historical memory
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Upravlenie ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 112-120
L. V. Tcerkasevich ◽  
E. A. Makarenko

The article analyses the global social risks related to the expansion of information technologies, mass digitalisation, and the accessibility of sources of all information. The possibility of risky situations arising in different areas of society under postmodern conditions has been demonstrated. This is due to the massive spread of information and Internet technology, global changes in the structure of values of modern society, and the reassessment of a number of historical events and characters by some social groups. The focus is on the destruction of traditional mechanisms for transmitting social experience and memory and the transformation of perceptions of history through the use of virtual forms of communication. A different, own interpretation of historical events, the liberation of historical knowledge from politicisation and mythologisation can lead to risks of distortion of historical memory and even to conflicting situations of interpretation of the past. Case studies show that this, in turn, can lead to a set of risks in the economic sphere, for example: the risk of a situation of global redistribution of economic resources, the risk of losing the source of legitimacy of an economic resource, the risk of loss the reputation of a memory entity. These processes negatively affect social stability in society and distort the integrity of historical memory.Particular attention is paid to the topic of cognitive transformation risk related to the mass use of virtual media in the educational process. On the one hand, they are an effective teaching tool based on rapid search, transformation and storage of learning information. But, on the other hand, practice shows that knowledge loses its consistency and becomes “mosaic”, “clichéd”. The consequences of these processes are of a lasting nature and require further in-depth study by the scientific community, including psychologists, educators, and sociologists.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (45) ◽  
pp. 248-286
Qasem Mohammed Helal Saleem ◽  

The present study discusses the significant role of the historical memory in all the Spanish society aspects of life. When a novelist takes the role and puts on the mask of one of the novel’s protagonists or hidden characters, his memory of the events becomes the keywords of accessing the close-knit fabric of society and sheds lights on deteriorating social conceptions in a backwards social reality that rejects all new progressive ideas and modernity. Through concentrating on the society flawing aspects and employing everything of his stored memory, the author uses sarcasm to criticize and change such old deteriorating reality conceptions. Through reminding his community of the glories of their ancestors’ bright legacy, Cela’s work could be considered a wakeup call to bring life to, to revive the remains of the past and to save his country from the horror and miseries of the wars. Hence, the present study stresses all the author’s teachings and constant lessons reflecting and filling the novel with symbols of the Spanish patriotism. Resumen En esta investigación discutimos el gran e importante papel de la memoria histórica en todos los aspectos de la vida de la sociedad española, ya que el propio autor encarnaba a uno de los protagonistas de la novela a través de su memoria o llevaba la máscara de uno de los personajes de la novela. Personajes ocultos, pues su memoria de los hechos representó la clave para acceder a ese tejido social entrelazado, arrojó luz sobre muchos conceptos atrasados ​​a la luz de una realidad social en deterioro, que vive lejos de la cultura y el conocimiento, y carece de lógica en su comportamiento, e incluso no quiere conocer ni siquiera tratar nuevas ideas que pidan desarrollo o lo que se llama modernidad. El autor empleó todo lo que almacenaba su memoria en criticar esa realidad, con el fin de cambiar algunos de los conceptos a los que estaba acostumbrado durante largas épocas, presentando las situaciones e imágenes miserables y vergonzosas de esa sociedad, además de utilizar frases mezcladas con ironía. El trabajo de Cela fue como un grito para despertar a la comunidad, ya que presentamos sus muchos intentos de revivir los restos del pasado que podrían beneficiar a su sociedad, y brindarles respuestas y consejos para salir de esa realidad deterioro, además de salvar a su país de los horrores y miserias de la guerra, recordándole las grandes actitudes y elevados valores que narran las glorias de sus antepasados ​​y su gran herencia. Por tanto, nuestro foco en esta investigación estuvo en aquellas lecciones y sermones que fueron repetidos por el autor en fórmulas que sugieren y portan simbólicos que reflejan los significados de pertenencia y la identidad nacional española que llenaron las páginas de la novela.

Isahak Poghosyan ◽  
Tatul Manaseryan ◽  
Laura Aghajanyan

The purpose of the article is to show that the most honest crystallisation of piety and humanity is creation. At the same time, the history of creation shows that the Creator created the world as a single family, the centre of which is man. The Christianity accepts sin as a reality, as an existing inconsistency between man and God. According to this, sin is as a product of human society's behaviour and morals or as a kind of disease. The enormous references in ecclesiastical bibliography, in addition to their unique goals, are designed to reflect on the need to be aware of the mystery of creation, to rediscover the vital connection between the absolute and the moral, and to guarantee the historical memory. In this article Human creation and the role of the family authors see as aspects of Theological theory in Bioinformatics for Human history

