66 article(s) in English Studies at NBU

The 23Rd Language: Official EU Status For Irish As Portrayed In The Republic Of Ireland's English-Language Press

irish became the 23rd official language of the european union (eu) in 2007. due to a lack of qualified translators and interpreters, it is currently subject to a derogation which restricts its use in the eu institutions, a situation which aims to be remedied by 2022. yet the irish language represents a unique case even within the republic of ireland itself. under british rule, centuries of repression confined its usage to the rural fringes of society, a state of affairs that an independent ireland has attempted to improve with limited success. this article analyses how recognition of official eu status for irish has been depicted in the republic of ireland’s english-language print media. by performing a qualitative content analysis of the online archives of the country’s three major english-language newspapers, the aim is to illustrate how official eu status for irish has been portrayed, paying specific attention to political, cultural and economic factors Show More ... ... Show Less

  • English Language
  • The Republic
  • European Union
  • Content Analysis
  • The Eu
A Lost Lady: A Narrative Of Manifest Destiny And Neocolonialism

the greatly examined story of a lost lady usually depicts mrs. forrester’s success in meeting and adapting to the challenges of a changing world, a world characterized by materialism and self-fulfilment. however, the overlooked story, one far more disturbing than the privileged story in the text, is the narrative of oppressed groups of people of other races and the lower class. drawing on some aspects of postcolonial theory, this paper explores willa cather’s own reactions to real changes in her society, to the waning power of imperialism, and of her nostalgic longing for the western prairies of her youth, without showing any sympathy for the dispossessed native americans and other oppressed races. it will also disclose the unmistakable colonial overtones, which remarkably resonate with the common discourse of “manifest destiny” during the time period of american expansion to the wild west Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Manifest Destiny
  • Lost Lady
  • Native Americans
  • Postcolonial Theory
  • The Common
Traumas Of Roots And Extinction In The 20Th Century Literature Of Empire: The Mirror Principle In Marguerite Duras’ India Cycle (1964-71) And Ahmed Ali’S Twilight In Delhi (1940

this article comparatively analyses marguerite duras’ india cycle and ahmed ali’s twilight in delhi. a mirror principle centres on ‘emptiness’, synthesising elements of marxism and buddhism. a new optic is created for understanding 1930s indian nationalism, including dalit and national leader ambedkar, tagorian “composite culture”, mohammed iqbal, and islam and gender in northern india. the mirror principle juxtaposes heideggerian ‘repetition’ and marxian ‘dialectics’ as divergent anti-colonial paths. duras and ali are linked by a common proustian problematic of memory and ephemerality. they revolutionize the proustian tradition to create a new literary genre in oneiric socialism. the article analyses trauma, in the french resistance and the 1857 rebellion, and literary reconstructions of traditional roots in their wake, with differing nation-making ramifications Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Mirror Principle
  • Marguerite Duras
  • 20Th Century
  • Literary Genre
  • Century Literature
The Politics And Aesthetics Of Storytelling In Diana Abu-Jaber’S Crescent: A Strategic Implementation Of An Old Folkloric Arab Tradition

this paper discusses the politics and multi-functionality of storytelling in diana abu-jaber’s novel crescent (2003). i argue that the strategic use of storytelling places crescent as a complex hybrid text that projects the nature, and development, of arab american literature in the contemporary era. in addition to having the practice of storytelling as an apparatus to project identity in crescent, abu-jaber re-appropriates its empowered status in arab culture as well as politicizes its image in the mind of her readers. besides employing critical and analytical approaches to the novel, this paper relies on arguments and perspectives of prominent postcolonial and literary critics and theorists such as edward said, suzanne keen, walter benjamin, and samaya sami sabry, to name a few Show More ... ... Show Less

  • American Literature
  • Edward Said
  • Arab Culture
  • Complex Hybrid
  • Analytical Approaches
Creating The Authorial Self In Academic Texts: Evidence From The Expert’S Style Of Writing

this paper reports on an analysis of stance expressions in a 439,490-word corpus of ken hyland’s academic prose, encompassing 64 single-authored texts from journals, edited collections and his own monographs. using wordsmith tools 6.0, the study aims to find out how this expert academic writer creates his authorial self through stance mechanisms. the results reveal that hyland’s authorial participation in his discourse is mostly manifested through hedges, somewhat less definitely through boosters, but relatively infrequently by attitude markers and self-mention. the choice of the specific stance devices indicates a preference for detached objectivity when formulating empirically verifiable propositions and a shift towards subjectivity when referring to discourse acts and research methodology. these findings contribute to our understanding of stance-taking expertise in applied linguistics and may thus assist novice writers in the field in a more effective management of their own performance of self in academic prose Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Research Methodology
  • Applied Linguistics
  • Effective Management
  • Academic Texts
  • Academic Writer
English Mnemonic Lexicon: Constituent Structure And Verbalization Potential

this paper presents a study of the system of lexical devices used by english speakers to verbalize their personal memory experiences. the approach presented in the paper presupposes inclusion of non-narrative structures into the spectrum of language forms conveying mnemonic meanings and extends the latter so as to encompass the meanings of encoding, storage, retrieval and loss. the research is based on the hypothesis that lexical units expressing memory-related meanings in english constitute a specifically organized system. a variety of communicative contexts representing mnemonic situations are analyzed as to develop a typology of memory verbalizers in english, estimate their functional potential and role in objectifying personal memory experiences on the lexical level. the results confirm the original hypothesis and suggest that mnemonic lexicon as a linguistic reflection of the mnemonic faculty is an important and largely understudied element of the language – memory system Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Personal Memory
  • Memory System
  • Constituent Structure
  • Original Hypothesis
  • Functional Potential
The Motivation Of University Students Of International Relations To Learn English

