735 article(s) in Literatūra

Father, Womb, Blood: Apollo’S Embryological Theory, The Ethics Of Revenge, And The Supposed Exclusion Of Women In Aischylos’ Eumenides

in aischylos’ eumenides, apollo intimates a theory according to which the father is the sole genetic parent of the child. the status of this conception, and whether it is depicted as an outlandish idea, has been much and inconclusively discussed. this paper considers a neglected piece of evidence: apollo’s use of the very unusual word αὐτάδελφον when addressing hermes. in light of the greeks’ awareness of this etymology as well as the other instances of this rare word in tragedy, the author argues that aischylos’ text highlights the etymological connection to δελφύς, the womb, thus evoking the role of the mother. this suggests that aischylos subtly lets his, and apollo’s, language rebel against the notion of merely paternal kinship, and the concomitant ideas about revenge, retaliation and children’s obligations to their parent Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Other
  • Rare Word
  • The Status
Drama And Politics In The Atlantis Story

this paper explores the prevailing readings of the atlantis story. the purpose of this paper is to show how interpretative judgements on the narrator’s intentions, the objectives of the characters, and the genre and the development of the story prepares the grounds for the political understanding of athens and atlantis. in this way, i will show how the dramatic framework influences the expression of political thought. i argue that the most important dramatic feature of the story is critias’ interaction with socrates and timaeus, which explains why critias composes two speeches that are essentially dedicated to the question of political origins Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Political Thought
  • The Political
  • Political Understanding
  • Political Origins
Anagnorisis In Aristotle’S Poetics: Problems Of Definition And Classification

the article analyses the problems of meaning and classification of the term anagnorisis (ἀναγνώρισις) as it is defined in aristotle’s poetics. it focuses on how the term anagnorisis is understood and interpreted by scholars – different translations and their interpretations of the same type of anagnorisis are compared. the article also searches for the answers to the following questions: does the term of anagnorisis discussed by aristotle mean the recognition of persons or just any kind of truth in a drama; why do some translators differentiate five and others six types of anagnorisis; what did aristotle bear in mind by distinguishing the type of anagnorisis called “the recognition made by a poet himself” (arist. poet. xvi, 1454b 30–31), whereas it is known that all recognitions were created by poets themselves; does “an anagnorisis by false reasoning (a false syllogism)” occur among tragedy characters or does the audience at first misjudge, but later recognises the characters correctly?the author of the article argues that the version of the arabic manuscript of aristotle’s poetics is more logical, as it states that one of the characters (θατέρου) rather than a spectator (θεάτρου) mistakenly recognises another character (arist. poet. xvi, 1455a 12–17). first of all, aristotle does not state specifically that this is the fifth (different from all the others) way of recognition, but while discussing the fourth way of “anagnorisis by reasoning”, he adds that there is also and “an anagnorisis by false reasoning (a false syllogism)” (arist. poet. xvi, 1455a 12–13). secondly, the recognitions described by aristotle in part xvi of poetics occur between two characters, when one has to recognise the other. therefore, the author of the article does not agree with the opinion by dana munteanu (2002) – that in menander’s comedy epitrepontes, smikrine’s false recognition should be referred to as an erroneous spectator’s recognition, whereas at the end of the play menander depicts smikrine as a misled spectator just observing the events uninvolved without understanding them properly. by such leaving the word “spectator” in aristotle’s classification of the fifth type of anagnorisis and using it for a character observing the actions of the play uninvolved, an ambiguity occurs, as aristotle himself in his poetics speaks many times about an actual spectator of the tragedy, who while watching the action of the play experiences fear and pity.the author of the article thinks that the translation of chapter xvi of aristotle’s poetics by marcelinas ročka (1990) should be corrected in some places. at the fifth “recognition by false reasoning”, a note in square brackets stating that this is the last recognition should be omitted. in fact, it is the next-to-last recognition discussed by aristotle. in translation “the recognitions invented by the poet himself”, some other word can be used, as aristotle here has in mind that poets usually write poorly and use trite recognitions. a phrase “to contrive” (in lithuanian “sukurpti”) could be used here instead, as it means “to make or put together roughly or hastily”. it is also true speaking of the translation that a character of the play rather than the audience recognises another character by false reasoning.finally, the author of the article draws a conclusion that according to aristotle an anagnorisis is the recognition of persons occurring among characters of the play. in aristotle’s poetics, six variants of anagnorisis are distinguished and their classification made based on the principle of artistry and the originality of its use in plays Show More ... ... Show Less

  • False Recognition
  • The Other
  • Fourth Way
Transformation Of The Classical Genre: Quadratus And Beginnings Of Christian Apology

quadratus belonged to the second generation of jesus’ followers. at the early stage of his life he was an itinerant preacher of the gospel, also visiting asia minor in the course of his travels. it was there that he may have received information about the persons who had directly experienced jesus’ beneficence. after he settled in athens, quadratus, just like other athenian apologists, aristides and, later, athenagoras, was not part of the church hierarchy, but, more likely, a free teacher. when hadrian was visiting athens, he was presented with an apology which should have provided the emperor with reliable information concerning the new religion. the paper suggests a hypothesis that the direct impulse to defend christianity was the conflict between the christians and the athenian society on the issue of the eleusinian mysteries.quadratus’ apologetic opus, among other topics of which we have no knowledge, discussed the unique character of the miracles performed by christ, comparing them to the deeds of the demigods or of the contemporary miracle-workers. it also (according martyrologium of bede the venerable) discussed the nature of christian food, emphasising its ordinary character. just as the letter to diognetus, it probably suggested that the christian way of life and customs were not different from those of other people Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Second Generation
  • Early Stage
  • Reliable Information
  • Asia Minor
  • The Church
Translation Problems Of Theological And Philosophical Concepts In The Gospel According To Philip

this article discusses the translation problems of theological and philosophical concepts in the apocryphal gospel according to philip. this text attributed to valentinian gnosticism originally was written in ancient greek language, although now it is extant only in coptic. the translation history of this gospel allows glancing at the transformation of theological and philosophical concepts in the texts of early christianity and their usage in heterodox contexts. the uniqueness of the gospel according to philip is revealed in its fragmentary character, lack of narrative and clear structure. all these aspects raise the question about the coherence of the theological and philosophical concepts used in the text. at first sight, it is not evident if the concept translated from greek to coptic reflects the identical concept or if concept gains additional connotation Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Early Christianity
  • Greek Language
  • Ancient Greek
The Role Of Music In Ken Bugul’S Novels

the analysis of the place that music occupies in the works of ken bugul is the main purpose of this article. the author will try to present how this art manifests in her novels paying attention to the unique character of literary language. the rhythm, the intensity, the repetitions that appear in the bugul’s texts become inseparables elements of her creation and show the musicality of her work Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Literary Language
  • Ken Bugul
  • Unique Character
Michel Houellebecq’S Submission – A Novel Of Decadence

