize the efficacy and safety of PTX in treating ED and male infertility. The protocol of the article was registered and updated in PROSPERO (CRD42021291396).Results: From 202 records, eight studies (7 RCTs) evaluating the role of PTX in ED and three studies (2 RCTs) assessing the efficacy of PTX in male infertility were included in the systematic review. Three studies (100.00%) and two studies (100.00%) reported the beneficial role of PTX in improving sperm progressive motility and normal sperm morphology rate, respectively. In contrast, only one study (33.33%) indicated the favorable role of PTX in enhancing sperm concentration. As for ED, three (60.00%) studies supported the treatment role of PTX alone in ED, and two studies (66.67%) favored the combination use of PTX and selective PDE5Is compared with selective PDE5Is alone. Safety analysis showed that PTX was a well-tolerated drug in ED and male infertility treatment.Conclusion: Given the association between ED and male infertility and satisfying findings from available evidence, PTX administration for the simultaneous treatment of poor sperm quality and mild ED in infertile men will highly enhance the treatment compliance. However, the finding should be treated carefully until validated by further studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mohua Dasgupta ◽  
Arumugam Kumaresan ◽  
Kaustubh Kishor Saraf ◽  
Pradeep Nag ◽  
Manish Kumar Sinha ◽  

Male fertility is extremely important in dairy animals because semen from a single bull is used to inseminate several thousand females. Asthenozoospermia (reduced sperm motility) and oligozoospermia (reduced sperm concentration) are the two important reasons cited for idiopathic infertility in crossbred bulls; however, the etiology remains elusive. In this study, using a non-targeted liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry-based approach, we carried out a deep metabolomic analysis of spermatozoa and seminal plasma derived from normozoospermic and astheno-oligozoospermic bulls. Using bioinformatics tools, alterations in metabolites and metabolic pathways between normozoospermia and astheno-oligozoospermia were elucidated. A total of 299 and 167 metabolites in spermatozoa and 183 and 147 metabolites in seminal plasma were detected in astheno-oligozoospermic and normozoospermic bulls, respectively. Among the mapped metabolites, 75 sperm metabolites were common to both the groups, whereas 166 and 50 sperm metabolites were unique to astheno-oligozoospermic and normozoospermic bulls, respectively. Similarly, 86 metabolites were common to both the groups, whereas 45 and 37 seminal plasma metabolites were unique to astheno-oligozoospermic and normozoospermic bulls, respectively. Among the differentially expressed metabolites, 62 sperm metabolites and 56 seminal plasma metabolites were significantly dysregulated in astheno-oligozoospermic bulls. In spermatozoa, selenocysteine, deoxyuridine triphosphate, and nitroprusside showed significant enrichment in astheno-oligozoospermic bulls. In seminal plasma, malonic acid, 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate, D-cysteine, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate were significantly upregulated, whereas tetradecanoyl-CoA was significantly downregulated in the astheno-oligozoospermia. Spermatozoa from astheno-oligozoospermic bulls showed alterations in the metabolism of fatty acid and fatty acid elongation in mitochondria pathways, whereas seminal plasma from astheno-oligozoospermic bulls showed alterations in synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, pyruvate metabolism, and inositol phosphate metabolism pathways. The present study revealed vital information related to semen metabolomic differences between astheno-oligozoospermic and normospermic crossbred breeding bulls. It is inferred that fatty acid synthesis and ketone body degradations are altered in the spermatozoa and seminal plasma of astheno-oligozoospermic crossbred bulls. These results open up new avenues for further research, and current findings can be applied for the modulation of identified pathways to restore sperm motility and concentration in astheno-oligozoospermic bulls.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Naina Kumar ◽  
Amit Kant Singh