this article reports on the findings of a study investigating the motivation of bulgarian undergraduates of international relations to learn english as a second language (l2). first, we consider language learning motivation in the context of three influential theoretical developments in research on motivation. then, we report on a small-scale survey aiming to define the motivational profile of students of international relations through the lens of the l2 motivational self system. the analysis of the survey data reveals similarities with findings of previous research as regards the favourable attitude towards english language learning, the prominent role of the ideal l2 self in the motivational pattern, and some doubt over the relation between the ought-to l2 self and the intended learning effort. the study results also indicate relations between travel orientation and the ought-to l2 self, and between the two types of instrumental motivation which have not been reported in previous research. these motivation peculiarities are explained through the specifics of the surveyed group that refer to students’ aspirations and potential careers in international relations Show More ... ... Show Less

  • International Relations
  • Language Learning
  • Ideal L2 Self
  • Theoretical Developments
English Studies At NBU
  • 2020;
  • English Studies
Framing The Identity Of An Ideal Primary School Teacher Of English

the article presents a study that aimed to examine how primary school teachers of english as a foreign language (efl) framed the identity of an ideal efl teacher. the specific research aim was to identify and classify frames associated with the identity of an efl primary school teacher in the corpus of reflective essays of approximately 1000 words about an ideal efl teacher in norwegian primary school contexts written by 32 norwegian in-service primary school efl teachers. it was hypothesised that the participants’ framing would be reflective of the identity of an ideal efl teacher in norway. the corpus of the participants’ essays was analysed in accordance with the framing methodology developed by entman (1993) and dahl (2015). the results of the framing analysis indicated that the participants in the study framed the identity of an ideal efl teacher via frames associated with future ideal selves, ought-to selves, the identity of their former efl teachers, and the identity of an ideal efl teacher as a fictional character. the study implications would be beneficial to pre-service and current in-service efl teachers and teacher-trainers alike, who could treat the results as a collective “portrait” of an ideal efl teacher Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Efl Teachers
  • Primary School Teacher
Attitudes Towards Democracy In Bulgaria: The Importance Of Social Inequalities

this research is an attempt to examine the developmental relationship between democracy and the socioeconomic conditions in bulgaria. the assumption is that one of the factors contributing to the negative attitude towards democracy in bulgaria is the high level of social inequality. after discussing the relevance of studying democracy and socioeconomic conditions from a developmental perspective, the paper traces the socioeconomic development of bulgaria from 1989 to date and examines public perceptions of social inequality in the country. the research has not revealed any overall negative public attitude towards democracy in bulgaria. however, the findings have demonstrated a clear tendency for the public support for democracy to decline reflecting the growth of social inequality Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Social Inequality
  • Socioeconomic Conditions
  • Public Perceptions
  • Clear Tendency
  • Support For Democracy
Difficulties In Identifying And Translating Linguistic Metaphors: A Survey And Experiment Among Translation Students

a survey of twelve translation students in 2017 revealed that they tend to find translating figurative and metaphorical language difficult. in addition, an experiment also conducted in 2017 showed similar results. during the first phase of this experiment, two trained researchers coded metaphorical items in a text from the new scientist following the metaphor identification procedure vrije universiteit amsterdam (mipvu). based on cohen’s kappa, the researchers reached an initial coding agreement of 0.692 (strong agreement) and a final agreement score of 0.958 (almost perfect agreement) after discussion. the second phase of the experiment involved the coding of the metaphorical items previously identified by the researchers in the same text by 47 students who received a two-hour introduction to conceptual metaphor theory and a simplified method to code metaphorical items. however, the results of the students’ coding showed that they had failed to identify metaphors in 49.96% of cases. nevertheless, a chi-squared test (p < 2.2-16) revealed that the students’ coding was not due to chance alone and therefore not arbitrary Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Second Phase
  • Conceptual Metaphor Theory
  • Simplified Method
  • Strong Agreement
Metadiscourse, Writer Identity And Reader Construction Among Novice Arabic-Speaking ESL Writers

this study used qualitative analyses to explore novice esl writers’ concepts of writers, readers and texts. metadiscourse studies tabulate frequencies of discourse markers in order to characterise the different ways novices and experts, native-speakers and non-native speakers, construct themselves as writers, engage with their readers, and guide readers through their text. but the picture created by these descriptive statistics lacks many content areas voiced by student writers, including their reliance on visual content, and their emotions. student writers’ experiences in a world saturated by visual media and marketing views are also factors shaping how they construct their identities as writers, the identities of their projected readers, and how they understand what they are doing when writing text. this study used content and transitivity analyses to assess how arabic native-speaker novices understand themselves as writers, how they project their readers’ identities, and how they try to engage them. results show that visuals are indistinct from text, and verbs of seeing are used for reader understanding, in novice writers’ sense of their texts, and how they understand engaging the reader. these novices have a demographically granular assessment of audiences, but aim to please readers with expected content rather than challenge them with academic content, and they downplay important elements of teacher talk, syllabus and second-language (l2) composition instruction, particularly data, research, structure and language Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Native Speakers
  • Student Writers
  • Content Areas
  • Academic Content
  • Research Structure
The Ageing Poet And Death Anxiety: Art As Existential Therapy In John Pepper Clark’S Of Sleep And Old Age