michel houellebecq’s submission has been analysed as a novel of decadence in this paper. referring to the works of michel winock, françois livi and michel onfray, it has been found that a decadent novel can be associated not only with the works of joris-karl huysmans, pierre loűys, jean lorrain and others produced at the end of the 19th century but also at subsequent periods. such characteristics of decadent writing as the threat of catastrophe, fundamental changes in society, nostalgia can be found in the analysed novel.françois, the main character of the novel, an expert on huysmans and a professor at sorbonne university, supports huysmans’ ideas to some extent trying to find the link between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 21st century by comparing processes in society. huysmans sought an ideal in the middle ages, while françois travels to rocamadour, famous for the statue of the black madonna, with a hope to find a spiritual revelation but becomes aware that the world of the past has gone forever. changes in society made huysmans leave the monastery, similarly, françois gets frustrated as he loses his job when the muslim fraternity comes into power.using the dystopian genre, houellebecq depicts unbelievable changes in society – the new government proclaims islam an official religion of france. society is governed by new rules, the authority is concerned about two things – demography and education. those, who refuse to convert to islam, lose their jobs. changes in society are even linked with geopolitical changes. meanwhile houellebecq reveals significant differences between the decadence of the end of the 19th and of the 21st century. huysmans’ decadence results in neuroses, a desire to seal himself off from the world in alcohol, drugs, etc., to surround himself with works of art, while françois in submission enjoys erotic pleasures, gradually becomes an alcoholic, he does not suffer like huysmans’ protagonist des esseintes. it can be stated that submission is a decadent novel only at thematic level since aesthetic values, characteristic of the decadence of the 19th century, are left in the background. the only justification of françois is that he speaks about his conversion to islam hypothetically, it shows that he has not made up his mind to take this step Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The 19Th Century
  • 21St Century
  • The World
  • Main Character
Michel Houellebecq In Lithuanian: The Paradoxes Of Translation

the article analyses all five published translations to lithuanian language of michel houellebecq’s novels (the elementary particles, platform, the possibility of an island, the map and the territory and submission) with a focus on translation of obscene and profane language. first, the usage of obscene and profane language for stylistic purposes in the context of entire houellebecq’s literary creation is reviewed, based on the works about the author by literary translators, literary critics and translators of houellebecq’s books from france, switzerland and brazil. after determining that obscene and profane language is one of the keys to the meaning of houellebecq’s work and discussing peculiarities of the usage of such language in lithuania (censorship, self-censorship, taboo), the translation analysis of the novels is presented. such translation methods as exact translation, euphemisation, neutralisation and omitting were reviewed. after completing a qualitative analysis, it was established that lithuanian translators clearly avoid using obscene and profane language and rather choose euphemisation, neutralisation or omission. the results of the qualitative analysis presented in the article confirm this tendency: overall, approximately 50 percent of all obscene and profane houellebecq’s language was replaced with euphemisms, neutralised or omitted. translation mistakes and inaccuracies were not separately analysed in this article, therefore were not presented in percentage terms. after completing the research, it can be stated that the translations of houellebecq’s novels to lithuanian language significantly lack in meaning and it would not be appropriate to discuss houellebecq’s works in the literary discourse after reading them only in lithuanian language. moreover, a faulty tendency of translating each author’s book by a different translator is present in lithuania, resulting in distortion of author’s style. therefore, literary paradoxes of houellebecq (according to bruno viard) result in paradoxes in translation to lithuanian language: obscene and profane language still remains a certain sociocultural taboo, and one appropriate novel’s translation (the possibility of an island) out of five does not change the essence of the issue because the remaining four do not reflect author’s style and chosen registers. translators must respect the will of a writer and refuse to translate the work if it presents an issue in terms of their sense of morality and ethics Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Qualitative Analysis
  • Elementary Particles
  • Literary Creation
  • Translation Analysis
  • Translation Methods
History And Identity According To Leïla Sebbar

leila sebbar, since the beginning of her literary work, has been describing her identity experience connected with her mixed family origins: the writer’s father was algerian and her mother french. this prevailing thread in her texts demonstrates the weight of the (re)construction of identity, frequently incoherent and delicate, in order to confirm her ethnic and cultural affinity.the author of this article is interested in problems, so close to the writer, of identity and history. the point of departure of the reflection on sebbar’s attitude towards mother tongues of her parents is the analysis of her autobiographical novel “je ne parle pas la langue de mon père” (2003). “we are not born with one identity, an identity is always gained, built”, maintains sebbar and through this statement she confirms the role of the cultural baggage in the broad sense of the word, in the life of an individual coming from a culturally diversified environment. the questions of the ignorance of the arabic language also lead the writer to define not only the picture of the individual family history but also common history, the history of the inhabitants of algeria during the french colonization. the seine was red: paris, october 1961 (1999) is a story in which its author continues to exploit, tirelessly, the issue related to the history of its two countries: algeria and france. for leïla sebbar, to return to the traumatic events of the massacre of dozens of algerians in paris on october 17, 1961 means to enter into incessant dialogue with the painful past. it seems that the writer’s will to confront the past is one of characteristic qualities of her works. in an original, far from stereotypical, way she tries to disclose errors and fights the oblivion and repression of uncomfortable events from history. the aim of the article is to analyze the non-stereotyped strategies that sebbar uses to build his characters and to reflect on the modes of representations of history and identity Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Leila Sebbar
  • Cultural Baggage
  • Point Of Departure
Home: The Sacred And The Profane In John Mcgahern’S Novel That They May Face The Rising Sun

the article seeks to answer the question what it is about the place which is called home in john mcgahern’s novel that they may face the rising sun (2002), i.e. what it is that substantiates it and being in it and a return to it. it argues that the homeplace in the narrative of the novel is defined by two symbolic planes: home is not only a physical and material and social place/ space within a certain geography in the novel, but also is of the ontological structure which is the meeting point of two trajectories that cross over: one of them is the vertical − the sacred, the other is the horizontal − the profane. the sacred puts into communication the three placial / spatial geographies in the narrative − heaven, earth and underworld; the profane marks the historical and the linear. it is within the homeplace in the narrative of the novel that existential being opens up through the tensions between the sacred and the profane. to build the argument, the paper draws on mircea eliade’s hermeneutics in the sacred and the profane (1959), cosmos and history: the myth of the eternal return (1954), and images and symbols: studies in religious symbolism (1961 Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Novel
  • The Sacred And The Profane
  • The Other
  • Eternal Return
  • Meeting Point
Aesthetic Of Carnivalesque: Johannisnacht By Uwe Timm And Lietuvis Vilniuje By Herkus Kunčius

carnivalisation in literary prose has been gaining prominence both in lithuanian and german literature. the present paper compares two novels, namely, johannisnacht by uwe timm (1996) and lietuvis vilniuje by herkus kunčius (2011), related not merely through their themes of current affairs and reflections of the past, but also through poetics which continues the tradition of carnivalesque. although the two authors represent distinctly different cultural and literary backgrounds of two countries (west germany and lithuania), the novels transcend to a common intercultural space by their similar narrative strategies and carnivalised worldview Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Uwe Timm
  • German Literature
  • West Germany
  • Narrative Strategies
  • The Past
Out Of The Closet, Into The World: The Power Of Puppets In Jessie Burton’S The Miniaturist

the present paper examines the tropological significance of miniature figures in jessie burton’s novel the miniaturist. by highlighting the ways in which the narrative’s figural system negotiates the structural and conceptual dichotomies of human/doll, object/thing, interiority/exteriority, authenticity/artificiality, and mobility/stasis, this reading of burton’s novel attempts to show how the literary text rethinks the social life of things and the ambiguity of subject-object relations in the seventeenth-century netherlands. aligned with the commercial circuits of material culture, which underscore the moral ambivalence of the novel’s dutch society, material objects are shown to exceed their decorative function and reveal their destructive purchase on human life Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Seventeenth Century
  • Material Objects
  • Dutch Society
  • The World
  • Moral Ambivalence
Disbelief About The Time. Timelessness In The Late Works Of Paul Celan

