Kombucha is a popular beverage with various bioactivities (such as antioxidant activity), which can be attributed to its abundant bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols. Kombucha is conventionally prepared by fermentation of a sugared black tea infusion without tea residue. In this study, the effects of black tea residue and green tea residue on kombucha were studied, and its antioxidant activities, total phenolic contents, as well as concentrations of polyphenols at different fermentation stages were evaluated using ferric-reducing antioxidant power, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Folin-Ciocalteu method and high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector. The results showed that fermentation with tea residue could markedly increase antioxidant activities (maximum 3.25 times) as well as polyphenolic concentrations (5.68 times) of kombucha. In addition, green tea residue showed a stronger effect than black tea residue. Overall, it is interesting to find that fermentation with tea residues could be a better strategy to produce polyphenol-rich kombucha beverages.
The amount of soil contaminated with heavy metal increases due to urbanization, industrialization, and anthropogenic activities. Quinoa is considered a useful candidate in the remediation of such soil. In this pot experiment, the phytoextraction capacity of quinoa lines (A1, A2, A7, and A9) against different nickel (Ni) concentrations (0, 50, and 100 mg kg-1) were investigated. Required Ni concentrations were developed in polythene bags filled with sandy loam soil using nickel nitrate salt prior to two months of sowing and kept sealed up to sowing. Results showed that translocation of Ni increased from roots to shoots with an increase in soil Ni concentration in all lines. A2 line accumulated high Ni in leaf compared to the root as depicted by translocation factor 3.09 and 3.21 when grown at soil having 50 and 100 Ni mg kg-1, respectively. While, in the case of root, A7 accumulated high Ni followed by A9, A1, and A2, respectively. There was a 5–7% increased seed yield by 50 mg kg-1 Ni in all except A1 compared to control. However, growth and yield declined with a further increase in Ni level. The maximum reduction in yield was noticed in A9, which was strongly linked with poor physiological performance, e.g., chlorophyll a, b, and phenolic contents. Ni concentrations in the seed of all lines were within the permissible value set (67 ppm) by FAO/WHO. The result of the present study suggests that quinoa is a better accumulator of Ni. This species can provide the scope of decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil. The screened line can be used for future quinoa breeding programs for bioremediation and phytoextraction purpose.
‘Arauco’ forms part of the over two thousand olives (Olea europaea L.) varieties identified worldwide with the peculiarity of being the only recognized variety from Argentina. In this work, the fruit and oil characteristics from the ‘Arauco’ variety cultivated in the three main olive growing zones of Mendoza province (Argentina) were evaluated over two harvests (2016 and 2017). The characteristics assessed were oil and water concentrations, pulp/pit ratio, industrial yield, oxidative stability, fatty acid profile, total phenols and total flavonoids, among others. The results showed relatively high oleic acid and phenolic contents, together with low acidity and extinction coefficients (K232 and K270), as well as a well-balanced fatty acid profile. In addition, three interesting relationships among oxidative stability and ratios of monounsaturated fatty acids/polyunsaturated fatty acids (R2=0.96), oleic/linoleic (R2=0.96) and stearic acid (R2=0.93) were observed. These results showed that the ‘Arauco’ variety cultivated in Mendoza provides excellent oil quality.
The main objective of this study was to develop a healthy rice-based gluten-free bread by using raw, roasted, or dehulled chickpea flours. All breads containing chickpea flours showed a darker crust and were characterized by an alveolar (porosity 41.5–51.4%) and soft crumb (hardness 5.5-14.1 N). Roasted chickpea flour bread exhibited the highest specific volume, the softest crumb, and the slowest staling rate. Enriching rice-based breads with the chickpea flours resulted in increased protein (from 9.72 to 12.03–13.21 g/100 g dm), ash (from 2.01 to 2.45–2.78 g/100 g dm), fat (from 1.61 to 4.58–5.86 g/100 g), and total phenolic contents (from 49.36 up to 80.52 mg GAE/100 g dm), and in reduced (~10–14% and 13.7–17%, respectively) available starch levels and rapidly digestible starch compared to rice bread. Breads with roasted chickpea flour also showed the highest in vitro protein digestibility. The results of this study indicated that the enrichment of rice-based gluten-free breads with chickpea flours improved the technological and nutritional quality of the breads differently according to the processed chickpea flour used, also allowing recovery of a waste product.