death anxiety refers to the human experience of death awareness and the accompanying inescapable disquiet it provokes. it is a phenomenon in human existence which has attracted substantial studies from existential and psychological perspectives. noting that every individual experiences this anxiety at some point in life, largely as a result of the awareness of the inevitability of death, the manner and extent to which it is experienced vary from individuals. meanwhile, existential reflections have described ‘death acceptance’ as the healthy route to lessening this angst. it therefore presupposes that acceptance of death (i.e. knowing that one is a being-towards-death and therefore embracing and acknowledging it) is existentially therapeutic. on this note, in studying j. p. clark’s of sleep and old age, artistic creativity is being constructed in the study as an existential therapy against death anxiety for the poetic persona. it is premised, on the one hand, on the poet’s eloquent vision of the boredom of existence and the horror of death which characterize the atmosphere of the text. on the other, the poet’s age has been considered as a factor-agent which has bestowed on him the capacity to be conscious of an imminent death, thereby accepting it via keen reflections in his art. the study adopts two theoretical models in existential studies: (1) monika ardelt’s ‘wisdom’, ‘religiosity’ and ‘purpose in life’ and (2) john sommers-flanagan and rita sommers-flanagan’s model of ‘existential therapy’ to assess the sway and/or centrality of death anxiety to understanding the text Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Death Anxiety
  • Existential Therapy
  • Old Age
  • Theoretical Models
  • The Other
Milton’S Two-Handed Engine As A Conceptual Metaphor

one of the longstanding mysteries of english poetry is the identification of the “two-handed engine” from john milton’s 1638 poem “lycidas,” with which saint peter threatens to “strike once, and strike no more” the clergy who have been remiss in their duties. a new way of looking at the image is to read the entire passage with george lakoff and mark turner’s theory of conceptual metaphors in mind. the strength of this approach is to show that identification of the two-handed engine should be considered within the context of the entire poem. as many commentators have argued, lycidas’s posthumous fate as the “genius of the shore” does not rest solely in the actions of saint peter, but instead involves a reconciliation that amalgamates elements of both christianity and the classical world as well as nature. the conceptual metaphor thus provides a single combinatory image Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Saint Peter
  • English Poetry
  • Conceptual Metaphors
  • Classical World
Echoes Of The Infernal Machine: 1940S French And English Literature Of Resistance And Collaboration As A Revolution In The Mythic Imagination

this article comparatively examines french and english literature based on two novels published in 1947, malcolm lowry’s under the volcano and jean-louis curtis’ the forests of night. both novels employ the mythic device to construct narratives on the twilight of the british empire and the german occupied french vichy regime, respectively, depicting experiences of resistance and collaboration on the eve of and during the second world war. both invent a system of symbolic imagery modelled on the surrealist template in jean cocteau’s the infernal machine, that turns the classical mythic device still prevalent in the early 20th century (i.e. in joyce or eliot) upside down. the revolution in mythic imagination follows the structuralist revolution initiated by durkheim, saussure and bachelard, evacuating fixed ontological architecture to portray relational interdependency without essence. these novels pursue overlapping ethical investigations, on “non-interventionism” in lowry and “fraternity” in curtis. the novels raise questions about the relation between colonialism and fascism and the impact of non-western mythic universes (i.e. hinduism) upon the mythic imagination. they have implications for our understanding of gender relations, as well as the value of political activism and progress Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Mythic Imagination
  • English Literature
  • French And English
  • World War
  • The Impact
Age And Gender Differences In Evaluating The Pedagogical Usability Of E-Learning Materials

the purpose of the study is to examine the pedagogical usability of interactive e-learning materials for foreign language practice. it is based upon two studies of the expected between-group and within-group differences among participants in the educational process. the sample consists of two groups – lecturers and students, a total of 100 participants, each evaluating four materials specifically prepared for this study. two consecutive repeated measures anova were conducted in which the gender/age, the position of the participants in the educational process, and usability dimensions were the independent variables. results indicated that all independent variables and their interactions have a significant effects on the evaluations of the pedagogical usability. women tend to assign higher values than men. аge groups generally differ in their evaluations, although there is a tendency to give similar ratings for the individual dimensions of pedagogical usability. the 31-40 years age group evaluates the materials higher while the lowest evaluations are given by the groups of 21-30 and 50+ year old participants. students tend to rate the pedagogical usability systemically higher than the lecturers. usability dimensions also have a significant effect on evaluations. the most prominent feature of the materials, by a great margin, is their applicability. the findings corroborate previous research which show age and gender differences in web usability do exist. we conclude that these differences exist as much in pedagogical usability as in technical usability. further investigations are suggested to explore more deeply the differences in the perceived pedagogical value of e-learning materials as this has implications for instructional designers, teachers and learners alike Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Learning Materials
  • E Learning
  • Educational Process
  • Age And Gender Differences
English As A Foreign Language (EFL) Teacher's Perceptions And Use Of Mobile Devices And Applications

this paper reports on a study of how a group of tertiary level efl teachers perceived and used mobile devices in their teaching and personal learning. one hundred and fifty teachers (66 female, 84 male) from public universities in saudi arabia completed an online questionnaire. results showed that the majority of participants used mobile devices and applications in their teaching and learning. survey data showed that the vast majority of teachers had positively perceived and frequently used mobile technologies in their teaching and personal learning. in addition, there was a correlation between teachers’ use of mobile technologies in their teaching and their use in learning. there was also a correlation between how teachers perceived the value of mobile technologies in learning, and how they use them in their teaching Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Mobile Devices
  • Mobile Technologies
  • Personal Learning
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Efl Teachers
Morocco E-Readiness Assessment: University Contribution