 the poetry of paul celan has a reflected intention to ask about the temporal determination of human being and simultaneously questions the term and definition of time. in may of his works he reflects he the catastrophic transformation, the reflection also includes the revision of the conventional conception of time. he tries to show, that beside the usual forms of historical, causal und linear time, individuals also perceive timelessness. paradoxically, the accomplishment of a historical event (holocaust) evokes a consciousness of the historical caesura, and thus of the untold and the inhospitable. in his perception, for the poet, writing (after holocaust) means writing after apocalyptic break, where history does not exist, in other words surrounded by the timelessness. the task of preserving the memory of what happened in poetry goes hand in hand with the awareness of a disorder and often borders on the impossibility of verbalizing what has happened or even being able to express itself verbally. the experience of disconnection from the temporal sequence of events (through trauma) coincides with the moments of speechlessness, emptiness in consciousness, verbal utterance, and time experience overlap. this tendency is radicalized especially in his late work. in this article late works of paul celan, that deal with the questions of timelessness and manifestations of it are analysed (“zeitlücke”, “die trombonestelle” “largo” and others Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Paul Celan
  • Late Works
  • Historical Event
  • Sequence Of Events
  • Verbal Utterance
Frau Ava’S, The First Named German Female Writer’S, Poem Jüngstes Gericht ‘The Last Judgement’ And Its Lithuanian Translation

the present article offers an overview of several poems written by frau ava (1060–1127), a german poetess whose literary works are virtually unknown in lithuania. ava, an anchoress in melk abbey, is the first named german female writer, who broke ‘the deep silence of german literature’ lasting over a century (stein 1976, 5). all poems attributed to frau ava are of religious character: johannes ‘john the baptist’ (446 lines), leben jesu ‘life of jesus’ (2418 lines), antichrist (118 lines) and jüngstes gericht ‘the last judgement’ (406 lines), which make up an impressive biblical epic of 3388 lines. leben jesu, antichrist and jüngstes gericht are found in the vorau manuscript dating the first half of the 12th century (codex 276, 115va-125ra), whereas the görlitz manuscript (codex a iii. 1. 10), compiled in the 14th century but lost during world war ii, contains the poem johannes as well as the other poems mentioned above, excluding the epilogue of jüngstes gericht (lines 393-406).the article presents an overview of frau ava’s life and works as well as a lithuanian translation of her poem jüngstes gericht, written in early middle high german (ger. frümittelhochdeutsch). the translation is based on maike glaußnitzer and kassnadra sperl’s text, published in 2014 Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Present Article
  • German Literature
  • The Other
  • World War
  • 14Th Century
The Unfading Eros Of Love In The Latest Poetry By Kornelijus Platelis

 the object of this article is the eros of love in the latest poetry by k. platelis: books palimpsestai (2004) and įtrūkusios mėnesienos (2018). theoretical-methodological scope – phenomenology; the main references – m. merleau-ponty and e. levinas. the phenomenology, reflecting eros subjectivity, corporeality, time and space, allows for more actualization and understanding of the phenomenon of the eros of love. it suggests new categories through which individual and subjective poetic meanings come through. love and its eros is one of the dominants in works of poets of k. platelis’ generation. this phenomenon, related not only to the experiences of love, but also to the experiences of death, encompassing not only individuals, but also things, in works of this author gets into the complex cultural, historical, mythological context, grows out of this context and gives it a distinct poetic form. the hunger of eros (eros as a hunger), set up at the beginning of the article, and its analysis allow a better understanding of the otherness of mythopoetic transformations typical to k. platelis’ poetry, as well as the dynamics of the eros of love and death, the interaction of eros of different times, reality and its simulation, the connection between passion and the world of things. time, as one of the most important phenomena in the eros world, makes it possible to feel the particular dynamics of eros, a certain rhythm based on contradictions and ambiguities, and refers to the dynamics of the roles of different subjects in the eros situation. one of the main phenomena in the latest poetry is the middle aged eros, characterized by the autoironic rehabilitation of eros. poems of platelis have a distinctly erotic space. from the wide spectrum of the spatial eros imagination, it is worth highlighting its cultural aspect. it is necessary for identifying intersubjective relations, emotional and material experiences of eros. the eros, arising from the subjective observation of space and its objects, is characterized by the tension of a real and simulated world, metaphysical and concrete physical reality Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Wide Spectrum
  • Physical Reality
  • Middle Aged
  • Time And Space
  • The World
“Don’T Go Picking Apples With The Devil”: The Myth Of Faust In The Works Of Eduardas Mieželaitis

this article analyzes the reflection on the myth of faust in the work of eduardas mieželaitis (1919–1997). the author’s initial hypothesis that the interpretation of this myth can be used as another argument for revealing the poet’s dramatic feelings and self-reflection of inauthentic soviet existence is tested. together with other signs of existential self-abuse (such as the metaphors of “the ringed bird” and “the masked word”), this could help answer the question of whether the description of the 1920s generation (alfonsas nyka-niliūnas, bronius krivickas, etc.) as “tragic” would fit mieželaitis. intertextuality is the best way to describe the nature of the analysis and socio-criticism would describe the interpretation of the results.e. mieželaitis was (and still is) one of the most intertextual lithuanian authors. the use of the “alien word” in his texts was a conceptual position of the poet’s creative consciousness. for him the world’s culture has become a central topic, and his texts have been occupied by the masters of arts and sciences of antiquity, renaissance, or new age, as well as modern european authors, oriental classics, bible quotations, paraphrases, allusions and other forms of culture. for the poet, goethe’s faust is one of such foundational texts, even if the soviet era did not favor the “myths of the great contemplation” (vytautas kubilius). the forever relevant myth of faust raises a fundamental question of person’s life choice – what one is prepared to sacrifice for one’s purpose, and what the results of that “sacrifice” are. but in the soviet times mieželaitis did not focus on this myth as a “symbol of the duality of human’s nature” – his human is rather one-dimensional and monolithic, full of positive energy directed towards technological progress and an absolute belief in the cognitive powers of man. this is the exact aspect that faust embodies in mieželaitis’ works, as if it was his “new man”, the product of the enlightenment era. mieželaitis did not care about the moment of negotiations between faust and mephistopheles – for him there could easily be no mephistopheles. however, in late works (postskriptumai, 1986; gnomos, 1987; laida, 1992), where the poet reflects on his life and creative path, there are many signs of disillusionment with the myth of human omnipotence as the results of his labor have turned against him – he wanted to create a heaven, but got a hell in the form of hiroshima. it is at this point that mephistopheles dominates the duet with faust, but in general they have both become a “common place” and their function is limited by the text’s aesthetic figurativeness.my conclusion is that eventually the rich allusions to faust in mieželaitis’ works did not translate into reflections on the essence or meaning of being – he was not concerned with the problematics of human’s choices, duality, or contradictions. thus, my initial expectation that the interpretation of the faust myth may be another argument for revealing the poet’s dramatic feelings and self-reflection of inauthentic existence in the soviet times was essentially not confirmed. and that could have been another argument for adding him to the social group of the 1920s.on the other hand, looking from the distant present, it is my opinion that mieželaitis is still a part of the tragic generation, as the whole generation – whether they retreated to the west, or remained in soviet lithuania, collaborated or resisted – became hostages of the second world war and the soviet occupation Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Self Reflection
  • Social Group
  • Technological Progress
  • Positive Energy
  • World War
Between The Tropes And Pragmatics: The Rhetorical Aspect Of Rozmowa Polaka Z Litwinem