2021 ◽  
Vol 52 (004) ◽  
pp. 21-34

Literatūra ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 63 (1) ◽  
pp. 29-42
Jūratė Sprindytė

In the period of 1989-2020 Lithuanian literature experienced a very dynamic literary development. The aim of the article is to highlight specifics of the new cycle and to analyze the prose trends of each decade of regained independence. The author discusses the literary process more synchronically than diachronically. The first period, i.e. the transition from the Soviet regime to the new system, was especially outstanding as the censorship was eliminated, the previously banned works of deportees and resisters were legalized, the postwar émigré writers returned back to culture and opportunities for innovation opened up.The role of writer as a cultural hero diminished. Former writers loyal to the Soviet regime described this situation as crisis, while the younger generation developed postmodernist way of writing. Many works were based on the cultural and historical memory reckoning with the Soviet era. All genres underwent certain transformations, such as emergence of peculiar essay genre, spread of ego-documentaries, revival of short stories, and flourishing popular literature.Serious changes took place after 2004 when Lithuania joined the European Union, which led to economic emigration and encouraged changes in mentality and expanse of local contexts. Mobile, “transit” type of Lithuanian character emerged who changed his place of residence but felt lonely in the global world. This is a huge innovation, bearing in mind the sedentary agrarian Lithuanian culture and the confines of the iron curtain during the Soviet era. Increased quantity of published books decreased their quality.

Utash B. Ochirov ◽  

Introduction. The article analyzes historiography and history of the 110th Kalmyk Cavalry Division, the only ethnic Kalmyk (largely) military unit that was engaged in active combat operations during the Great Patriotic War. However, despite its huge contribution to the heroic struggle against invading troops the unit — worthy of decent memory and respect — got surrounded with defamatory myths that bear no relation to actual events. Since most of the Division’s documents submitted to archives had disappeared, it took several decades to objectively examine its history. Materials and methods. The historical genetic method being a principal one for the present research, the latter also employs historical systemic and comparative methods. The sources analyzed are books and articles, official documents and correspondence from various archival repositories, personal messages and memoirs by veterans of the 110th Kalmyk Cavalry Division and researchers of its history. Results. The article is a consistent review of the unit’s historiography that may be divided into five stages to be designated as follows: 1) period of silence and lies (1943–1957), 2) period of ‘sporadic’ studies (1957–1967), 3) period of active scientific work (1967–1977), 4) period of indifference (1977–2011), and 5) period of new scholarly interest (2011 to the present). The Kalmyk Cavalry Division has long been an object of defamatory insinuations and calumny when it was accused of ‘unreliability’, denounced as a ‘gang’ or even as German collaborators — these had clearly political implications. Meanwhile, the historical research was seriously complicated by the loss of most of its documents although after the disbandment those were duly handed over according to inventory lists along with the banners. This severely obstructed the process of preserving historical memory of the only ethnic Kalmyk unit that fought against the enemy during the Great Patriotic War. Hence, the difficulties that scholars in the field have had to overcome were immense. Part One of the article covers stages one to three. Conclusions. Historiography of the 110th Kalmyk Cavalry Division may be described as a difficult and winding path, with periods of both oblivion and activation experienced.