the main purpose of this study is to explore the critical issues that impede an effective implementation of information communication technology (ict) as related to higher education (he) in morocco. an e-readiness survey based on harvard e-readiness assessment framework is administered in order to check the role of university in getting morocco e-ready. first, a diagnosis is done at the level of preparedness of moroccan institutions in networked areas of access, society, economy and policy. the data was collected from the annual reports of moroccan telecommunications regulations agency (anrt), reports from the international telecommunication union (itu), global information technology report (nri), quantitative and qualitative surveys from previous research studies, and statistical websites. the findings reveal that morocco has, apart from networked economy and local digital content, a fairly advanced e-readiness status in other indicators in the model of harvard centre of international development. ironically, such findings show that it is the moroccan university that needs to catch up with society Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Readiness Assessment
  • Higher Education
  • Effective Implementation
  • Catch Up
Attitudes Towards Plagiarism In Academia

this contribution probes into the attitudes towards plagiarism in academia as it details the results of a questionnaire study within the larger framework of a joint bulgarian-german research project on plagiarism in academia. the questionnaire focused on investigating the scope of the notion of plagiarism as bulgarian academics understand it and second, looking into the availability of a system of support to prevent transgressors and/or sanctions for transgressing academics across bulgarian universities. the results of the questionnaire suggest that while there appears to be a consensus among bulgarian academics about the different facets that make up the notion of plagiarism, the reported attitudes towards plagiarism practices vary greatly, reflecting a non-uniform perception of what constitutes an offense. it also shows a deep dissatisfaction with existing anti-plagiarism regulatory systems in bulgarian scientific institutions. note: this study was financed by the alexander von humboldt foundation, germany, as part of a larger project entitled: “text plagiarism in the social sciences vis-à-vis ethical aspects and common practices” and realized within the framework of the research group linkage programme of the foundation in the period of 01.01.2017 – 30.06.2018. ref. 3.4 – 1062413 – bgr – ip Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Social Sciences
  • Research Group
  • Questionnaire Study
  • Ethical Aspects
  • Common Practices
Emotions Across The Essay: What Second-Language Writers Feel Across Four Weeks’ Writing A Research Essay

pekrun’s (2000, 2006) questionnaire-based model of academic emotions is widely used. however, appraisal analysis of qualitative data offers richer detail. this study used appraisal analysis to assess the subjective attitudes realised by students across four weeks during which they wrote an essay. results indicate that judgments and appreciations were nearly as frequently-realised as emotions, and the distribution and attitudinal profile differed in all 4 weeks of the task. positive and negative realisations of capacity, quality, impact and complexity resembled a typical u-shaped learning curve. polarity suggested that week 3 was the most difficult for participants, and negative emotional dispositions increased across the task where negative surges peaked in weeks 2 and 3. this study highlights the value of appraisal analysis in detailing the subjective attitudes evoked by academic emotions. it suggests that emotion-focused questionnaires exclude relevant content, concluding for a small set of emotions before sufficient study has been undertaken Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Appraisal Analysis
  • Academic Emotions
  • Second Language
  • Learning Curve
  • Qualitative Data
Mirroring The Society, Mirroring Its Hospitals: Hyginus Ekwazi's Poetry And The Challenge Of Nation-Building

anglophone african poetry has become a significant medium through which african society from the year 2000 to date is mirrored. the younger anglophone african poets, widely referred to as the poets of the third-generation, have always used their poetry as means to respond to both historical and current socio-political circumstances that tend to distinguish africa from the rest of the world. their poetry now constitutes counter-hegemonic discourse against bad leadership in africa and against corrupt african social and medical institutions. using hyginus ekwuazi’s the monkey’s eyes as a representative poetry of the younger anglophone african poets, emphasis is made on how the poet depicts the african society and its hospitals. the paper analyzes the collection as a sequel to all other collections of poetry produced by the younger poets at this period. it reveals the condition in which the poetry is produced and how it has responded to the decay in african society and its hospitals. the paper points out that though the older generation of the anglophone african poets responded to similar socio-political situation, the younger generation of the anglophone african poets has become the prominent voice in this period and that their poetry provides a clear picture of what is happening in africa within this time space. being a new set of voices on the terrain of the anglophone african poetry, a study of this poetry opens up a new platform upon which this so-called “aesthetic of rage” is appreciated. note:  an earlier version of this paper was presented at birkbeck university of london in an international conference captioned “mirror, mirror: perceptions, deceptions, reflections in time” organized by london centre for interdisciplinary research (lcir) on 10th march, 2018 in london, uk Show More ... ... Show Less

  • African Society
  • Third Generation
  • The World
  • Time Space
  • Mirror Mirror
Looking For Heteroglossia And Chronotope In New York And London: Pacino And Loncraine’S Adaptations Of "Richard III

the relationship between a cinematic adaptation and its literary source has sparked scholarly debates in the field of adaptation studies. developed by the russian literary critic, mikhail bakhtin (1895-1975), dialogism can shed new light on the adaptation-source tie as it highlights the mutual interaction between the two sides. the present study argues that al pacino and richard loncraine’s versions of william shakespeare’s richard iii (1593) stress such a dialogic aspect of the adaptation process. within this dialogic framework, pacino’s looking for richard (1996) establishes a heteroglossial relation with the play as it seeks to eliminate the gap between shakespeare and the movie’s modern viewers. loncraine’s richard iii (1995), however, is marked by a significant chronotopic strategy which situates richard in new social and political contexts through a change in the play’s temporal and spatial elements Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Richard Iii
  • New York
  • Adaptation Process
  • Literary Critic
  • Temporal And Spatial
Emotions Vocabulary And The Reconceptualisation Of Emotions In Ann Radcliffe’S “The Italian, Or The Confessional Of The Black Penitents