this paper presents rhetorical aspects of a sixteenth century lithuanian polemical treatise “rozmowa polaka z litwinem” (“pasikalbėjimas lenko su lietuviu”). this anonymous work is often labeled as “humanist”. even though many scholars analyse its contents and emphasize references to the classical antiquity, formal aspects and their pragmatic implications remain unevaluated. scholars have mainly focused on the issue of it authorship and quoted it illustrating cultural and political sixteenth century changes in the grand duchy of lithuania. the main aim of this article is to reveal rhetorical tropes and figures employed by the author of the treatise and discuss the possible motivation of their selection. “rozmowa” responds to, “quincunx”, written in 1564 by a polish polemist stanisław orzechowski (1513–1566). it is a part of a prolonged polemic between the later and lithuanian chancellor, palatine of vilnius mikalojus radvila “the black”. the details and the course of their dispute is reconstructed by orzechowski himself in the letter to piotr miscovius, which also is titled “apologia pro quincunce”. he refers to the “rozmowa” without mentioning its title or particular author. historiography attributes it to the vilnius mayor (wójt) augustyn rotundus (c. 1520–1582). both orzechowski and rotundus studied abroad and had spent some time in italy. not only curricula of their studies of artes liberales were influenced by classical antiquity, they also undoubtedly got familiar with humanist culture of the contemporary europe.“rozmowa” consists of two main parts, which are separated by a verse. the treatise is written in a form of a dialogue, and allows to portray a vivid discussion and multiple points of view. the first part of “rozmowa” focuses on the questions of the political theory, whereas the second one is dedicated to the history of lithuania, its dynasty and the issue of the polish-lithuanian union. while the first part is polemical, the second one has epideictic character. the author employs personification, paradiastole and antithesis. the latter two allow changing the normative contents of political concepts, and irony highlights the absurdities in the polish political practices. the lithuanian, one of the characters, uses deprecation and interpellation, addresses the absent participants of a dialogue (e. g. orzechowski himself). the author quotes ancient authors, scripture, church fathers and contemporary thinkers (e. g. machiavelli and erasmus), whose ideas provide him with literary topoi. merged with the rhetorical techniques, they constitute the political arguments of the treatise and allows the author to express one’s political ideas Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Sixteenth Century
  • Classical Antiquity
  • The Political
  • Points Of View
  • Grand Duchy
The Testimonies Of The 20S Generation In Private Writing: The Case Of Albertas Dilys (1920–2000

the article employs the egodocumentary approach to examine how the private writings of albertas dilys (1920–2000), political prisoner and lithuanian scholar of the 1920s generation, records and reflects upon his refusal to compromise under the circumstances of the soviet occupation. dilys was part of the generation who were born on the eve of the creation of the state of lithuania – between 1917 and 1922 – and who, having graduated from the schools of the newly independent state, entered university by the end of 1930s with a distinct aim to contribute to the european culture worthy of a free nation. however, the second world war and the alternating nazi and soviet occupations brought an end to these youthful ideals. because the existential choices made by these young people pulled the generation apart and, in regard to the soviet oppression, disseminated it both geographically and axiologically, defining its conceptual coherence is somewhat problematic. yet, reflecting on separate individual choices may help us understand the people’s motivation and the paradigms which bring this generation together on the one hand and break it up on the other.rather than appraise the decisive generational self-conceptions in the context of 1944, the case of albertas dilys enables us to look into the different manifestations of conscious existential resolve, its origins, and consequences. the notion of the 1920s generation here describes the humanities students with literary aspirations who first studied at vytautas magnus university in kaunas and then at vilnius university. as high-school pupils, most of them took part in the ateitis movement, which was a catholic organisation opposed to the lithuanian government of the day. at university, they joined šatrija, a society dedicated to the study of art, literature, and philosophy.at the centre of the present research are documents testifying to dilys’ personal existential quest and self-realisation in the context of repressions and further oppression: his memories, correspondence, notes, journals. to frame the research material, the article makes partial use of intertextual and sociocritical analysis. dilys’ egodocumentary accounts are examined in light of historically reliable biographical and background facts. this article aims to discover and highlight in dilys’ egodocuments his testimonies of self-reflection, personal resolve and its consequences and, by means of comparative analysis, to look for similar premises in the accounts of other contemporaries in order to indicate the epistemological gaps in the research field of the 1920s generation.dilys’ case is by no means typical; cases like his have been deemed marginal in most sociological and sociocultural research. the history of existential choices and reflection on it, as testified in dilys’ egodocuments, have a distinct character: emphasis is placed on inner resistance, whose parallels extend into the spiritual maturity derived from youthful ideals, the quest for the meaning of life, and the adoption of an ethical position at the expense of career development and professional life and subjection to ostracism and relative poverty. this egodocumentary research reveals the complexity of uncompromising choices and their consequences in a repressive and oppressive society. dilys’ egodocuments are strongly oriented toward the past as well as the ideal of youth and the pastoral world of the parental home. similar utopian undertones and pathos as well as solidarity with the 1920s generation of idealists trapped in a historical downfall – characteristically, this generation is perceived from passéist perspective, in retro-spective projection that centers on the youthful past – crop up in the accounts of other former members of šatrija. the paradigm of dilys’ existential choices calls for a further inquiry into the life of the 1920s generation Show More ... ... Show Less

  • High School
  • Comparative Analysis
  • Spiritual Maturity
  • World War
  • The Ideal
Augustine’S Critique Of Representation In Arts: Confessions

this article is concerned with the critique of representation in art found in augustine’s confessions. the aim of the author is not only to reveal the fundamental influence of plato and aristotle on augustine’s criticism, but to show the unique aspects of augustine’s thought. the article considers augustine’s critique of art in the confessions to be three-fold: the ontological critique, the ethical (psychological) critique of intention and the critique of pagan ethos in art. the article considers the ontological critique as based on the neoplatonic dualism of body and soul as well as the platonic concept of image. therefore augustine considers artistic representation to be three-times removed from reality and sees the experience of god as the perfect aesthetical experience. author states that the ethical critique considers art as a form of idolatry, which projects the innermost desires of the soul (the desire of god) onto the material pleasures of the outer world. even though augustine’s thinking is based on the aristotelian concept of catharsis, the conclusions are entirely different – in augustine’s opinion the aesthetical experience does not free the audience of its corporal appetites. quite the contrary, the appetites get more intense. it should also be brought to the attention of the reader, that augustine holds a certain hostility towards theatre and pagan literature as a pagan social practices. augustine develops the thought of these greek philosophers from the christian point of view and bases his ethical critique of the aesthetic experience along with the critique of aesthetic practices on it. moreover, he is more open to the concept of art as a fiction than plato Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Ethical Critique
  • Aesthetic Experience
  • Social Practices
  • Point Of View
  • Artistic Representation
Literary Canon Studies: Methodological Guidelines

