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Sonal Yadav

Abstract: is a kind of malignant programming (malware) that takes steps to distribute or hinders admittance to information or a PC framework, for the most part by scrambling it, until the casualty pays a payoff expense to the assailant. As a rule, the payoff request accompanies a cutoff time. Assuming that the casualty doesn't pay on schedule, the information is gone perpetually or the payoff increments. Presently days and assailants executed new strategies for effective working of assault. In this paper, we center around ransomware network assaults and study of discovery procedures for deliver product assault. There are different recognition methods or approaches are accessible for identification of payment product assault. Keywords: Network Security, Malware, Ransomware, Ransomware Detection Techniques

Maricica Stoica ◽  
Valentin Marian Antohi ◽  
Petru Alexe ◽  
Angela Stela Ivan ◽  
Silvius Stanciu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mariana Ferreira ◽  
Pedro C. Ribeiro ◽  
Laura Ribeiro ◽  
Marisa Barata ◽  
Valentina F. Domingues ◽  

Efforts have been made to find natural, highly nutritious alternatives to replace fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO), which can simultaneously promote fish health and improve the nutritional quality of filets for human consumption. This study evaluated the impact of biofortified diets containing microalgae (as replacement for FM and FO), macroalgae (as natural source of iodine) and selenised yeast (organic source of selenium) on gilthead seabream growth, nutrient utilization, tissue composition and gene expression. A control diet (CTRL) with 15% FM and 5.5% FO was compared with three experimental diets (AD1, AD2, and AD3), where a microalgae blend (Chlorella sp., Tetraselmis sp., and DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp.) replaced 33% of FM. Diet AD1 contained 20% less FO. Diets were supplemented with Laminaria digitata (0.4% AD1 and AD2; 0.8% AD3) and selenised yeast (0.02% AD1 and AD2; 0.04% AD3). After feeding the experimental diets for 12 weeks, growth was similar in fish fed AD1, AD2, and CTRL, indicating that microalgae meal can partially replace both FM and FO in diets for seabream. But AD3 suppressed fish growth, suggesting that L. digitata and selenised yeast supplementation should be kept under 0.8 and 0.04%, respectively. Despite lower lipid intake and decreased PUFAs bioavailability in fish fed AD3, compared to CTRL, hepatic elovl5 was upregulated resulting in a significant increase of muscle EPA + DHA. Indeed, filets of fish fed AD2 and AD3 provided the highest EPA + DHA contents (0.7 g 100 g–1), that are well above the minimum recommended values for human consumption. Fish consuming the AD diets had a higher retention and gain of selenium, while iodine gain remained similar among diets. Upregulation of selenoproteins (gpx1, selk, and dio2) was observed in liver of fish fed AD1, but diets had limited impact on fish antioxidant status. Overall, results indicate that the tested microalgae are good sources of protein and lipids, with their LC-PUFAs being effectively accumulated in seabream muscle. Selenised yeast is a good fortification vehicle to increase selenium levels in fish, but efforts should be placed to find new strategies to fortify fish in iodine.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 91
Sofía C. Santamarina ◽  
Daniel A. Heredia ◽  
Andrés M. Durantini ◽  
Edgardo N. Durantini

The widespread use of antibiotics has led to a considerable increase in the resistance of microorganisms to these agents. Consequently, it is imminent to establish new strategies to combat pathogens. An alternative involves the development of photoactive polymers that represent an interesting strategy to kill microbes and maintain aseptic surfaces. In this sense, a conjugated polymer (PZnTEP) based on Zn(II) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-[4-(ethynyl)phenyl]porphyrin (ZnTEP) was obtained by the homocoupling reaction of terminal alkyne groups. PZnTEP exhibits a microporous structure with high surface areas allowing better interaction with bacteria. The UV-visible absorption spectra show the Soret and Q bands of PZnTEP red-shifted by about 18 nm compared to those of the monomer. Also, the conjugate presents the two red emission bands, characteristic of porphyrins. This polymer was able to produce singlet molecular oxygen and superoxide radical anion in the presence of NADH. Photocytotoxic activity sensitized by PZnTEP was investigated in bacterial suspensions. No viable Staphylococcus aureus cells were detected using 0.5 µM PZnTEP and 15 min irradiation. Under these conditions, complete photoinactivation of Escherichia coli was observed in the presence of 100 mM KI. Likewise, no survival was detected for E. coli incubated with 1.0 µM PZnTEP after 30 min irradiation. Furthermore, polylactic acid surfaces coated with PZnTEP were able to kill efficiently these bacteria. This surface can be reused for at least three photoinactivation cycles. Therefore, this conjugated photodynamic polymer is an interesting antimicrobial photoactive material for designing and developing self-sterilizing surfaces.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 740
Jocelyne Magré ◽  
Xavier Prieur