Л. Х. Мухаметзянова ◽  
К. М. Миннуллин

Традиционный фольклор является обширной сферой человеческой деятельности, именно поэтому важна фиксация и изучение этнокультурных явлений и их переосмысление. Данная статья посвящена исследованию некоторых вопросов взаимовлияния двух самостоятельных областей фольклористики: языческого в древности обряда сөрән (сорэн) и не менее древнего жанра – эпоса, выявлению общих проблем в данных областях народной культуры. Рассматриваемые с точки зрения историко-мифологических, художественных, эстетических, нравственно-воспитательных, социально значимых критериев, дошедшие до наших дней обрядовые и эпические акции вправе называться институтом сохранения самобытности, ценностей и творческого самовыражения. Выявление ранних мифологических представлений и исторической памяти народа, зафиксированных в вербальном эпическом тексте обряда, например, способно играть немаловажную роль в этнической идентичности той или иной нации, что особенно важно для современного общества. Научные изыскания по данной тематике способствуют созданию баланса между процессом глобализации в культуре и необходимостью сохранения и поддержания этнического разнообразия в современном мире. Цель исследования – определить общие корни эпоса и обряда сорэн, по сохраненным в обрядовом и эпическом фольклоре кодам установить эволюционирующие признаки мифологического сознания этноса. Основным источником фактического материала в исследовании послужили тексты тюркского эпического фольклора, а также песенные тексты, исполняемые во время названного народного праздника; широко использованы вновь найденные во время научных экспедиций материалы, в особенности – по обрядовому фольклору. В исследовании использованы сравнительные, структурно-описательные, историко-типологические методы. Научная новизна статьи заключается в том, что здесь впервые в своеобразном этническом примере поднимается вопрос интеграции эпического наследия и обрядового фольклора, рассматриваются современное состояние и трансформация календарно-обрядового праздника сорэн у татар, вводится в научный оборот новый материал по обрядовому фольклору татар в сравнении с образцами тюркского эпоса. Подход авторов к проблеме в малоисследованном ритуально-ситуативном аспекте позволил выявить некоторые общие маркеры и коды, бытующие в эпической и обрядовой культуре народа. В результате исследования охарактеризовано соотношение традиционности и современности в татарском эпическом и календарно-обрядовом фольклоре, установлена некоторая стилистическая и жанрово-поэтическая общность между обрядностью и эпосом, сделаны соответствующие выводы, определен потенциал темы для дальнейшего изучения вопроса. Traditional folklore is a vast area of human activity, which is why it is important to fixate and study ethnocultural phenomena and their rethinking. This article is devoted to the study of some issues of the mutual influence of two independent areas of folklore: the pagan rite of Soren in antiquity and the no less ancient genre – the epic, identifying common problems in these areas of folk culture. Considered from the point of view of historical, mythological, artistic, aesthetic, moral, educational, socially significant criteria, ritual and epic actions that have come down to our days can be called an institution for the preservation of identity, values and creative self-expression. Revealing the early mythological ideas and historical memory of the people, recorded in the verbal epic text of the rite, for example, can play an important role in the ethnic identity of a particular nation, which is especially important for modern society. Scholarly research on this topic contributes to the creation of a balance between the process of globalization in culture and the need to preserve and maintain ethnic diversity in the modern world. The purpose of the study was to determine the common roots of the epic and the Soren rite, and from the codes preserved in ritual and epic folklore, to establish the evolving signs of the mythological consciousness of the ethnos. The main source of factual material in the study was the texts of the Turkic epic folklore, as well as the song texts performed during the said folk holiday; materials newly found during scientific expeditions were widely used, in particular – on ritual folklore. The study used comparative, structural and descriptive, historical and typological methods. The scholarly novelty of the article lies in the fact that for the first time, in a kind of ethnic example, the issue of integration of the epic heritage and ritual folklore is raised, the current state and transformation of the Soren calendar-ritual holiday among the Tatars is considered, new material on the ritual folklore of the Tatars is introduced into scientific circulation in comparison with samples Turkic epic. The authors' approach to the problem in a little-studied ritual-situational aspect made it possible to identify some common markers and codes that exist in the epic and ritual culture of the people. As a result of the study, the relationship between tradition and modernity in the Tatar epic and calendar-ritual folklore were characterized, some stylistic and genre-poetic commonality between ritual and epic were established, appropriate conclusions were drawn, and the topic's potential for further study of the issue were determined.

2021 ◽  
pp. 471-488
Orest Krasivskyy ◽  
Nadiia Pidberezhnyk

Condition and problems of ensuring the cultural security of Ukraine were analyzed. Hypothesis that ensuring development and sustainability of the cultural sphere, formation of a single Ukrainian socio-cultural space based on Ukrainian language, historical memory, spiritual values, cultural traditions is one of priority national interests of the Ukrainian state at the present stage was put forward. Research methodology is based on the principles of objectivity and systematicity. During the research, methods of scientific learning of socio-political phenomena and processes were used, in particular: analysis, synthesis, systematization, empirical, and system-structural methods. The authors prove that cultural traditions, historical memory, self-consciousness and language are key factors that constitute and consolidate a nation, and threats to the nation’s cultural interests can jeopardize its existence. It was found that the centuries-old policy of de-ethnicization and assimilation of Ukrainian ethnos by foreign states has led to deformation and russification of the national linguistic and cultural space of Ukraine, loss of ethnic identity based on the language factor of the titular Ukrainian ethnos, deepening the spiritual crisis of Ukrainian society. It is determined that the key threats in the field of cultural security of Ukraine today are the following: Russia’s hybrid war against Ukraine, formation of information and cultural space of Ukraine under the influence of foreign information flows, imperfection of humanitarian policy in the context of cultivating Ukrainian national values, low level of development of cultural industries, dominance of foreign cultural and artistic products, control over Ukrainian media by financial and industrial groups that often take an anti-Ukrainian position. It was proved that the measures to assert and popularize Ukrainian language as the state language, ensure intercultural communication and interethnic socialization of ethnic subjects of Ukrainian society, formation of national-patriotic education, creation of competitive innovative cultural products and their popularization in the world should be priority directions of the state policy of ensuring cultural security of Ukraine.

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