the article presents for the lithuanian audience an interdisciplinary approach of literary canon studies that integrates diverse methods of various disciplines (sociology of literature and culture, literary and cultural history, teaching of literature, text reception and aesthetic response history, memory and media research and bibliography studies). the most intense development of literary canon studies can be observed in western europe and the united states in the last decade of the 20th century. this was due to the fact that the scholars engaged in the field of postcolonialism, gender studies and neo-marxism gave it a strong impulse by initiating a debate about insufficient representation of some social groups (women, racial or ethnic minorities and people from lower social strata) in high school curricula in the usa. the debate was expanded into theoretical polemics of whether the canon is formed by means of objective aesthetic criteria or, on the contrary, canon depends on the social contract. methodologically, investigations of literary canon that are genetically related to the tradition of sociology of culture seem to be the most productive, while this perspective provides an apparatus for a detailed investigation of relations between specific interests of literary field and wider national, social or group interests.the framework of this article is based on the studies of john guillory, renate von heydebrand and simone winko. their essential starting point is the understanding of the canon as a sociocultural process in which the political elite selects a corpus of significant texts in accordance with tradition and formulates practices that ensure the transmission of those texts for future generations. therefore, canon formation turns to be a strategy based on complex relations of evaluation, cognition and actions that aims to conserve this selected knowledge and transmit it to future generations. the structure of the canon is directly related to the notion of literature and literariness; a society (or its group) defines its canon by considering what they recognize as valuable.unlike religious canons, which can only be constructed by theologians, there are a lot of canonizing institutions (schools, universities, literary criticism, theatre repertoire, book market, libraries, etc.) involved in the formation of literary canons. they do not create any well-balanced system of the canon but rather conduct diverse practices of canonization. we can distinguish a micro and macro level in the process of canon formation. the micro level contains a lot of separate actions of canonization that propel the canonization process which enables the canon formation at macro level. origin, stabilization and transformation of literary canon are multidimensional processes, thus it is essential not to lose sight of the interaction of separate dimensions Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Literary Canon
  • Canon Formation
  • Future Generations
  • Macro Level
  • Micro Level
A New Monograph About Bernardino Ochino And The Early Italian Evangelism

camaioni, michele. 2018. il vangelo e l’anticristo: bernardino ochino tra francescanesimo ed eresia (1487–1547). istituto italiano per gli studi storici di napoli. bologna: società editrice il mulino, 601 p. isbn 978-88-15-27853-1 [„evangelija ir antikristas. bernardinas ochinas: nuo pranciškonybės iki erezijos (1487–1547 Show More ... ... Show Less

A Study On The Linguistic Processes Of The Lutheran Reformation And Northern Europe

kauko, mikko, miika norro, kirsi-maria nummila, tanja toropainen & tuomo fonsén, eds. 2019. languages in the lutheran reformation. textual networks and the spread of ideas. amsterdam: amsterdam university press, 303 p. isbn 978 94 6298 155 3 Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Northern Europe
A People’S Writer For Peasant Readers: The Early Reception Of Žemaitė’S Writings (1895–1915

this article investigates the rise of the peasantry as new readers and lithuanian intellectuals’ reactions to this phenomenon as they took the initiative in directing the peasants’ cultivation as readers. these intellectuals were concerned with the development of the peasants and sought to form their reading habits, influence the readers’ choices as to reading material, and so on. this article goes on to analyze how žemaitė’s status as a peasant writer was established during her early reception, and how the evaluation of her work depended on the imagined addressee. by analyzing the reviews and broader studies of žemaitė’s published works in the lithuanian press from 1895 to 1915, this article aims to show that the formation of the common people as a potential and especially important national reading public was an integral part of her canonization process. yet another important aim of this research is to reveal how the reception of žemaitė’s works brought ordinary village peasant onto the horizon of modern lithuanian culture, and how this became the foundation of one of the new literary styles in lithuania, namely realism. in this way, by canonizing žemaitė’s works, the life of village folk became not only visible and recognizable to the lithuanian reading public, but also came to be regarded as a credible topic for realistic prose Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Reading Public
  • Reading Habits
  • Common People
  • Reading Material
  • The Common
Classical Texts In The Art Treatises Of Early Modern Period

this paper discusses the quotation frequency and reference strategies of leon battista alberti, federico borromeo, and gabriele paleotti. these three catholic art theoreticians of early modern period engaged classical texts as the point of reference and expertly manipulated the classical sources to provide contextual arguments in the formation of their own artistic theories. alberti, borromeo, and paleotti directly alluded or referred to pliny the elder, plutarch, xenophon, strabo, aulus gellius, and other classical sources rather extensively. this can be noticed from various quotation strategies applied in alberti, borromeo, and paleotti treatises and by statistical data on quotation frequency in alberti’s de pictura, paleotti’s discorso intorno alle immagini sacre e profane, and borromeo’s de pictura sacra Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Early Modern Period
  • Statistical Data
  • Point Of Reference
Rubens In Russian Poetry: From Ecfrasis To Ideology And Vice Versa

although the name of rubens was included in the canon of well-known western european artists in the russian 18 century and his style was quite recognizable, an appeal to the artistic poetics of rubens was rare, and rubens’s eccentricities, created by valery bryusov and nikolai oleinikov, are full of ambiguities and obscure places. the article clears up all these obscurities based on the enlightening notion of rubens as an artist capable of only a local mimesis, of portraying the life of flanders, but not of a classic imitation of nature. this thesis was adopted by pushkin and dostoevsky and gradually acquired a moralistic and historicist meaning: rubens depicts the characters, not the nature of a person, which means that he portrays the vice mainly and draws the viewer into the vicious circle of vice. the reevaluation of baroque art at the beginning of the 20th century and the symbolists’ dreams of immersive theater required a different look at the audience’s involvement, thereby turning rubens into an artist who could simulate the revolutionary activity of the crowd. at the same time, pushkin’s idea of rubens as an artist of arbitrariness, and not freedom, supported by the cultural image of paul i as a collector of rubens, was retained in russian literature of the twentieth century Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Twentieth Century
  • 20Th Century
  • Russian Literature
  • Vicious Circle
  • Cultural Image
Onomastic Code In Mandelstam’S Poetry

the article explores the principles of anagraming and intertextual cryptography in the work of osip mandelstam related to his own name and surname. it is proved that onomastic ciphers dissolved in poetic fabric (embodied in the images of hagia sophia, joseph, the staff, axis, wasp, hosian, etc.) add up to the author’s myth about the world tree / world axis, which, through a system of complex intertextual references, draws into themselves a number of mythological paradigms of world culture. at the same time, the uniqueness of the myth created by mandelstam lies in the fact that within the author’s system of onomastic correspondences, all images are likened to each other, and their semantic fields become interpenetrable and mobile, which is explained by their ascent to the single sound-semantic code of the poet’s name and surname Show More ... ... Show Less

  • World Culture
  • Semantic Code
  • Semantic Fields
  • The World
  • Hagia Sophia
Intertextual Analysis Of Viktor Pelevin’S Collection Of Novels Pineapple Water For The Fair Lady

this article aims to analyze viktor pelevin’s collection of short stories pineapple water for the fair lady in the frame of intertextual theory. the analytical method used in this article is based on a typology developed by gerard genette. using this typology, an analysis of transtextual connections present in the text was conducted. the analysis of paratextual connections in the texts made it possible to make an assumption that all the novels are connected by a specular structure. a closer inspection of the intertextual connection and references presented in the text established a connection with certain works of nabokov. these references to various works of nabokov allow to view pelevin’s collection of short stories not as thematically disconnected narratives but as one cohesive entity Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Short Stories
  • Analytical Method
  • Gerard Genette
Transgression In Lyudmila Ulitskaya’S Novel Jacob’S Ladder

