Bacterial Pathogens
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Sandra S. Chaves ◽  
Ju-Hyeong Park ◽  
Mila M. Prill ◽  
Brett Whitaker ◽  
Reena Park ◽  

Abstract Background Home-based swabbing has not been widely used. The objective of this analysis was to compare respiratory swabs collected by mothers of 7–12-year-olds living in low-income, multilingual communities in the United States with technician collected swabs. Methods Retrospective data analysis of respiratory samples collected at home by mothers compared to technicians. Anterior nasal and throat specimens collected using flocked swabs were combined in dry tubes. Test was done using TaqMan array cards for viral and bacterial pathogens. Cycle threshold (Ct) values of ribonuclease P (RNP) gene were used to assess specimen quality. Ct < 40 was interpreted as a positive result. Concordance of pathogen yield from mother versus technician collected swabs were analyzed using Cohen’s Kappa coefficients. Correlation analysis, paired t-test, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples were used for RNP Ct values. Results We enrolled 36 households in Cincinnati (African American) and 44 (predominately Chinese or Latino) in Boston. In Cincinnati, eight of 32 (25%) mothers did not finish high school, and 11 (34%) had finished high school only. In Boston, 13 of 44 (30%) mothers had less than a high school diploma, 23 (52%) had finished high school only. Mother versus technician paired swabs (n = 62) had similar pathogen yield (paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test p-values = 0.62 and 0.63, respectively; 95% confidence interval of the difference between the two measurements = − 0.45–0.75). Median Ct value for RNP was 22.6 (interquartile range, IQR = 2.04) for mother-collected and 22.4 (IQR = 2.39) for technician-collected swabs (p = 0.62). Agreement on pathogen yield between samples collected by mothers vs. technicians was higher for viruses than for bacterial pathogens, with high concordance for rhinovirus/enterovirus, human metapneumovirus, and adenovirus (Cohen’s kappa coefficients ≥80%, p < 0.0001). For bacterial pathogens, concordance was lower to moderate, except for Chlamydia pneumoniae, for which kappa coefficient indicated perfect agreement. Conclusion Mothers with a range of education levels from low-income communities were able to swab their children equally well as technicians. Home-swabbing using dry tubes, and less invasive collection procedures, could enhance respiratory disease surveillance.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Alexander Lammers ◽  
Michael Lalk ◽  
Paolina Garbeva

We are currently facing an antimicrobial resistance crisis, which means that a lot of bacterial pathogens have developed resistance to common antibiotics. Hence, novel and innovative solutions are urgently needed to combat resistant human pathogens. A new source of antimicrobial compounds could be bacterial volatiles. Volatiles are ubiquitous produced, chemically divers and playing essential roles in intra- and interspecies interactions like communication and antimicrobial defense. In the last years, an increasing number of studies showed bioactivities of bacterial volatiles, including antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oomycete activities, indicating bacterial volatiles as an exciting source for novel antimicrobial compounds. In this review we introduce the chemical diversity of bacterial volatiles, their antimicrobial activities and methods for testing this activity. Concluding, we discuss the possibility of using antimicrobial volatiles to antagonize the antimicrobial resistance crisis.

Sevil Erdenliğ Gürbilek ◽  
Neval Berrin Arserim ◽  
Osman Yaşar Tel ◽  
Zeynep Sertkaya ◽  
Oktay Keskin

Backgorund: Bacteriophages are closely related to the evolution and virulence of some important bacterial pathogens. Due to their highly significant roles in pathogenesis and virulence, S. aureus bacteriophages are frequently studied. Bacteriophages are grouped into two main categories depending on their life cycles. There are highly consistently lytic phages (virulent) and temperate phages. This study aimed to isolate bacteriophages and determine their phage serogroups from phage plaques in S. aureus cultures in order to show if they are lytic or lysogenic, the latter plays a major role in horizontal gene transfer. Methods: A total of 234 S. aureus isolates were recovered from milk samples from cases with gangrenous mastitis in sheep. Staphylococcal phages are determined based on the type and serogroup by PCR using specific primers. Result: Our study allowed us to determine serogroups of the isolated bacteriophages. Two phage stock samples included only one serogroup while the others included more than one phage serotypes and needed further purification Fa, L and D serogroups were not determined in the study. Present work revealed that all the isolated phages were temperate phages, which play a highly significant role in horizontal gene transfer.

2022 ◽  
Van Nam Tran ◽  
Periaswamy Sivagnanam Saravana ◽  
Suhyun Park ◽  
Fazlurrahman Khan ◽  
Van Gia Truong ◽  

2022 ◽  
Loren Billet ◽  
Stéphane Pesce ◽  
Fabrice Martin-Laurent ◽  
Marion Devers-Lamrani

Abstract The fertilization of agricultural soil by organic amendment that may contain antibiotics, like manure, can transfer bacterial pathogens and antibiotic-resistant bacteria to soil communities. However, the invasion by manure-borne bacteria in amended soil remains poorly understood, being hardly observed. Here, we assessed the invasions of manure-borne bacteria during a coalescence event between manure and soil, in different soils and in the presence or absence of antibiotics. To this end, microcosms of four different soils were amended or not with manure at an agronomical dose and/or exposed or not to the antibiotic sulfamethazine (SMZ). After one month of incubation, the diversity, structure and composition of bacterial communities of the soils were assessed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The invasion of manure-borne bacteria was still perceptible one month after the soil amendment. The results obtained with the soil already amended in situ with manure six months prior to the experiment suggest that some of the bacterial invaders were established in the community over the long term. Even if differences were observed between soils, the invasion was mainly attributable to some of the most abundant OTUs of manure (mainly Firmicutes). SMZ exposure had a limited influence on soil microorganisms. It was significant in only one soil, where it enhanced the invasion potential of some manure-borne invaders.