the article undertakes the analysis of ann radcliffe’s novel the italian, or the confessional of the black penitents (1797) from a history of literary emotions perspective which, i argue, yields insights into the attitudes towards emotions embedded in radcliffe’s works. a reading of the novel from such a perspective also complements the critical studies of the artist’s engaging with the eighteenth-century cult of sensibility. the novel is read as a text that registered but also participated in the dissemination of an epistemology of emotional experience articulated in the idiom of eighteenth-century moral philosophers – francis hutcheson, david hume and adam smith - at the same time as it retained some of the older, theology-based conceptions of passions and affections. the dynamic in which the two frameworks for understanding the emotions exist in the novel is explored through a close reading of the vocabulary in which radcliffe rendered the emotional experiences of her fictional characters. in this reading it is the passions which are found to have been invested with a variety of meanings and attributed a range of moral valences that most noticeably foreground the movement from a generally negative towards a more complex appreciation of powerful emotions Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Novel
  • Eighteenth Century
  • David Hume
  • Emotional Experiences
  • Francis Hutcheson
Deen (Faith) And Donya (The Secular): Al-Ghazālī’S The “Alchemy Of Happiness

the 11th -12th century abbasid philosopher al-ghazālī is the center of controversy today in western societies seeking to understand islamic radicalism. the article initially examines the al-ghazālī debate, split between popular images of al-ghazālī as a fanatical enemy of rational thought, and scholarly depictions of a forerunner of postmodernism. after analyzing a principle example of the latter tendency, centered on the persian term dihlīz, the article undertakes a sociological investigation of al-ghazālī’s alchemy of happiness within the historic context of the abbasid crisis of political legitimacy. the troubled historic vista of abbasid politics, the unique role of al-ghazālī as representative of ideological power, and the crucial influence of the intercontinental sufi revolution, are discussed. the analysis focuses on al-ghazālī’s central concepts of deen (faith) and donya (the secular), that he employed to stabilize and guarantee the continued political success of the multi-civilizational abbasid state. spurning the dogma of unified identity, al-ghazālī recognized the civilizational pluralism underpinning abbasid political survival. reconciling multiplicity and unity, al-ghazālī labored to integrate islamic and non-islamic intellectual traditions. three elements are investigated: (1) investing epistemology with social significance, al-ghazālī opposed orthodox conformism; (2) denouncing ignorance, the passions, and intellectual confusion, al-ghazālī promoted the dialogic principle – not dogma - as the unique public guarantee of the universal truth; (3) this universal truth had an exclusively secular, not religious, dimension, based on the deen/donya distinction, separating universal secular truth from religious identity. an intellectual exploration of the secular dilemma, of corresponding imaginative magnitude, hardly existed in western societies at the time. this casts doubt on the current academic enthusiasm for representing traditional islam in the mirror image of french post-structuralism, and the false depiction of al-ghazālī as the dogmatic enemy of reason. it opens an entire terrain of possible research that is barely tapped, which contradicts the confused dogmas of islamic radicalism. a secular conceptual dualism pervaded the islamic tradition, indeed pre-dating european secularism Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Universal Truth
  • Social Significance
  • Traditional Islam
  • Political Success
Vicarious Learning In The Translation Classroom: How Can It Influence Students’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs

this action research study aims to analyse the ways in which vicarious learning, one of the sources of self-efficacy beliefs according to social cognitive theory, can materialise in the translation classroom. to achieve this aim, a mixed methodological approach was adopted based on the following techniques: the interview, the survey, classroom observation and focus groups. results show that vicarious learning took place in the translation classroom where this study was performed both through the students’ comparison with professional translators and between peers. more particularly, a collaborative learning environment and practices such as the presentation of translation projects by the students, role-plays or discovering the careers of previous graduates favoured vicarious learning and thus positively influenced the participant students’ self-efficacy beliefs, according to their perception. the results obtained contribute to shedding light on some ways to incorporate students’ self-efficacy beliefs in translator education, satisfying the need underlined by several authors Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Self Efficacy
  • Efficacy Beliefs
  • Vicarious Learning
  • Collaborative Learning
  • Focus Groups
Academic Teaching In Translation And Interpreting In Russia: Student Expectations And Market Reality

the purpose of this study is to develop a framework for translator and interpreter competence in an ever-changing professional environment and provide recommendations to improve academic teaching in translation and interpreting in russian universities in order to meet the needs of the language industry. to this end, the author discusses the results of three surveys carried out in 2017-2018. in the first survey, chief executives and vendor managers of major russian translation companies share their experience of hiring university graduates. in the second survey, young professionals entering the russian translation and interpreting market reflect on their university experience versus the expectations they had when enrolling in translation and interpreting programs. in the third survey, teachers of translation and interpreting from russian universities reflect on existing academic programs in translation and interpreting Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Russian Translation
  • Academic Teaching
  • Russian Universities
  • Student Expectations
  • Professional Environment
Issues In Bulgarian Sign Language Interpreting

the article discusses the current state of sign language interpreting in bulgaria. it analyzes a range of historical, social and professional issues regarding policymaking, sign language education and methodology. presented here are three interrelated factors influencing the interpreting practice in the country such as limited knowledge about the linguistic status of bulgarian sign language, traditions in bulgarian deaf education and social attitude of the hearing majority regarding the linguistic skills of deaf and hard-of-hearing people Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Sign Language Interpreting
  • Professional Issues
  • Deaf And Hard Of Hearing
  • Factors Influencing
The Graduation Paper In Translation Studies: Nuances Of Critical Thinking