the status of the boundary that separates and connects the different spheres of existence and the possibility of crossing this boundary (transgression) are the subject of many studies in different fields of the humanities. transgression is also closely linked to the question of the relationship between reality and fiction; consequently, it can be considered as one of the fundamental problems of literary theory.it is exactly the incompleteness and theoretical openness of the literary work and the permeability of reality and fiction that the motto of l. ulitskaya’s novel jacob’s ladder takes as its theme, thus directing the reader’s attention to the acts of crossing boundaries in the work.in this paper, i examine the various sources of transgression; on the one hand, in the course of the heroine’s life, and on the other hand, in relation to the different semiotic systems that open up within the plot Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Jacob's Ladder
  • Literary Work
  • The Other
  • Semiotic Systems
  • The Subject
“I Sang The Reeds As No One Sang Before Me...”: Semantics Of The Swamp In The Poetry Of K. D. Balmont

the article considers the semantics of the swamp in the poetry of k. d. balmont, whose image, in comparison with other natural images in his works, seems to be insufficiently studied. the work shows its special significance for the poet – it remains relevant throughout his whole artistic path and evolves, enriched with new meanings. this study shows that the semantics of the image of the swamp go beyond the early diabolic discourse (in the framework of which the swamp was analyzed by hansen-löve) in a significant group of poems, where the swamp is part of the native space and the habitat of folklore entities. the work concludes that the swamp, in the works of balmont, is gradually freed from the negative connotations traditionally associated with it and turns from a god-forsaken place into a space where the cycle of life and death is carried out. it can be argued that the dominant in the image of the swamp in the poet’s works is the realm of the plants Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Natural Images
  • Special Significance
  • Significant Group
  • Native Space
  • Life And Death
The Chip And The Pale Truth By V. Zazubrin And Chocolate By A. Tarasov-Rodionov As “Irrelevant” Works: To The Problem Of “Red Terror” In The Literature 1920S

in the article, the problem of «red terror» is revealed in a little-known material. the story of the siberian writer v. zazubrin (1895–1937) the pale truth (1923) was published only once in soviet times – in 1923 in the journal “siberian lights”; the novella “sliver” (1923) was not published during the life of the author and was first published only in 1989. the story of a. tarasov-rodionov (1885–1938) chocolate (1922) was reprinted several times in the 1920s, after which it was forgotten for decades. the work traces the history of the creation of the chip, which until now contains many “white spots”. the originality of the plot is revealed, in which the image of the main character contradicts the canon of the “iron knight of the revolution”: tired of his firing “hard work”, he is going crazy. the typological similarity of the chip with the story chocolate is shown, the plot of which is also based on the dramatic story of the hero. particular attention is paid to the receptive dialogue of the story the pale truth notch with chocolate: in both works, heroes devoted to the cause of the revolution become its innocent victims.both works echo and, in their pathos of justifying the “red terror”, the idea of “the future of beautiful humanity”. in terms of creative reception, the plot rolls of the pale truth with chocolate, similarities in the images of the main characters and individual elements of poetics are shown. the “irrelevance” of zazubrin and tarasov-rodionov’s works for soviet literature is substantiated. the main factor is the discrepancy between their plots and the leading ideological maxims of the era Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Revolution
  • Hard Work
  • Main Character
  • The Future
  • Main Factor
Balys Sruoga – The First Translator Of Anna Akhmatova’S Poetry

the article considers both the history of the creation of translations of the writer balis sruoga, who translated poems by anna akhmatova, and the translations themselves. three verses translated by sruoga were intended for the creative evening of the lithuanian author in moscow and are the first transcriptions of the russian poet into lithuanian. akhmatova’s poems were part of the creative interests of the lithuanian translator as the work of a representative of russian modernism, not so much as a post-symbolic plan, but rather a symbolic one. for the first time, taking into account the fact that sruoga relied on the verbal texts of akhmatova and their musical adaptation’s by the composer sergei prokofiev when translating, the analysis of the equirhythmic correspondence of the translations to the original is proposed Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Sergei Prokofiev
  • Russian Modernism
  • The Creation
  • First Time
To The Question Of Theatricality Or What Begins In The Story Of Dostoyevsky’S Uncle’S Dream

the article discusses the issue of theatricality arising from the reception of dostoevsky’s novel uncle’s dream. until now, researchers have dwelled on the external scenic elements of the story and have not paid much attention to the nature of the monologues of the main heroine of the story, where the orientation to directing and acting is obvious. moskaleva’s monologues are not only built “in a theatrical manner” and foreshow the emergence of a complex dialogical structure characteristic of dostoevsky’s main novels, but at the same time they reveal features characteristic of the future hero – the ideologist of dostoevsky. and the identification of the shakespearean leitmotif of the story supports the idea of it as a work in which theatrical elements are intertwined with the prosaic, and at the same time, it reveals the most important topics that are typical in the writer’s further work Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Structure Characteristic
  • The Future
Myth As A Form Of Knowing In Algirdas Julius Greimas’ Semiotics

the article focuses on the peculiarities of the creation, representation and persuasion of scientific abstract and mythical figurative knowing in a. j. greimas’ reconstruction of lithuanian mythology. mythical knowing is understood in two ways: as a cultural construct, a part of cultural knowledge that is limited to the existential and discoursive experience of the reader, and as a special ability or skill of the mythical gods. in order to explain the similarities and differences between mythical and scientific knowing, the concepts of narrativity and believing are used. narrative structures imply the fundamental patterns of thinking about man and the world (existence/action, death/life, nature/culture) and convert individual understanding into a collective one. the emphasis on the rational and rhetorical point in the concept of believing partially reduces the contradiction between the strict methodological reason of the semiotical tradition and the practical and cunning reason of an mythical textual tradition Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Cultural Knowledge
  • Textual Tradition
  • The World
  • Similarities And Differences
  • Scientific Abstract
“The Most Prominent And At The Same Time Most Harmful”: D. D. Bokhan In Wilno (1921–1923

publicist, editor of periodicals, translator of polish poetry, literary critic dorofey bokhan is an outstanding member of the russian literary life of minsk and wilno. his biography in the minsk period before the turn of 1919 and 1920 is generally well-known. but the wilno period (1921–1939) has not been studied enough. the purpose of the study is to reconstruct the activities of bokhan in wilno in the first years after fleeing from the bolshevik minsk. the material for this study are newspapers in russian, as well as documents of the office of government commissar for the city of wilno, starostwo of wilno and other institutions stored in the lithuanian central state archives. the documents reveal a confusion about bokhan’s year of birth: in some documents 1872 is indicated, in others – 1878. on the other hand, the date of bokhan’s appearance in wilno is discovered: he was registered at a new address on january 7, 1921. on the same day an edition of “vilenskoe slovo” was released that included bokhan’s first publication. bokhan published articles, reviews, translations of polish poetry in this newspaper. he also translated a poem by a young belarusian poetess natalia arsenyeva and excerpts from the poem by a classic of lithuanian literature maironis “young lithuania”, as well as a poem by a lithuanian poet matas grigonis. bokhan translated lithuanian poetry into russian from polish translations. some of his articles were signed by the initials d. b., in some cases – n. serebryansky. feuilletons and poetic feuilletons were signed by the pseudonym dodo and vova krutikov. the publication of the newspaper “vilenskoe slovo” ceased in august 1921. in october of the same year, the “vilenskoe utro” newspaper began to be published. the role of bokhan in the newspaper was so great that the authorities considered him the actual editor, not the nominal editor anatoly romashev. in 1921, bokhan became one of the leaders of the wilno russian society and headed the literary and artistic section of the society. the literary and artistic section held numerous literary evenings. the authorities were suspicious of the patriotic character of the evenings. reports on russian culture were presented as a manifestation of disloyalty to the polish state. the authorities saw bokhan as “the most prominent and at the same time harmful” leader of the russian press and the wilno russian society. thus, in the early years of bokhan in wilno, he occupied an important place in the local russian press and began to play a key role in russian literary life. but due to conflicts in the wilno russian society in 1923, he withdrew from the society’s board and withdrew from participation in the literary and artistic section Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Russian Society
  • Literary Life
  • Russian Literary
  • Early Years
The First Biography Of Frantisk Malevsky