The present study was designed to evaluate polarity-dependent extraction efficiency and pharmacological profiling of Polygonum glabrum Willd. Crude extracts of leaves, roots, stems, and seeds, prepared from solvents of varying polarities, were subjected to phytochemical, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, and cytotoxicity assays. Maximum extraction yield (20.0% w/w) was observed in the case of an acetone:methanol (AC:M) root extract. Distilled water:methanol (W:M) leaves extract showed maximum phenolic contents. Maximum flavonoid content and free radical scavenging potential were found in methanolic (M) seed extract. HPLC-DAD quantification displayed the manifestation of substantial quantities of quercetin, rutin, gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, and kaempferol in various extracts. The highest ascorbic acid equivalent total antioxidant capacity and reducing power potential was found in distilled water roots and W:M leaf extracts, respectively. Chloroform (C) seeds extract produced a maximum zone of inhibition against Salmonella typhimurium. Promising protein kinase inhibition and antifungal activity against Mucor sp. were demonstrated by C leaf extract. AC:M leaves extract exhibited significant cytotoxic capability against brine shrimp larvae and α-amylase inhibition. Present results suggest that the nature of pharmacological responses depends upon the polarity of extraction solvents and parts of the plant used. P. glabrum can be considered as a potential candidate for the isolation of bioactive compounds with profound therapeutic importance.
Chestnut-added milk (CM) was produced with 2 different methods. In the first method, chestnuts were roasted, and in the second method, they were cooked in bain-marie and then added to milk at different ratios (5, 15, 25 %). The addition of chestnuts to milk statistically increased the amount of protein, dietary fiber, carbohydrate, energy, mineral (Ca, K, P, Mg), antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content compared to the control, whereas it did not cause a significant change in sensory properties. Therefore, the chestnut is a suitable supplementation for milk.
In this study, physical (cooking time, water ab-sorption, cooking loss and color), chemical (proximate composition, pH, total phe-nolic content, mineral mat-ter (Ca, K, Fe, Mg and Zn)), textural (hardness and adhe-siveness) and sensory (col-or, taste, flavor, appearance, hardness, adhesiveness and overall acceptability) attrib-utes were determined in dif-ferent types of noodles pro-duced from siyez wheat flour, kale powder and chia seed mucilage. Results were statistically evaluated using SAS software. The optimal cooking time for the noo-dles were 20 min and cook-ing loss varied between 8.36-12.22%. Kale powder and chia mucilage addition decreased L* and a* values of the noodles. Ash, crude fiber, mineral matter and total phenolic contents of the noodles were higher and fat contents of the noodles were lower than the control sample. Hardness and adhe-siveness of the noodles were decreased by addition of the kale powder at 10%. The noodles with higher hard-ness and lower adhesiveness were preferred by the panel-ists in sensory evaluation. Increasing the kale powder level in the noodle formula-tion from 5% to 10% result-ed in higher color scores. However, the control sam-ple was the most preferred sample in terms of taste.
The anti-inflammatory activity of blackberries has been attributed to phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins. The present study hypothesized that volatiles could contribute to anti-inflammatory activity as well. The anti-inflammatory properties of three blackberry genotypes varying in total volatile and phenolic contents were assessed by measuring concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α) within LPS-inflamed RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells after a preventive treatment of either a phenolic or a volatile extract. Extracts from blackberry genotypes A2528T, A2587T and Natchez had total phenolic contents of 4315, 3369 and 3680 µg/mL, respectively, and total volatile contents of 283, 852 and 444 ng/mL, respectively. Phenolic and volatile extracts of all genotypes significantly lowered the secretion of NO, IL-6 and TNF-α in ranges varying between 20-42%, 34-60% and 28-73% inhibition, respectively. Volatile extracts exhibited greater anti-inflammatory properties than phenolic extracts, despite being present at much lower concentrations in the berries. Further research is needed to assess bioavailability and anti-inflammatory effect of blackberry volatiles in vivo.
The biochemical composition of three novel selected microalgae strains (Chlorophyta) was evaluated to confirm their potential possibilities as new sustainably produced biomass with nutritional, functional, and/or biomedical properties. Extracts from cultured Pseudopediastrum boryanum, Chloromonas cf. reticulata, and Chloroidium saccharophilum exhibited higher radical scavenging activity of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) when compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), but lower than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Total phenolic compounds and amino acids were determined by newly developed RP-HPLC methods. Total phenolic contents, as µg g−1 of dry biomass, reached 27.1 for C. cf. reticulata, 26.4 for P. boryanum, and 55.8 for C. saccharophilum. Percentages of total analysed amino acids were 24.3, 32.1, and 18.5% of dry biomass, respectively, presenting high values for essential amino acids reaching 54.1, 72.6, and 61.2%, respectively. Glutamic acid was the most abundant free amino acid in all microalgae samples, followed by proline and lysine in C. saccharophilum and P. boryanum, and methionine and lysine in C. reticulata. Soluble carbohydrates in aqueous extracts ranged from 39.6 for C. saccharophilum to 49.3% for C. reticulata, increasing values to 45.1 for C. saccharophilum and 52.7% for P. boryanum in acid hydrolysates of dried biomass. Results confirmed the potential possibilities of these microalgae strains.