Introduction. Adverse medication events are a potential source of significant morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients, where dosages frequently rely on weight-based formulas. The most frequent occurrence of medication errors occurs during the ordering phase. Methods. Through a prospective cohort analysis, we followed medication errors through patient safety reports (PSRs) to determine if the use of a medication dosage calculator would reduce the number of PSRs per patient visits. Results. The number of PSRs for medication errors per patient visit occurring due to errors in ordering decreased from 10/28 417 to 1/17 940, a decrease by a factor of 6.31, with a χ2 value of 4.063, P = .0463. Conclusion. We conclude that the use of an electronic dosing calculator is able to reduce the number of medication errors, thereby reducing the potential for serious pediatric adverse medication events.
Pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) is a pathology associated with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly among preterm infants in the NICU. The diagnosis is made when hemorrhagic secretions are aspirated from the trachea concurrent with respiratory decompensation that necessitates intubation or escalated support. The implementation of mechanical ventilation and widespread exogenous surfactant administration have significantly reduced respiratory morbidities. However, when PH develops, death remains the most common outcome. Treatment for PH remains primarily supportive; thus, a thorough understanding of underlying disease processes, manifestations, diagnostic testing, and current evidence is vital to enable early identification and proactive management to reduce morbidity and mortality.
The occurrence of pulmonary fungal superinfection due to Aspergillus spp. in patients with COVID-19 is a well-described complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This can be related to a directed effect of the virus and to the immunosuppressive role of the therapies administered for the disease. Here, we describe the first case of pulmonary infection due to Mucorales occurring in a patient with a concomitant diagnosis of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis.
Bacterial pathogens cause significant morbidity and mortality annually to both humans and animals. With the spread of drug resistance and the diminishing effectiveness of antibiotics, there is a pressing need for effective diagnostics for detection of bacterial pathogens. Bacteriophages offer several unique opportunities for bacterial detection. This review highlights the means by which bacteriophages have been utilized to achieve and facilitate specific bacterial detection.
The zero incidence of smallpox in the United States for so many years, and the significant morbidity and mortality from vaccination, has led to the acceptable and desirable recommendation that routine immunization against smallpox be discontinued. However appropriate this step may seem, it will pose a number of new problems which will involve the pediatrician especially.
(1) For many years, smallpox vaccination has been an almost sacred tenet, an immunologic gospel to the population, and has been credited with the conquest of this disease in this country—even though herd immunity could hardly be said to have existed here. Public reeducation is a hazardous matter.
Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a common medical and/or surgical emergency that can be caused by a range of diverse pathologies. Gastrointestinal Bleeding can be divided into upper and lower in nature, presenting in sometimes subtly different fashions, but with differing requirements for investigation and management. Prompt identification, risk stratification and treatment are required in order to minimise the ongoing significant morbidity and mortality rates associated with severe presentations of gastrointestinal bleeding.
• Introduction 412
• Initial management checklist 416
• Initial management 418
• Assessing the burn patient 422
• Stabilizing the burn patient 426
• Surgical management of burns 428
Burns are systemic injuries, which result in significant morbidity and mortality. They present a major challenge, not only during the resuscitation phase, but also with later reconstruction. With burns of the face, a ...
Although the prevalence of rheumatic fever has greatly decreased in Western countries, mitral stenosis (MS) still results in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The treatment of MS has been revolutionized since the development of balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV). Until the first publication by Inoue in 1984, surgery was the only treatment for patients with mitral stenosis. Since then, the technique has evolved considerably. A large number of patients with varied conditions have now been treated worldwide, enabling us to assess the efficacy and risk of the technique, and long-term results make us better able to select the most appropriate candidates for treatment using this method.
AbstractMajor pelvic resections for malignant tumors are infrequent and have significant morbidity and mortality, for instance, incisional hernias are postoperative complications uncommonly reported probably because most cases are overshadowed by more serious complications. Reconstruction depends on the extent of the resection and overall prognosis of the patient. A case of a late complex hypogastric and femoral incisional hernia after extended hemipelvectomy for recurrent osteosarcoma treated with distal abdominal wall fixation into a free fibula flap is reported.