[александр федута. филомат в империи: документальная повесть о франтишке малевском. минск: лимариус, 2019. 464 с. (библиотека «наш xix век Show More ... ... Show Less

Counterpoint As A Contentive And Stylistic Device In The Intermedial Genre (About Viktor Shenderovich’S A Flute Solo

in 2015, vremya publishing house issued a flute solo, a book by v. shenderovich, a multigenre and, according to the author of the article, intermedial work, since the peculiarities of the content of a political satire and a tragedy, a farce and a fantasy on the one hand and some features of musical pieces, a fugue in particular, on the other hand, have merged there. the author provides a detailed characterization of the plot, constructed as a grotesque depiction of the reality, the composition as relating a verbal text to a piece of music, and the symbolic value of certain elements, allowing not to agree to the definition of the book as being “desperately hopeless Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Publishing House
  • The Other
  • Detailed Characterization
  • Symbolic Value
  • Stylistic Device
International Scientific And Practical Conference “A. A. Akhmatova: Russian And National Literature” (Yerevan, September 25–26, 2019

materials of the international scientific and practical conference “a. a. akhmatova: russian and national literature (september 25–26, 2019)”. yerevan: lusabac publishing house, 2019. 494 p.а. а. ахматова: русская и национальные литературы. материалы международной научно-практической конференции 25–26 сентября 2019 г. ереван: «издательский дом лусабац», 2019. 494 с Show More ... ... Show Less

  • National Literature
  • Practical Conference
  • Publishing House
Un Voyage D’Oscar Milosz En Lituanie

[full article and abstract in french; abstract in english and lithuanian] oscar milosz, poète et écrivain français d’origine lituanienne, de 1920 à 1925 occupait le poste de chargé d’affaires de lituanie en france et en tant que diplomate se rendit plusieurs fois en lituanie. l’objet de cet article est le récit d’un voyage de milosz en lituanie, au cours du mois d‘août de 1922, en compagnie de maurice prozor, comme lui d’origine lituanienne, et de sa fille. ce voyage est raconté par greta prozor, témoin oculaire. le but de l’article est d’analyser le récit en faisant attention à quelques points : 1. l’image de lituanie, telle qu’elle surgit au cours de la narration,2. la figure de milosz comme son protagoniste. summary the article analyzes the story of oskaras milašius’s journey to lithuania which took place in august 1922. accompanied by her father maurice prozor, the author of the story greta prozor is also the one who traveled alongside the poet and witnessed his journey first hand. as the analysis draws on the theoretical grounding for travel writing, the article seeks to define and interpret both the image of lithuania and the figure of the protagonist of the story milašius. the analysis comes to the conclusion that the author of the story reflectively foregrounds the geographical, historical, social, and cultural history of the country unknown to her before. it also comes to the realization that the “otherness” of lithuania and its inherent “exotics” lie within the union between the past and the present. it is the union between the past full of life and the present times that determines the distinctive singularity of lithuania in europe, which the travelers seem to know well. during the cause of the story, the figure of milašius is defined through the literary character of don quixote, the poet’s alter ego. his nostalgia-driven attempt at the reunion with the family’s past is, in fact, impossible; it cannot be accomplished in present reality. the real reunion with the past most yearned for is possible only throughout the oral and written story Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Past
  • Full Article
  • Cultural History
  • Travel Writing
  • Don Quixote
Kunigo Drama: Tarp Pašaukimo Ir Metafizinio Maišto (Vinco Mykolaičio-Putino Altorių Šešėly Ir Georgesʼo Bernanoso Po Šėtono Saule

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba] straipsnyje analizuojama prancūzų katalikiškojo atgimimo (le renouveau catholique) įtaka vinco mykolaičio-putino romanui altorių šešėly. šis romanas radosi kaip natūrali lietuvių literatūros tąsa. neatsitiktinai jo autorius visų pirma akcentuoja psichologinę kūrinio protagonisto liniją, kuri sykiu liudija ir apie klasikinio (stendališkojo ar balzakiškojo) romano tradiciją. liudas vasaris, pradėjęs mokslus kunigų seminarijoje, pašaukimą įžvelgia kaip pagrindinę savo gyvenimo problemą, nes kunigo kelias jam kertasi su jo kaip poeto siekiais. vis dėlto jis nejaučia nė mažiausio noro maištauti prieš dievą, nes nesuvokia kunigo kelio kaip savojo gyvenimo savasties. kunigystė vasariui netampa egzistencine patirtimi, todėl apsiribojama žemiškojo gyvenimo akiračiais. tuo liudas vasaris skiriasi nuo georgeso bernanoso romano po šėtono saule protagonisto – kunigo donisano, kuris sugeba pakilti virš žemiškojo gyvenimo ir stoti į akistatą su dievu, savo poziciją suvokdamas kaip metafizinį maištą. galima manyti, kad mykolaitis-putinas, kuriam galėjo būti žinomas minėtas bernanoso romanas, greičiausiai šį kūrinį vertino kaip savojo altorių šešėly priedą ar papildymą, liudijantį, koks gali būti kunigo kelias Show More ... ... Show Less

Le « Récit De Filiation » Contemporain Et L’Absence Des (Re)Pères

[full article and abstract in french; abstract in english and lithuanian] l’objectif de cette étude est d’ausculter la relation aussi bien de tension que de séduction que tisse le narrateur contemporain avec la figure paternelle absente, exclue ou perdue. à travers la place (gallimard 1983) d’annie ernaux et vies minuscules (gallimard 1984) de pierre michon, nous tenterons de mettre l’accent sur ces liens intrafamiliaux en montrant en quoi la littérature d’aujourd’hui souhaiterait déplacer ses investigations sur des terrains qui relèvent a priori du domaine des sciences humaines et sociales. les deux textes de notre corpus sont amplement représentatifs de l’avènement de cette littérature émergente dans les années 80 témoignant ainsi, chacun à sa manière, d’une volonté de renouer avec une vieille tradition littéraire (allant d’homère à rouaud en passant par sartre et camus) qui s’intéressait de près aux rapports narrateur/père. la nouveauté de ces livres tient cependant au fait qu’ils sont des symptômes distinctifs de notre époque. ils permettent surtout d’exprimer un certain sentiment de malaise (identitaire et/ou langagier) dont souffre l’écrivain postmoderne. summary the object of this study is to ausculate the relation of tension and seduction that weaves the contemporary narrator with the paternal figure absent, excluded or lost. through la place (gallimard, 1983) of annie ernaux and vies minuscules (gallimard, 1984) of pierre michon, we will try to emphasize intra-family links by showing how today’s literature wishes to move his investigations with human and social sciences subject’s. the two texts of our corpus are amply representative of the advent of this emerging literature, thus demonstrating, each in his own way, a desire to renounce an old literary tradition (from homer to rouaud via sartre and camus) who is interested in narrative / father relations. the novelty of these books is that they are distinctive symptoms of our time. above all, they enable us to express a sense of discomfort of the postmodern writer Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Pierre Michon
  • Social Sciences
  • Full Article
  • Literary Tradition
  • Intra Family
La Révolution Espagnole De 1936 Dans Pas Pleurer De Lydie Salvayre