Abstract Background Worldwide rising trend in infertility has been observed in the past few years with male infertility arising as a major problem. One main reason for the rise in male infertility cases is declining semen quality. It was found that any factor that affects semen quality can affect male fertility. There are several modifiable factors affecting semen quality including air pollution, use of pesticides and harmful chemicals, exposure to excessive heat, and can lead to decreased male fertility. Main body The present review focuses on some of these environmental factors that affect semen quality and hence, can cause male infertility. The literature from 2000 till June 2021 was searched from various English peer-reviewed journals and WHO fact sheets using the USA National Library of Medicine (PubMed) database, the regional portal of Virtual Health Library, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. The search terms used were: “Air pollution and male fertility”, “Chemicals and male infertility”, “Heat exposure and infertility”, “heavy metals and male fertility”. Conclusion Adverse environmental factors have a significant impact on semen quality, leading to decreased sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, viability, and increased abnormal sperm morphology, sperm DNA fragmentation, ultimately causing male infertility. However, all these factors are modifiable and reversible, and hence, by mere changing of lifestyle, many of these risk factors can be avoided.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yanpeng Dai ◽  
Junjie Liu ◽  
Enwu Yuan ◽  
Yushan Li ◽  
Ying Shi ◽  

Several studies have explored the relationship among traditional semen parameters, sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF), and unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM); however, the findings remain controversial. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore the relationship among traditional semen parameters, SDF, and unexplained RM. Multiple databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), were searched to identify relevant publications. From the eligible publications, data were extracted independently by two researchers. A total of 280 publications were identified using the search strategy. According to the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 19 publications were eligible. A total of 1182 couples with unexplained RM and 1231 couples without RM were included in this meta-analysis to assess the relationship among traditional semen parameters, SDF, and unexplained RM. Our results showed that couples with unexplained RM had significantly increased levels of SDF and significantly decreased levels of total motility and progressive motility compared with couples without RM, although significant differences were not observed in the semen volume, sperm concentration, and total sperm count between couples with and without RM. The SDF assay may be considered for inclusion in evaluations of couples with unexplained RM.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e2034
Shabnam Zarei Moradi ◽  
Seyed Abdolhamid Angaji ◽  
Mitra Salehi ◽  
Mehrdad Hashemi

Background: Ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) in testicular tissue is one reason for the worldwide increase in male infertility. In the present study, we assessed the effects of curcumin and Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) on sperm parameters in rats with I/R damage. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight adult male rats were divided into two groups (n=24 per group): control and torsion/detorsion. The control and torsion/detorsion groups were divided into four subgroups include sham, Fe3O4 NPs, curcumin, and Fe3O4 NPs+curcumin. After the rats were sacrificed, semen was collected from their epididymal tissues to assess sperm viability, motility, concentration, and morphology. Results: Curcumin significantly improved viability, motility, and normal sperm morphology in rats with I/R damage compared to the control group; however, it did not have a significant effect on sperm concentration (P<0.001). Fe3O4 NPs alone decreased all sperm parameters in the control and I/R rats (P<0.001). However, concomitant administration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with curcumin significantly improved sperm parameters in rats with I/R damage (P<0.001). Conclusion: The increase in all semen parameters in the experimental groups with concomitant use of Fe3O4 NPs plus curcumin indicated that green synthesis of NPs could be recommended for future clinical studies.

2021 ◽  
pp. 30-33
O.M. Feskov ◽  
Y.S. Zhylkova ◽  
H.V. Nesteruk ◽  
I.K. Osovskyi ◽  
А.О. Feskova

Research objective: to study the effect of myo-inositol (MI), folic acid (FA) and cyanocobalamin in mono- and complex therapy on the classical fertility rates and the level of DNA fragmentation in sperm in men with low reproductive function, and on the results of the in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs performed in these patients.Materials and methods. A retrospective study of 133 patients aged 32 to 40 years was carried out for the period 2020–2021. All patients were divided into three groups: group 1 – 44 men who took MI, FA and cyanocobalamin daily as monotherapy for 3 months; group 2 – 42 patients who followed a diet to improve spermatogenesis for 3 months; group 3 – 47 men, for whom complex therapy was applied for 3 months: MI, FA, cyanocobalamin and diet.Results. The increase of sperm concentration in ejaculate, improvement of progressively motility of spermatozoa, and increase of the percent of spermatozoa with normal morphology in men with failures of reproductive function after the complex preparatory therapy are defined. The preparatory therapy for men with MI in preparation for IVF helps to improve the quality of embryos and increase the pregnancy rates in couples with male infertility due to the assisted reproductive technologies. The positive effect of preparatory complex therapy in patients with poor spermatogenesis on the blastocyst formation rates in IVF programs is shown.Conclusions. The positive effect of MI on the normal functioning of the reproductive system in men has been proven. The increase pregnancy rates in the IVF program after preparatory treatment of men with MI can be explained by its positive effect on reducing the level of DNA fragmentation of sperm.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 340-346
R. R. Dapawole ◽  
I. P. Sirappa