Obesity prevalence is increasing worldwide, leading to cardiometabolic morbidities. Adipocyte dysfunction, impairing white adipose tissue (WAT) expandability and metabolic flexibility, is central in the development of obesity-related metabolic complications. Rare syndromes of lipodystrophy characterized by an extreme paucity of functional adipose tissue should be considered as primary adipocyte dysfunction diseases. Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is the most severe form with a near absence of WAT associated with cardiometabolic complications such as insulin resistance, liver steatosis, dyslipidemia, and cardiomyopathy. Twenty years ago, mutations in the BSCL2 gene have been identified as the cause of BSCL in human. BSCL2 encodes seipin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) anchored protein whose function was unknown back then. Studies of seipin knockout mice or rats demonstrated how seipin deficiency leads to severe lipodystrophy and to cardiometabolic complications. At the cellular levels, seipin is organized in multimers that are particularly enriched at ER/lipid droplet and ER/mitochondria contact sites. Seipin deficiency impairs both adipocyte differentiation and mature adipocyte maintenance. Experiments using adipose tissue transplantation in seipin knockout mice and tissue-specific deletion of seipin have provided a large body of evidence that liver steatosis, cardiomyopathy, and renal injury, classical diabetic complications, are all consequences of lipodystrophy. Rare adipocyte dysfunctions such as in BSCL are the key paradigm to unravel the pathways that control adipocyte homeostasis. The knowledge gathered through the study of these pathologies may bring new strategies to maintain and improve adipose tissue expandability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Bo Yang ◽  
Sen Yang ◽  
Wenyue Zheng ◽  
Yuanchao Wang

AbstractWhile conventional chemical fungicides directly eliminate pathogens, plant immunity inducers activate or prime plant immunity. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of immune regulation in plants. The development and application of plant immunity inducers based on the principles of plant immunity represent a new field in plant protection research. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of plant immunity inducers in terms of plant immune system activation, summarize the various classes of reported plant immunity inducers (proteins, oligosaccharides, chemicals, and lipids), and review methods for the identification or synthesis of plant immunity inducers. The current situation, new strategies, and future prospects in the development and application of plant immunity inducers are also discussed.

Nanomedicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Dhruba Dhar ◽  
Swachhatoa Ghosh ◽  
Soumen Das ◽  
Jyotirmoy Chatterjee

Rapid vascular growth, infiltrative cells and high tumor heterogenicity are some glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) characteristics, making it the most lethal form of brain cancer. Low efficacy of the conventional treatment modalities leads to rampant disease progression and a median survival of 15 months. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), due to their unique physical features/inherent abilities, have emerged as a suitable theranostic platform for targeted GBM treatment. Thus, new strategies are being designed to enhance the efficiency of existing therapeutic techniques such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and so on, using MNPs. Herein, the limitations of the current therapeutic strategies, the role of MNPs in mitigating those inadequacies, recent advances in the MNP-based theranostics of GBM and possible future directions are discussed.