critical thinking skills play a vital role in a knowledge society and have a direct influence on the quality of teaching and learning. we aim at highlighting the way in which the graduation paper in translation studies can become an excellent opportunity to encourage students to test the applicability of key concepts from this field and to tackle research systematically. based on our experience of supervising graduation papers on translation studies-related topics, we have identified students’ typical approaches and recurring difficulties. this allows us to suggest possible solutions for the problems encountered, depending on each stage of the process. our purpose as supervisors is to endow students with the cognitive flexibility they need in order to draw up an adequate research plan, use translation assessment criteria creatively and hone their critical skills for future real-life situations Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Translation Studies
  • Critical Thinking
  • Key Concepts
  • Research Plan
  • Adequate Research
Education In Localization: How Language Service Providers Benefit From Educational Partnerships

the purpose of the research was to examine whether or not partnerships between language services organizations and institutions of higher education have a positive impact on students, the educational institutions, partnering companies, and on the language services industry as a whole. we interviewed key educational institutions within the united states as well as a select few in europe who closely partner with organizations within the language services sector to determine whether or not their partnering experiences had a positive effect on student enrolment, student participation, post-graduate success, and appropriate job placement within the language services industry. likewise, we interviewed leaders in the language services industry to better understand whether or not they found the partnerships to be beneficial for their own organization, and for the industry as a whole. with regard to the key players we researched, all seemed to be in favor of partnerships, and all shared tangible reasons why these partnerships are a win for all involved. although our research seems to indicate that – at least at present – there are only a limited number of these partnerships around the globe, there is a growing interest and desire for this number to grow in the years ahead Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Language Services
  • Services Industry
  • Educational Institutions
  • Key Players
  • Positive Effect

this paper is a critique of the book “lewis carroll in russia: translations of alice in wonderland 1879–1989” by fan parker, ph.d., which reviews eleven russian versions of the children’s classic. detailed analysis of dr. parker’s book has led the author to conclude that most of its principal arguments and findings are unsubstantiated, mistaken, biased or inexpert, and that it cannot possibly be seen as a source of authority in literary translation studies Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Detailed Analysis
  • Translation Studies
  • Lewis Carroll
  • Literary Translation
  • Alice In Wonderland
Rethinking Inversion In English Syntax

the article deals with some internal theoretical controversies in the concept and the use of the term inversion in english syntax as used in some descriptive and most pedagogical grammars of modern english. the analysis focuses mainly on the formation of interrogative and emphatic negative structures in english by applying some basic concepts of generative grammar. the aim of the analysis is to explain the transposition of the subject and the verbal predicate by following the occam razor' s principle of scientific description requiring the employment of a minimal number of principles and technicalities in the course of analysis which results in higher explanatory adequacy. this aim is achieved through the application of the terms operator and operator fronting in the cases of both obligatory and reversive inversion. the obligatory visualization of the operator in a series of syntactic structures is also discussed and a general rule is formulated Show More ... ... Show Less

  • English Syntax
  • Syntactic Structures
  • Basic Concepts
  • Explanatory Adequacy
  • The Subject
Alice In The Wonderland Of Science: Intertextual Figures In Scientific Articles

since numerous scientific and mathematical concepts can unsurprisingly be found in alice’s adventures in wonderland, the book itself has been a great source of inspiration for many scientists. this paper gives an overview of how alice finds her way into scientific articles. more precisely, it discusses intertextual figures that refer to alice’s adventures in wonderland in a corpus of 29 scientific articles from disciplines including psychology, medicine or astrophysics. results show that intertextual figures tend to be more explicit in the field of physics and medicine than those found in the field of psychology. crucially, observations show that intertextual figures found in the collected scientific articles serve different purposes depending on the discipline that makes use of them Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Alice’S Adventures In Wonderland
  • Alice's Adventures In Wonderland
  • Mathematical Concepts
Bridging Difference Through Classroom Misunderstandings

cultural misunderstandings often arise because of the unstated assumptions or “background books” that each of us has. in the classroom, such misunderstandings can make for uncomfortable moments, but they can also lead to fruitful teaching experiences for teacher and student alike. using a variety of examples that arose while teaching a module called “canadian culture” at a slovenian university, i argue that such moments – such as when students seem not to have heard what i think was a clear message or bit of information – the resulting cultural misunderstanding can be educationally rewarding. they force us to break out of the question-and-answer routine that is often a part of the teaching process Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Teaching Experiences
  • Teaching Process
  • Question And Answer
  • Cultural Misunderstanding
  • Canadian Culture
The Portraiture Of Stockholm Syndrome: Cultural Dislocation In Phillis Wheatley’S Poetry Collection And Selected African American Texts

one of the tropes that have often been glossed over in african american literature is the concept of stockholm syndrome. the syndrome emphasises irrationality and abnormal psychological or mental disposition of stockholm syndrome sufferers towards individuals responsible for their pitiable conditions. this article examines the conception and its nexus with slavery and the use of religion (christianity) as an ideological tool for the indoctrination or brainwashing of african slaves and their descendants in the united states of america. i argue that the syndrome, though conceived as a correlate of freudian ego-defence mechanism, operates like a psychedelic or hallucinogenic drug which, according to karl marx, dulls the reasoning capacity and cerebration of the sufferers and prevents them from thinking rationally. besides, it alters their perception of reality forcing them to accept abnormality as normality in a bid to create an escapist route for their fears, hurt feelings and pent-up wounds Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Stockholm Syndrome
  • United States
  • African American Literature
Female 'Weight' In The Nigerian Fiction: Iyayi's ‘Violence’ And Ibezute's ‘Dance Of Horror