2022 ◽  
Yoko Takahashi ◽  
Takanori Funaki ◽  
Akira Ishiguro ◽  
Isao Miyairi

Abstract Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by bacterial pathogens of the respiratory tract such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis is rare and little is known about their characteristics and potential host risk factors. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study on pediatric UTI due to S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus spp., or M. catarrhalis at a tertiary-care pediatric hospital. Pediatric patients with diagnosed UTI between 2002 and 2020 were included. Patient demographics, laboratory data, and microbiological findings were extracted from their electronic medical records and the infectious disease surveillance system. Among 46,332 urine samples, 76 bacteriuria (0.16%) and 22 UTI (0.05%) events due to the targeted species were identified (S. pneumoniae [n=7] and Haemophilus spp. [n=15]). Of the patients, 17 (85%) had underlying urinary tract abnormalities and 13 (60%) had vesicocutaneous fistula. All the UTI episodes caused by S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus spp. occurred after cystostomy. All the patients had satisfactory clinical outcomes.Conclusion: Although S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus spp. are rare causes of UTI in children, they could be the true causative bacteria of UTI even when detected in urine specimens, particularly in the patients with urinary tract abnormalities and vesicocutaneous fistula.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 166
Hervé Besançon ◽  
Yu Larpin ◽  
Viktoria S. Babiychuk ◽  
René Köffel ◽  
Eduard B. Babiychuk

The increasing antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens fosters the development of alternative, non-antibiotic treatments. Antivirulence therapy, which is neither bacteriostatic nor bactericidal, acts by depriving bacterial pathogens of their virulence factors. To establish a successful infection, many bacterial pathogens secrete exotoxins/cytolysins that perforate the host cell plasma membrane. Recently developed liposomal nanotraps, mimicking the outer layer of the targeted cell membranes, serve as decoys for exotoxins, thus diverting them from attacking host cells. In this study, we develop a liposomal nanotrap formulation that is capable of protecting immortalized immune cells from the whole palette of cytolysins secreted by Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis—important human pathogens that can cause life-threatening bacteremia. We show that the mixture of cholesterol-containing liposomes with liposomes composed exclusively of phospholipids is protective against the combined action of all streptococcal exotoxins. Our findings pave the way for further development of liposomal antivirulence therapy in order to provide more efficient treatment of bacterial infections, including those caused by antibiotic resistant pathogens.

Joss M. Auty ◽  
Christopher H. Jenkins ◽  
Jennifer Hincks ◽  
Anna A. Straatman-Iwanowska ◽  
Natalie Allcock ◽  

Bacterial pathogens exhibit physiologically distinct forms that enable their survival in an infected host, the environment and following exposure to antimicrobial agents. B. pseudomallei causes the disease melioidosis, which has a high mortality rate and is difficult to treat with antibiotics. The bacterium is endemic to several countries and detected in high abundance in the environment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Liesbeth Martens ◽  
Bérenger Kaboré ◽  
Annelies Post ◽  
Christa E. van der Gaast-de Jongh ◽  
Jeroen D. Langereis ◽  

Abstract Background Nasopharyngeal colonisation with clinically relevant bacterial pathogens is a risk factor for severe infections, such as pneumonia and bacteraemia. In this study, we investigated the determinants of nasopharyngeal carriage in febrile patients in rural Burkina Faso. Methods From March 2016 to June 2017, we recruited 924 paediatric and adult patients presenting with fever, hypothermia or suspicion of severe infection to the Centre Medical avec Antenne Chirurgicale Saint Camille de Nanoro, Burkina Faso. We recorded a broad range of clinical data, collected nasopharyngeal swabs and tested them for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Using logistic regression, we investigated the determinants of carriage and aimed to find correlations with clinical outcome. Results Nasopharyngeal colonisation with S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis was highly prevalent and strongly dependent on age and season. Females were less likely to be colonised with S. pneumoniae (OR 0.71, p = 0.022, 95% CI 0.53–0.95) and M. catarrhalis (OR 0.73, p = 0.044, 95% CI 0.54–0.99) than males. Colonisation rates were highest in the age groups < 1 year and 1–2 years of age and declined with increasing age. Colonisation also declined towards the end of the rainy season and rose again during the beginning of the dry season. K. pneumoniae prevalence was low and not significantly correlated with age or season. For S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, we found a positive association between nasopharyngeal carriage and clinical pneumonia [OR 1.75, p = 0.008, 95% CI 1.16–2.63 (S. pneumoniae) and OR 1.90, p = 0.004, 95% CI 1.23–2.92 (H. influenzae)]. S. aureus carriage was correlated with mortality (OR 4.01, p < 0.001, 95% CI 2.06–7.83), independent of bacteraemia caused by this bacterium. Conclusions Age, sex and season are important determinants of nasopharyngeal colonisation with S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis in patients with fever in Burkina Faso. S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae carriage is associated with clinical pneumonia and S. aureus carriage is associated with mortality in patients with fever. These findings may help to understand the dynamics of colonisation and the associated transmission of these pathogens. Furthermore, understanding the determinants of nasopharyngeal colonisation and the association with disease could potentially improve the diagnosis of febrile patients.

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