Nikola Kurbatfinski ◽  
Steven D. Goodman ◽  
Lauren O. Bakaletz

New strategies to treat diseases wherein biofilms contribute significantly to pathogenesis are needed as biofilm-resident bacteria are highly recalcitrant to antibiotics due to physical biofilm architecture and a canonically quiescent metabolism, among many additional attributes. We, and others, have shown that when biofilms are dispersed or disrupted, bacteria released from biofilm residence are in a distinct physiologic state that, in part, renders these bacteria highly sensitive to killing by specific antibiotics. We sought to demonstrate the breadth of ability of a recently humanized monoclonal antibody against an essential biofilm structural element (DNABII protein) to disrupt biofilms formed by respiratory tract pathogens and potentiate antibiotic-mediated killing of bacteria released from biofilm residence. Biofilms formed by six respiratory tract pathogens were significantly disrupted by the humanized monoclonal antibody in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as corroborated by CLSM imaging. Bacteria newly released from the biofilms of 3 of 6 species were significantly more sensitive than their planktonic counterparts to killing by 2 of 3 antibiotics currently used clinically and were now also equally as sensitive to killing by the 3 rd antibiotic. The remaining 3 pathogens were significantly more susceptible to killing by all 3 antibiotics. A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against protective epitopes of a DNABII protein effectively released six diverse respiratory tract pathogens from biofilm residence in a phenotypic state that was now as, or significantly more, sensitive to killing by three antibiotics currently indicated for use clinically. These data support this targeted, combinatorial, species-agnostic therapy to mitigate chronic bacterial diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Saima Rafi ◽  
Muhammad Azeem Akbar ◽  
Abeer Abdulaziz AlSanad ◽  
Lulwah AlSuwaidan ◽  
Halah Abdulaziz AL-ALShaikh ◽  

Due to multitudes factors like rapid change in technology, customer needs, and business trends, the software organizations are facing pressure to deliver quality software on time. To address this concern, the software industry is continually looking the solution to improve processing timeline. Thus, the Development and Operations (DevOps) has gained a wide popularity in recent era, and several organizations are adopting it, to leverage its perceived benefits. However, companies are facing several problems while executing the DevOps practices. The objective of this work is to identify the DevOps success factors that will help in DevOps process improvement. To accomplish this research firstly, a systematic literature review is conducted to identify the factors having positive influence on DevOps. Secondly, success factors were mapped with DevOps principles, i.e., culture, automation, measurement, and sharing. Thirdly, the identified success factors and their mapping were further verified with industry experts via questionnaire survey. In the last step, the PROMETHEE-II method has been adopted to prioritize and investigate logical relationship of success factors concerning their criticality for DevOps process. This study’s outcomes portray the taxonomy of the success factors, which help the experts design the new strategies that are effective for DevOps process improvement.

2022 ◽  
Yan Wang ◽  
Norbert O.E. Vischer ◽  
Demi Wekking ◽  
Alessandra Bogian ◽  
Peter Setlow ◽  

Bacillus cereus spores, like most Bacillus spores, can survive for years depending on their specific structure, and germinate when their surroundings become suitable. Spore germination proteins play an important role in the initiation of germination. Because germinated spores lose the extreme resistance of the dormant state, more information related to the function of germination proteins could be useful to develop new strategies to control B. cereus spores. Prior work has shown that: i) the channel protein SpoVAEa exhibits high frequency movement in the outer leaflet of the inner membrane (IM) in dormant spores of B. subtilis; ii) the dynamics of germinosome formation in developing spores of B. cereus indicate that the formation of germinosome foci is slower than foci formation of germinant receptor GerR and scaffold protein GerD. However, the dynamics of movement of SpoVAEa in B. cereus spores, and the complete behavior of the germinosome in germinated spores of B. cereus are still unclear. In this study, we found that the SpoVAEa fluorescent foci in dormant spores of B. cereus redistribute at a lower frequency than in B. subtilis, and likely colocalize with GerD in dormant spores. Our results further indicate that: i) overexpression of GerR(A-C-B)-SGFP2 and SpoVAEa-SGFP2 with GerD-mScarlet-I from a plasmid leads to more heterogeneity and lower efficiency of spore germination in B. cereus; ii), germinosome foci composed of GerR(A-C-B)-SGFP2 and GerD-mScarlet-I were lost prior to the phase transition in germination; and iii) GerD-mScarlet-I foci spread out but continued to exist beyond the phase transition of B. cereus spores.

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