bacterial pathogens
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Hassan ◽  
F. Shafique ◽  
H. Bhutta ◽  
K. Haq ◽  
T. Almansouri ◽  

Abstract Oral diseases caused by various microorganisms are common around the world. Scientific research has now been focusing on novel medicines to overcome bacterial resistance and antibiotics side effects; therefore, the current study was designed to assess the efficacy of certain antibiotics, toothpaste, and medicinal plant extracts (Ajuga bracteosa and Curcuma longa) versus the bacterial pathogens isolated from the human oral cavity. A total of 130 samples were collected from Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan, among those 27 species isolated, and eight bacterial species were identified from the samples. Among all the bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus (29.62%) and Proteus mirabilis (22.2%) were found to be more prevalent oral pathogens. In comparison, the least pervasive microbes were Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. The study also suggested that dental problems were more prevalent in males (41-50 years of age) than females. Among the eight antibiotics used in the study, the most promising results were shown by Foxicillin against A. hydrophila. The survey of TP1 revealed that it showed more potent antagonist activity against Proteus vulgaris as compared TP2 and TP3 that might be due to the high content of fluoride. The Curcuma longa showed more significant activity than Ajuga bracteosa (Stem, leaves and root) extracts. The data obtained through this study revealed that antibiotics were more effective for oral bacterial pathogens than toothpaste and plant extracts which showed moderate and low activity, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that the active compounds in individual medicinal plants like Curcuma longa and Ajuga bracteosa could replace the antibiotics when used in daily routine as tooth cleansers or mouth rinses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Sandra S. Chaves ◽  
Ju-Hyeong Park ◽  
Mila M. Prill ◽  
Brett Whitaker ◽  
Reena Park ◽  

Abstract Background Home-based swabbing has not been widely used. The objective of this analysis was to compare respiratory swabs collected by mothers of 7–12-year-olds living in low-income, multilingual communities in the United States with technician collected swabs. Methods Retrospective data analysis of respiratory samples collected at home by mothers compared to technicians. Anterior nasal and throat specimens collected using flocked swabs were combined in dry tubes. Test was done using TaqMan array cards for viral and bacterial pathogens. Cycle threshold (Ct) values of ribonuclease P (RNP) gene were used to assess specimen quality. Ct < 40 was interpreted as a positive result. Concordance of pathogen yield from mother versus technician collected swabs were analyzed using Cohen’s Kappa coefficients. Correlation analysis, paired t-test, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples were used for RNP Ct values. Results We enrolled 36 households in Cincinnati (African American) and 44 (predominately Chinese or Latino) in Boston. In Cincinnati, eight of 32 (25%) mothers did not finish high school, and 11 (34%) had finished high school only. In Boston, 13 of 44 (30%) mothers had less than a high school diploma, 23 (52%) had finished high school only. Mother versus technician paired swabs (n = 62) had similar pathogen yield (paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test p-values = 0.62 and 0.63, respectively; 95% confidence interval of the difference between the two measurements = − 0.45–0.75). Median Ct value for RNP was 22.6 (interquartile range, IQR = 2.04) for mother-collected and 22.4 (IQR = 2.39) for technician-collected swabs (p = 0.62). Agreement on pathogen yield between samples collected by mothers vs. technicians was higher for viruses than for bacterial pathogens, with high concordance for rhinovirus/enterovirus, human metapneumovirus, and adenovirus (Cohen’s kappa coefficients ≥80%, p < 0.0001). For bacterial pathogens, concordance was lower to moderate, except for Chlamydia pneumoniae, for which kappa coefficient indicated perfect agreement. Conclusion Mothers with a range of education levels from low-income communities were able to swab their children equally well as technicians. Home-swabbing using dry tubes, and less invasive collection procedures, could enhance respiratory disease surveillance.