[full article and abstract in french; abstract in english and lithuan pas pleurer de lydie salvayre (2014) s’inscrit dans un des sous-genre les plus proli- fiques de la littérature française contemporaine, le récit de filiation, qui se présente comme une en- quête sur un ascendant (viart 2005 et 2009). par le biais des souvenirs de la guerre d’espagne que lui raconte sa mère âgée de quatre-vingt dix ans et la lecture simultanée des grands cimetières sous la lune de georges bernanos (1938), lydie salvayre qui intervient dans le livre à la première personne, propose une réflexion complexe sur un pan de l’histoire européenne : la révolution liber- taire espagnole de l’été 1936. cette dernière est restituée à travers les souvenirs fragmentaires d’un témoin oublieux : la mère, et par le dialogue instauré entre cette dernière et sa fille écrivain. aux cô- tés de l’histoire du frère assassiné, l’intertexte bernanosien contrebalance, par le témoignage des atrocités perpétrées par les franquistes sur l’île de majorque, la mémoire éblouie et sélective d’une femme qui a tout oublié des années qui ont suivi 1936. nous montrerons que ce roman, manifes- tant une résistance concertée à la nostalgie, propose une réflexion sur le caractère émancipateur de la révolution libertaire espagnole, et que le traitement littéraire de celle-ci autorise un parallèle avec mai 1968. ce roman a une autre portée mémorielle, celui d’inscrire l’histoire espagnole dans la mémoire nationale des français. summary pas pleurer by lydie salvayre (ed. seuil, 2014) belongs to one of the most prolific sub-genres of contemporary french literature, the narrative of filiation, which presents itself as an inquiry into an ascendant. these are remembrances of a woman who lived a horrifying event – in the sense of the french historian pierre nora – an event that opens an unprecedented and radically new breach in present day thoughts. through the memories of the spanish war told to her by her ninety-year-old mother and the simultaneous reading of a diary of my times (les grands cimetières sous la lune) by novelist georg- es bernanos (1938), lydie salvayre offers a com- plex reflection on one aspect of european history: the spanish libertarian revolution of the summer of 1936. the latter is recounted through the fragmen- tary memories of a forgetful witness: the mother, and by the dialogue established between her and her daughter-writer. alongside the story of the murdered brother, the bernanosian inter-text counterbalances, throughout the testimony of the atrocities perpetrat- ed by the franquists on the island of majorca, the dazzled and selective memory of a woman who had forgotten all the years that followed 1936. we show that this novel, which inscribes the memory of span- ish history into the national memory of the french, proposes the praise of an emancipatory moment, by which the author seems to take indirect position in the re-evaluation of which the years 1968 are cur- rently the object Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Full Article
  • French Literature
  • European History
  • National Memory
  • Simultaneous Reading
Bella Plus Quam Ciuilia: Tradicijų Griovimas Ir Romėniškumo Mirtis Lukano Farsalijoje

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba] straipsnyje nagrinėjamas lukano epinis veikalas farsalija, kuris dėl akivaizdaus ir demonstratyvaus sukilimo prieš žanrines tradicijas kartais vadinamas antiepu. šį pasipriešinimą įkūnija sąmoningai pasirinktos ir asmeninės autoriaus ideologijos suponuojamos meninės priemonės. augusto imperinės propagandos tikslams pasitarnavusių epinių kanonų inversija lukano veikale pasitelkiama kaip antineroniškos retorikos elementas. toks autoriaus pasirinktų motyvų naudojimas straipsnyje yra analizuojamas sociokultūriniame ankstyvojo principato kontekste. apžvelgiamas autoriaus santykis su literatūrine tradicija, ypač vergilijaus eneida, ir analizuojama, kaip jis elgiasi su tradiciniais epiniais topais, kad šį santykį apibrėžtų. kaip pavyzdys pateikiama dvejų epinių topų (dorybingo karo ir individualios karinės virtus) naudojimo analizė. žvelgiama, kaip tokia autoriaus prieiga padeda konstruoti ideologinį turinį. keliamas klausimas, ką sąmoningas šių tradicinių elementų iškreipimas ideologinio farsalijos turinio kontekste gali pasakyti apie tuomečio romėno savivoką politinių ir sociokultūrinių pokyčių įtakoje ir tautinio identiteto kaitą pirmaisiais imperijos augimo dešimtmečiais Show More ... ... Show Less

Xenophon’S Political Philosophy: A Project For The Whole Of Greece

[full article, abstract in english; abstract in lithuanian] this paper discusses xenophon’s political philosophy and its greek context. one of the major themes running through xenophon’s works is leadership, which he tackles implicitly or explicitly in virtually all of his writings (be it his philosophical, historical or literary writings). for xenophon, the leader was important not only as an individual leading the armed forces, but as a leader of a city or a community as well. bearing in mind the importance of leadership and the role of leaders for xenophon, the author of this paper tries to show that xenophon’s political philosophy can be seen as part of his panhellenic program. the aim of this program is to politically unite the greeks by making them enter into an alliance in the name of a common panhellenic crusade against persia Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Political Philosophy
  • Full Article
  • Of Greece
  • Article Abstract
Paradoksalūs Platono Puotos Personažai

[straipsnis ir santrauka anglų kalba, santrauka lietuvių kalba] straipsnyje svarstoma platono puotos prologo veikėjo glaukono tapatybė ir apolodoro vaizdavimo savitumas. pateikiami argumentai už glaukono sutapatinimą su valstybės dialogo veikėju (platono broliu). apolodoras laikomas antisteno sekėju ir jo literatūriniu substitutu Show More ... ... Show Less

Kodėl Vystyklėliuose Jo Kiaulės Nesurijo: Balcerio Wilkowskio Laiškas Sūnui (1584

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba] straipsnyje pateikiamas lenkų brolių bendruomenės nario balcerio wilkowskio laiško (parašytas 1583 m.) sūnui kasparui vertimas ir analizė. kasparas wilkowskis (xvi a. antra pusė–xvii a. pr.) – didiko mikalojaus kristupo radvilos našlaitėlio (1549–1616) gydytojas, polemikas ir vertėjas. tekstas pirmą kartą kaip priedas išspausdintas jano niemojewskio (1526–1598) traktate „įrodymas, kad popiežiaus romos bažnyčia yra nei apaštalinė, nei šventa, nei viena, nei visuotinė“ (vkazanie iż kosciołrzymski papieski nie iest apostolski áni swięty, áni ieden, áni powszechny, kraków, 1584). balceris, sužinojęs, kad jo sūnus, nuo vaikystės auklėtas pagal lenkų brolių išpažįstamą doktriną, perėjo į romos katalikų tikėjimą, parašo jausmingą laišką, kuriame ir gražiuoju, ir grasinimais kviečia kasparą grįžti į „tikrąjį“ kelią. egodokumentas liudija ne tik asmeninę vieno žmogaus, bet ir visos tikinčiųjų bendruomenės reakciją į bendruomenės nario apostazę, atspindi lenkų brolių tikėjimo postulatus. tai vertingas šaltinis tiriant wilkowskių biografijas, reformacijos ir kontrreformacijos sandūros socialinę, religinę situacijas Show More ... ... Show Less