this article is a masculinist examination of festus iyayi’s violence and chukwuma ibezute’s dance of horror. the article despises the ideological stance of some feminists – that women are unfairly treated in society and in literature by men. it explores women’s relationship with men and contends that every woman is in control of her man and society around her. the article shows how women use marriage, love, sex, their body, social status, kitchen and cradle influence to hold men to ransom. the article, however, recommends that men should not act on their women’s unverifiable and manipulative claims. in all, the article concludes that women are oppressive and exploitative to men Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Social Status
  • Ideological Stance
  • Female Weight
Continental Perceptions Of Englishness, ‘Foreignness’ And The Global Turn — Book Review

book details: title: continental perceptions of englishness, ‘foreignness’ and the global turn author: audriana neagu publisher: cambridge scholars publishing, 120 pages isbn-13: 978-1-4438-9599-6 isbn-10: 1-4438-9599-7 published and distributed online http://www.cambridgescholars.com/continental-perceptions-of-englishness-foreignness-and-the-global-turn Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Book Review
A Psychoanalytic Reading Of Tanure Ojaide’S Poetry

psychoanalysis as a literary theory has helped to improve understanding about “human behaviour and human mental functioning.” this is achieved through its perception of the human race as neurotic. however, with its application in poetic interpretation, poetry is perceived as an expression of displaced neurotic conflict: a consoling illusion, symptom, socially acceptable phantasy or substitute gratification. with the psychoanalytic reading of the poetry of tanure ojaide, an anglophone african poet, poetry is understood as an expression of symptoms of the poet’s personal and societal neurotic tendencies. since our emphasis is on jungian psychoanalysis, analyzing ojaide’s poetry through the orbits of the archetypes of jungian psychoanalysis help to foreground the poetry as a consoling illusion or substitute gratification. whereas the study reveals that ojaide’s poetry is dominated by the archetype of the “wounded healer” - a symbol of a wounded personality who also doubles as the needed messiah (the healer), it is depicted that the dominant nature of the archetype of the “wounded healer” is a result of the poet’s experience which is at the centre of his poetic expression Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Wounded Healer
  • Literary Theory
  • Human Behaviour
  • Mental Functioning
  • Human Race
Tolerance Or A War On Shadows: John Milton’S Paradise Lost, The English Civil War, And The Kaleidoscopic Early Modern Frontier

this article comprises two sections. the first analyses john milton’s paradise lost in terms of the frontier dividing providence and chaos. chaos is represented in violent images of the colonial world, the english civil war, and scientific revolution cosmology. providence intends to justify the ways of god in history. milton’s retelling of the traditional biblical fall allegorises the 17th century scientific revolution, english society overwhelmed by market forces, and early modern nation-building wars. the second section analyses the english civil war, focusing on providence and natural rights. the natural rights defence of pluralism was the work of political refugees, attempting to curtail atrocities done in the name of providence. providence, meanwhile, was a political weapon, amidst new forces of capitalism, dynastic rivalry, and nationalism. this article examines milton’s poetic visions, and the institutions and actions that characterized his political life in the english revolution, and their interconnection Show More ... ... Show Less

  • English Civil War
  • Early Modern
  • Scientific Revolution
  • Paradise Lost
Every Turn Of The Wheel: Circular Time And Cordelia’S Revolt: From William Shakespeare To The British Enlightenment

this article argues that william shakespeare’s king lear anticipates core political dynamics of the english civil war (1641-49), and philosophical tenets of the british enlightenment in john locke and david hume. it analyzes three principle and competing paradigms of public authority in king lear: theodicy, nature, and the autonomy of thought. the play is historically contextualized within the 16th century. king lear, moreover, portends revolutionary new thought patterns: the centerless universe of modern astronomy, and human embeddedness in fluid nature without fixed identity. three variants on the concept of “nothing” – existential, social, and philosophical - interweave the cosmic and political threads, based on a circular temporality. shakespeare’s character, cordelia, affirms the everyday over the cosmic, and the sociological over the metaphysical. king lear depicts a profound moral trans-valuation in early modern history, whose shifting temporal horizons remain central also to contemporary politics Show More ... ... Show Less

  • King Lear
  • 16Th Century
  • Political Dynamics
  • The Everyday
  • Modern Astronomy
Byron’S And Shelley’S Revolutionary Ideas In Literature

the paper explores the revolutionary spirit of literary works of two romantic poets: george gordon byron and percy bysshe shelley. in the period of conservative early 19th century english society that held high regard for propriety, tradition, decorum, conventions and institutionalized religion, the two poets’ multi-layered rebellious and subversive writing and thinking instigated public uproar and elitist outrage, threatening to undermine traditional concepts and practices. acting as precursors to new era notions and liberties, their opuses present literary voices of protest against 19th century social, religious, moral and literary conventions. their revolutionary and non-conformist methods and ideas are discussed and analyzed in this paper through three works of theirs: byron’s the vision of judgement and childe harold’s pilgrimage and shelley’s prometheus unbound Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Literary Works
  • Early 19Th Century
  • English Society
  • High Regard
Comprehensive Quality Assessment In Higher Education

the article presents an analysis of approaches towards the development of a system of comprehensive quality assessment of education based on an example of one of russia’s major institutions of higher education. the system encompasses all the participants in the educational process and related stakeholders. comprehensiveness and balance of the quality assessment is achieved by unifying the centralised and decentralised approaches, whereby part of the work is carried out on the faculty or departmental level, while the other part is undertaken at a university-wide level. based on this analysis, a number of practical recommendations were made in the aims of improving the quality of education in a number of areas. the implementation of these recommendations has already produced real and significant results for the students. this is also reflected in the results of the regular surveys undertaken to assess students’ satisfaction with the quality of the master’s programme in linguistics Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Quality Assessment
  • Higher Education
  • Made In
  • Practical Recommendations
Reflections On The Relation Between National Cultures And Innovations In Education - The Case Of Bulgaria