2022 ◽  
Van Nam Tran ◽  
Periaswamy Sivagnanam Saravana ◽  
Suhyun Park ◽  
Fazlurrahman Khan ◽  
Van Gia Truong ◽  

2022 ◽  
Yoko Takahashi ◽  
Takanori Funaki ◽  
Akira Ishiguro ◽  
Isao Miyairi

Abstract Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by bacterial pathogens of the respiratory tract such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis is rare and little is known about their characteristics and potential host risk factors. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study on pediatric UTI due to S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus spp., or M. catarrhalis at a tertiary-care pediatric hospital. Pediatric patients with diagnosed UTI between 2002 and 2020 were included. Patient demographics, laboratory data, and microbiological findings were extracted from their electronic medical records and the infectious disease surveillance system. Among 46,332 urine samples, 76 bacteriuria (0.16%) and 22 UTI (0.05%) events due to the targeted species were identified (S. pneumoniae [n=7] and Haemophilus spp. [n=15]). Of the patients, 17 (85%) had underlying urinary tract abnormalities and 13 (60%) had vesicocutaneous fistula. All the UTI episodes caused by S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus spp. occurred after cystostomy. All the patients had satisfactory clinical outcomes.Conclusion: Although S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus spp. are rare causes of UTI in children, they could be the true causative bacteria of UTI even when detected in urine specimens, particularly in the patients with urinary tract abnormalities and vesicocutaneous fistula.

Joss M. Auty ◽  
Christopher H. Jenkins ◽  
Jennifer Hincks ◽  
Anna A. Straatman-Iwanowska ◽  
Natalie Allcock ◽  

Bacterial pathogens exhibit physiologically distinct forms that enable their survival in an infected host, the environment and following exposure to antimicrobial agents. B. pseudomallei causes the disease melioidosis, which has a high mortality rate and is difficult to treat with antibiotics. The bacterium is endemic to several countries and detected in high abundance in the environment.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 166
Hervé Besançon ◽  
Yu Larpin ◽  
Viktoria S. Babiychuk ◽  
René Köffel ◽  
Eduard B. Babiychuk

The increasing antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens fosters the development of alternative, non-antibiotic treatments. Antivirulence therapy, which is neither bacteriostatic nor bactericidal, acts by depriving bacterial pathogens of their virulence factors. To establish a successful infection, many bacterial pathogens secrete exotoxins/cytolysins that perforate the host cell plasma membrane. Recently developed liposomal nanotraps, mimicking the outer layer of the targeted cell membranes, serve as decoys for exotoxins, thus diverting them from attacking host cells. In this study, we develop a liposomal nanotrap formulation that is capable of protecting immortalized immune cells from the whole palette of cytolysins secreted by Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis—important human pathogens that can cause life-threatening bacteremia. We show that the mixture of cholesterol-containing liposomes with liposomes composed exclusively of phospholipids is protective against the combined action of all streptococcal exotoxins. Our findings pave the way for further development of liposomal antivirulence therapy in order to provide more efficient treatment of bacterial infections, including those caused by antibiotic resistant pathogens.

2022 ◽  
Samir Malhotra ◽  
Dang Song Pham ◽  
Michael P.H. Lau ◽  
Anh H. Nguyen ◽  
Hung Cao

Detection of bacterial pathogens is significant in the fields of food safety, medicine, public health, etc. If bacterial pathogens are not treated promptly, antimicrobial resistance is possible and can lead to morbidity and mortality. Current bacterial detection methodologies rely on laboratory-based techniques that pose limitations such as long turnaround detection times, expensive costs, in-adequate accuracy, and required trained specialists. Here, we describe a cost-effective and port-able 3D-printed electrochemical biosensor that facilitates rapid detection of certain Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains (DH5α, BL21, TOP10, and JM109) within 15 minutes using 500 μL of sample and costs $2.50 per test. The sensor displayed an excellent limit of detection (LOD) of 53 CFU, limit of quantification (LOQ) of 270 CFU, and showed cross-reactivity with strains BL21 and JM109 due to shared epitopes. This advantageous diagnostic device is a potential candidate for high-frequency testing at the point of care as well as applicable to various fields where pathogen detection is of interest.

Diana Dias ◽  
Andreia Cruz ◽  
Carlos Fonseca ◽  
Sónia Mendo ◽  
Tânia S. Caetano

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