Pulmonary Aspergillosis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
P. Lewis White ◽  
Jan Springer ◽  
Matt P. Wise ◽  
Hermann Einsele ◽  
Claudia Löffler ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in large numbers of patients requiring critical care management. With the established association between severe respiratory virus infection and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (7.6% for COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA)), the pandemic places a significant number of patients at potential risk from secondary invasive fungal disease. We described a case of CAPA with substantial supporting mycological evidence, highlighting the need to employ strategic diagnostic algorithms and weighted definitions to improve the accuracy in diagnosing CAPA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Katarzyna Guziejko ◽  
Katarzyna Klukowska ◽  
Urszula Budzińska ◽  
Robert Marek Mróz

Background: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a rare complication of radiochemotherapy for lung cancer. It may develop months or years after radical treatment. The diagnosis of CPA is challenging and complex. Not only fungal infection but also cancer relapse always have to be taken under consideration. Antifungal therapy is the base treatment, especially in the case when a surgical procedure is not possible. Standard treatment for at least 6 months is recommended but the optimal duration of the antifungal therapy is unknown. We present the clinical case of CPA, in which we had to perform multidirectional diagnostic tests to confirm the diagnosis and modified treatment due to the recurrence of the disease.Case Presentation: We report a patient who developed CPA three and a half years after concurrent radiochemotherapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Non-specific symptoms were the cause of delayed diagnosis of fungal infection. Samples collected during bronchoscopy allowed to exclude the recurrence of lung cancer and establish the diagnosis of CPA. The patient was treated with itraconazole for 6 months. A few months later, controlled chest CT scans revealed the progression of CPA. Initially, retreatment with itraconazole was implemented. Due to the progression of fungal infection, voriconazole was used in the second line of treatment. Unfortunately, this therapy was complicated by the side effects and deterioration of the patient's condition. The reintroduction of itraconazole resulted in clinical and radiological improvement. Treatment is scheduled for at least 12 months.Conclusion: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) was the cause of clinical deterioration and radiological progression in a patient after the radical treatment of lung cancer. In the described case, the diagnosis of CPA was delayed because of the suspicion of the recurrence of lung cancer. As the surgery was not possible, antifungal therapy with itraconazole was implemented and the proper dosage and duration led to significant clinical improvement.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Andrea Porzionato ◽  
Elena Stocco ◽  
Aron Emmi ◽  
Veronica Macchi ◽  
Raffaele De Caro

In this report, we describe an autopsy case of a child affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia and opportunistic pulmonary aspergillosis. The patient died because of a full-thickness tracheal wall ulceration with right inferior thyroid artery lesion and sudden hemorrhage, likely ascribable to undiagnosed invasive Aspergillus laryngotracheitis. Aspergillus infection, particularly in immunocompromised patients, should be considered an urgent risk factor to manage as it may lead to sudden fatal events in absence of evident critical symptoms.

Maria Eduarda Farias ◽  
Monique Freire Santana ◽  
Luiz Ferreira ◽  
Mayla Borba ◽  
João Silva-Neto ◽  

Between April and July 2020, and, therefore, prior to the broad recommendation of corticosteroids for severe COVID-19, a total of 50 full autopsies were performed in Manaus. We confirmed two invasive cases of aspergillosis through histopathology and gene sequencing (4%) in our autopsy series. The confirmed invasive aspergillosis incidence seems much lower than expected based on the “probable and possible” definitions, and an individualized approach should be considered for each country scenario. Interestingly, a prolonged length of stay in the intensive care unit was not observed in any of the cases. Timely diagnosis and treatment of fungal infection can reduce mortality rates.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
Kerri Basile ◽  
Catriona Halliday ◽  
Jen Kok ◽  
Sharon C-A. Chen

Invasive fungal disease (IFD) associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has focussed predominantly on invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. However, increasingly emergent are non-Aspergillus fungal infections including candidiasis, mucormycosis, pneumocystosis, cryptococcosis, and endemic mycoses. These infections are associated with poor outcomes, and their management is challenged by delayed diagnosis due to similarities of presentation to aspergillosis or to non-specific features in already critically ill patients. There has been a variability in the incidence of different IFDs often related to heterogeneity in patient populations, diagnostic protocols, and definitions used to classify IFD. Here, we summarise and address knowledge gaps related to the epidemiology, risks, diagnosis, and management of COVID-19-associated fungal infections other than aspergillosis.