pluralism, multiculturalism, leaner autonomy and motivation have become buzz expressions discussed widely both by the common european framework of reference and the european centre for modern languages. however, despite the hard work to implement these new approaches in the classroom, some countries seem to be more adaptive compared to others. in the author’s opinion, the answer is rooted in the specifics of national cultures. the article discusses the roles of teacher and student as an archetypal case of micro social organization as they reveal typical patterns of social behaviour. provided is a detailed description of the specifics of the bulgarian national culture along the six dimensions of hofstede’s theory of organizations and cultures with regard to the educational system. the readiness of the bulgarian teachers and students to comply with the concepts of pluralistic approaches, multiculturalism, learner–centred teaching and autonomy in the bulgarian classroom are explored. the general conclusion is that these ideas are highly culture-sensitive and the success of their implementation depends on the closeness of the cultures where they emerged and the recipient countries to which they are exported Show More ... ... Show Less

  • National Cultures
  • Social Organization
  • Educational System
  • The Common
  • Roles Of Teacher
Truth And Illusion In Tennessee Williams' A Streetcar Named Desire

the following paper discusses some of the motifs ubiquitous to tennessee williams’ oeuvre, namely truth and illusion as they are presented in one of his most famous plays, a streetcar named desire. the author endeavors to portray these motifs through an analysis of the characters' behavior and the subsequent, tragic consequences in order to reveal the humanness of williams' characters who are just like the playwright himself, all marred by alcoholism, depression and loneliness Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Tennessee Williams
  • A Streetcar Named Desire
"I Am Years Seven Old." Acquisition Of English Word Order By Bosnian And Turkish Children

this paper aims to investigate differences in the acquisition of english word order between bosnian and turkish students resulting from word order in these two languages (bosnian and turkish). in second language acquisition, the knowledge of the native language (l1) in acquisition of a foreign language (l2) can indeed have a facilitating or inhibiting effect on the learner’s progress in mastering a new language. thirty children from the first grade at the international school of sarajevo were tested. some of them attended the kindergarten where english was a language of communication and the rest of them had six months of exposure of english in school settings. we wanted to find possible differences in acquiring word order in english in these groups of children as well. this study offers new results for acquiring correct word order in english Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Word Order
  • English Word
  • Language Acquisition
  • Foreign Language
  • School Settings
The Splendor And Misery Of "Intercultural Communication" Teaching Modules

the paper examines in a critical light the approaches and theoretical grounds of certain educational projects seeking to promote "intercultural competence" in translators, both in russia, the contributors’ home country, and in western europe, as exemplified by a european union project. some textbooks as well as teaching material and recommendations are placed under scrutiny for consistency, relevance and value to the training of professional translators/interpreters, especially at postgraduate level. it is shown that some guidelines presented as an improvement on current translation teaching practices repeat or repackage ideas developed decades ago by russian and bulgarian translatologists. the paper argues that there is no special need for artificially implanting or isolating an "intercultural communication" module in translation teaching, as translation is itself a primary form of international and, therefore, intercultural communication, and the best practices of its teaching, at least in the leading translator/interpreter schools of russia, have incorporated the cultural component in harmony with other essential translation competences for at least half a century Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Intercultural Communication
  • European Union
  • Best Practices
  • Home Country
  • Primary Form
Patterns Of Creating Suspense In Stephen King's The Shining

the article focuses on the ways of creating suspense in stephen king’s novel the shining. its main purpose is to explore the basic suspense motifs in the book and establish some general patterns of their development and distribution throughout the novel. after providing a theoretical definition of what suspense is, the paper sets to explore the ways it is achieved in the novel. a toolkit is adopted from narrative theory, in order to analyze the ways of building suspense in terms of narration. the study shows that the suspenseful motifs in the shining can be divided into three groups according to their operation in the text: gradually developed suspense motifs, climactic suspense motifs, and mini episodes of suspense Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Novel
  • Narrative Theory
Coherence: Implications For Teaching Writing

the paper presents the results of a study consisting of three text-based analyses of groups of student argumentative essays written on the same topic. the aim was to identify text-based features of coherence in l1 and l2. the analyses were carried out on essays written by first and third year undergraduates at the department of english language and literature, faculty of philology "blazhe koneski" at the ss. "cyril and methodius" university in skopje, republic of macedonia who wrote in their first language macedonian, l1, and in english as a foreign language, l2. the goal was to recognise the importance of discourse organisation in academic writing in l1, and to examine factors which may affect second language learners' competence in the organisation of written discourse in english as a foreign language, l2. the paper points out the differences in the rhetorical models in macedonian and english written discourse and how these differences may have an impact on writing assessment and the teaching of writing at university level Show More ... ... Show Less

  • English As A Foreign Language
  • Written Discourse
  • Academic Writing
  • University Level
Bulgarian Revival Culture - An Axiological Perspective In The Texts Of Januarius Macgahan And Stanislas St. Claire

analyzing the vocabulary and the stylistic techniques in the works of the two authors, dedicated to bulgaria, the article aims to contribute to a change of the two seemingly contrasting attitudes in their bulgarian reception. the first is the implicit attitude to macgahan as a "dangerous" author whose work is not even published with its true title - "the turkish atrocities in bulgaria". the focus of the analysis are the passages that deal with the bulgarian material culture and education, as well as their axiological charge. the second is the negative value-based perception of the bulgaro-phobic texts of st. clair, an author obviously considered ineligible for translating into bulgarian. however, his work might be a valuable source of knowledge about the culture of the bulgarian national revival, provided that our reception remains neutral and unaffected by his derogatory language Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Material Culture
  • Implicit Attitude
  • Valuable Source
  • Derogatory Language