This study aimed to determine the effectiveness and the best concentration of Moringa leaf extract (MLE) in the citrate-egg yolk (C-EY) to maintain the motility and viability of spermatozoa kacang goat. Semen was collected from 3 goats aged two years; by using the artificial vagina method. The semen was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The semen that had >70% sperm motility and >250x106/ml sperm concentration was divided into 4 equal tubes, each diluted with100% C-EY (P1), 10% MLE+ 90%C-EY (P2), 20% MLE +80% C-EY (P3), and 30% MLE+70% C-EY (P4). The diluted samples were then stored in a refrigerator (3-5?C) and evaluated for motility and viability every 24 hours. The study was designed using a completely randomized design (CRD) consisting of four treatments and five replications. The results showed that the addition of MLE in C-EY significantly affected goat spermatozoa's progressive motility and viability. The data showed that the spermatozoa kept during four days in a diluent of P2 had higher (P<0.05) motility 44.67±4.80% and viability 74.24±4.46%than the other three diluents of P1(36.00±4.70%; 70.10±3.6%), P3(33.67±0.42%; 66.85±4.99%) and P4 (29.67±3.99%; 63.96±5.44%). This study concluded that adding 10% MLE was the best concentration as source energy in 90% C-EY diluents, which effectively maintained the motility and viability of kacang goat spermatozoa for four days of storage at a temperature of 3-5oC.

2021 ◽  
pp. 3156-3163
Bongot Huaso Mulia ◽  
Ardyta Widianti ◽  
Jansen Manansang ◽  
Dedi Rahmat Setiadi ◽  
Vincentia Trisna Yoelinda ◽  

Background and Aim: The Javan leopard (Panthera pardus melas Cuvier, 1809) is a subspecies of Panthera pardus spp., spread across the African and Asian regions. Information on reproductive aspects is crucial for wild animals, including the Javan leopard. In this study, we aimed to develop electroejaculator (EE) techniques and evaluate cryopreservation success in Javan leopard semen. Materials and Methods: The semen of four adult Javan leopards was collected once a week using EE. Placement of the EE probe in the rectum was performed after ultrasound imaging (ultrasonography) to determine the prostate body location. The semen obtained was then evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. Three Javan leopards were used for cryopreservation. The ejaculate was divided into two parts [i.e., one part diluted with AndroMed® (Minitüb, Tiefenbach, Germany) and the other part with Steridyl® (Minitüb, Tiefenbach, Germany)] at a 1:1 ratio immediately after collection and evaluation. The semen was then packed in a 0.25 mL MiniStraw® (Minitüb, Tiefenbach, Germany) then equilibrated at 4°C for 2 h. After equilibration, the straw was then frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Frozen semen was then stored in containers until further evaluation. Results: The results showed that ejaculation response occurred at all levels of stimulation, while erections did not always occur. The fastest ejaculation and erection occurred at the fourth voltage. The macroscopic evaluation showed that the semen volume was 0.80±0.26 mL, cloudy white, pH 7.44±0.14, and with watery semen consistency. The microscopic evaluation showed that the sperm motility was 66.98±0.39%, with sperm viability of 75.6±1.79%. Sperm concentration was 62.17±46.95×106 mL–1 with a total concentration of 42.14±23.51×106 cells. Normal sperm morphology is only 40.72±6.26%. Conclusion: This study concluded that the development of a semen collection technique using an EE preceded by imaging of the EE probe location using ultrasound was effective for the ejaculation of Javan leopards. The characteristics of the semen of the Javan leopard showed moderate semen volume, sperm motility, and viability. Javan leopard showed low sperm concentration and normal sperm morphology.

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