Sarah Dellière ◽  
Emmanuel Dudoignon ◽  
Sébastian Voicu ◽  
Magalie Collet ◽  
Sofiane Fodil ◽  

Introduction: Diagnosis of COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis remains unclear especially in non-immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate seven mycological criteria and their combination in a large homogenous cohort of patients. Methods: All successive patients (n=176) hospitalized for COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation and who clinically worsened despite appropriate standard of care were included over a one-year period. Direct examination, culture, Aspergillus qPCR ( Af -qPCR) and galactomannan was performed on all respiratory samples (n=350). Serum galactomannan, ß-D-glucan and plasma Af -qPCR were also assessed. Criteria were analyzed alone or in combination in relation to mortality rate. Results: Mortality was significantly different in patients with 0, ≤2 and ≥3 positive criteria (logrank test, p=0.04) with death rate of 43.1, 58.1 and 76.4% respectively. Direct examination, plasma qPCR and serum galactomannan were associated with a 100% mortality rate. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) galactomannan and positive respiratory sample culture were often found as isolated markers (28.1 and 34.1%) and poorly repeatable when a second sample was obtained. Aspergillus DNA was detected in 13.1% of samples (46/350) with significantly lower Cq when associated with at least one other criteria (30.2 vs 35.8) (p<0.001). Conclusion: Combination of markers and/or blood biomarkers and/or direct respiratory sample examination seems more likely to identify patients with CAPA. Af -qPCR may help identifying false positive results of BAL galactomannan testing and culture on respiratory samples while quantifying fungal burden accurately.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 49
Chi-Jung Wu ◽  
Cong-Tat Cia ◽  
Hsuan-Chen Wang ◽  
Chang-Wen Chen ◽  
Wei-Chieh Lin ◽  

This study delineated the characteristics of 24 (11.2%) culture-positive, influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA) patients out of 215 patients with severe influenza during 2016–2019 in a medical center in southern Taiwan. Twenty (83.3%) patients did not have EORTC/MSG-defined host factors. The mean time from influenza diagnosis to Aspergillus growth was 4.4 days, and 20 (83.3%) developed IAPA within seven days after influenza diagnosis. All patients were treated in intensive care units and all but one (95.8%) received mechanical ventilation. Aspergillus tracheobronchitis was evident in 6 (31.6%) of 19 patients undergoing bronchoscopy. Positive galactomannan testing of either serum or bronchoalveolar lavage was noted in all patients. On computed tomography imaging, IAPA was characterized by peribronchial infiltrates, multiple nodules, and cavities superimposed on ground-glass opacities. Pure Aspergillus growth without bacterial co-isolation in culture was found in 17 (70.8%) patients. A. fumigatus (15, 62.5%), A. flavus (6, 25.0%), and A. terreus (4, 16.7%) were the major causative species. Three patients had mixed Aspergillus infections due to two species, and two had mixed azole-susceptible and azole-resistant A. fumigatus infection. All patients received voriconazole with an all-cause mortality of 41.6%. Of 14 survivors, the mean duration of antifungal use was 40.5 days. In conclusion, IAPA is an early and rapidly deteriorating complication following influenza that necessitates clinical vigilance and prompt diagnostic workup.

Critical Care ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Anahita Rouzé ◽  
Elise Lemaitre ◽  
Ignacio Martin-Loeches ◽  
Pedro Povoa ◽  
Emili Diaz ◽  

Abstract Background Recent multicenter studies identified COVID-19 as a risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). However, no large multicenter study has compared the incidence of IPA between COVID-19 and influenza patients. Objectives To determine the incidence of putative IPA in critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients, compared with influenza patients. Methods This study was a planned ancillary analysis of the coVAPid multicenter retrospective European cohort. Consecutive adult patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for > 48 h for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia or influenza pneumonia were included. The 28-day cumulative incidence of putative IPA, based on Blot definition, was the primary outcome. IPA incidence was estimated using the Kalbfleisch and Prentice method, considering extubation (dead or alive) within 28 days as competing event. Results A total of 1047 patients were included (566 in the SARS-CoV-2 group and 481 in the influenza group). The incidence of putative IPA was lower in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia group (14, 2.5%) than in influenza pneumonia group (29, 6%), adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio (cHR) 3.29 (95% CI 1.53–7.02, p = 0.0006). When putative IPA and Aspergillus respiratory tract colonization were combined, the incidence was also significantly lower in the SARS-CoV-2 group, as compared to influenza group (4.1% vs. 10.2%), adjusted cHR 3.21 (95% CI 1.88–5.46, p < 0.0001). In the whole study population, putative IPA was associated with significant increase in 28-day mortality rate, and length of ICU stay, compared with colonized patients, or those with no IPA or Aspergillus colonization. Conclusions Overall, the incidence of putative IPA was low. Its incidence was significantly lower in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia than in those with influenza pneumonia. Clinical trial registration The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04359693.

C. Sánchez Martín ◽  
E. Madrid Martínez ◽  
R. González Pellicer ◽  
R. Armero Ibáñez ◽  
E. Martínez González ◽  

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