american english
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 129-144
Huu Ngoc Nguyen ◽  
Thi Lam Nguyen

This study was a survey design conducted with the aim of exploring non-English major students' perceptions of video-based tasks in listening classes. The data were collected both quantitatively and qualitatively through two main research tools, namely Likert-scale questionnaires and semi-structured focus group interviews respectively. First, quantitative data was collected through the questionnaires delivered to 86 non-English major students with the use of Google forms to investigate how they perceive video-based tasks in the AEF series in terms of three components, namely Goals, Input, and Procedures. Then, qualitative data, which was gathered from two focus groups of student volunteers, was used to confirm and supplement the findings from the first tool. It was then discovered that the student participants' responses to the video-based tasks in American English File (AEF) series are generally positive. Moreover, students can improve their listening ability, have more motivation in listening lessons as well as better acquire real-life input from the videos.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Man Guo ◽  
Qingshun He

Abstract This article aims to conduct a corpus-based study of the diachronic and synchronic distributions of a special type of participle adjectivization, the ADJ-looking adjectivization. The study based on the Corpus of Historical American English (COHA) finds that this process of adjectivization consists of two phases: (1) The downward rank-shift from the look ADJ construction to the ADJ looking adjectivization is a process of metaphorization; (2) The transcategorization from the ADJ looking adjectivization to the ADJ-looking adjectivization is a process of lexicalization. The study based on the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) finds that ADJ-looking adjectivizations are mode and register sensitive but not discipline sensitive. The modifier use prefers to occur more in hard science texts to increase the complexity of nominal groups and the predicative use prefers to occur more in soft science texts to increase the grammatical intricacy of sentences. The reason for the non-sensitivity across disciplines is that evaluative adjectives tend to occur in neither soft nor hard science texts.

2021 ◽  
Vol LXXVII (77) ◽  
pp. 245-266
Leszek Szymański

This article discusses an investigation into the English modal predicate with can and the perfect infinitive form of the main verb. The study uses language samples excerpted from The Corpus of Contemporary American English, as well as selected data from The Corpus of Historical American English and The British National Corpus. English grammars tend not to discuss can with the perfect infinitive form, which can give an impression that it does not exist. Nevertheless, the reported study confirms that can with the perfect infinitive form is present in both American and British Englishes, mainly in formal, written communication. In the US, it was used already at the beginning of the 19th century. Furthermore, can with the perfect infinitive form expresses either the speaker’s reasoning about a hypothetical past situation or speaker’s certainty that a situation did not take place in the past. Thus, can interacts with the perfect and yields epistemic readings. Additionally, subject negation extends its scope over the proposition. The propositional negation interacts with can, thus producing the meaning of speaker’s certainty. Finally, the findings of the study are used to determine the norms which may underlie the modal predicate with can and the perfect infinitive form. “Few people can have seen it” – badanie rzekomo nienormatywnej konstrukcji z czasownikiem can i formą bezokolicznika perfect Streszczenie: Artykuł omawia badanie angielskiego orzeczenia modalnego z czasownikiem can i formą bezokolicznika perfect czasownika głównego. W badaniu wykorzystano próbki języka z korpusu The Corpus of Contemporary American English oraz wybrane dane z korpusów: The Corpus of Historical American English i The British National Corpus. Gramatyki języka angielskiego zwykle nie omawiają can z perfectem, co może sprawiać wrażenie, że ta konstrukcja nie istnieje. Niemniej, opisane badanie potwierdziło obecność can z perfectem w angielszczyźnie zarówno amerykańskiej jak i brytyjskiej, zwłaszcza w oficjalnej komunikacji pisanej. Użycie tej konstrukcji w Stanach Zjednoczonych zarejestrowano już na początku XIX w. Can z perfectem wyraża wnioskowanie mówiącego odnośnie hipotetycznej sytuacji z przeszłości lub pewność nadawcy, że sytuacja nie wystąpiła w przeszłości. Zatem can wchodzi w interakcję z perfectem i w efekcie wyraża znaczenia epistemiczne. Nadto, negacja podmiotu obejmuje swym zasięgiem cały sąd logiczny i wchodzi w interakcję z can, w wyniku czego powstaje znaczenie pewności mówiącego. Na koniec określono normy, które mogły były przyczynić się do powstania orzeczenia modalnego z can i perfectem.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 73
Mohamad Nur Raihan

In pronunciation, influenced by American English, a shift in Brunei English can be observed in the increasing use of [r] in tokens such as car and heard particularly among younger speakers whose pronunciation may be influenced by American English. In contrast, older speakers tend to omit the [r] sound in these tokens as their pronunciation may be more influenced by British English. However, it is unclear whether American English has influenced the vocabulary of Brunei English speakers as the education system in Brunei favours British English due to its historical ties with Britain. This paper analyses the use of American and British  lexical items between three age groups: 20 in-service teachers aged between 29 to 35 years old, 20 university undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years old, and 20 secondary school students who are within the 11 to 15 age range. Each age group has 10 female and 10 male participants and they were asked to name seven objects shown to them on Power point slides. Their responses were recorded and compared between the age groups and between female and male data. The analysis is supplemented with recorded data from interviews with all 60 participants to determine instances of American and British lexical items in casual speech. It was found that there is a higher occurrence of American than British lexical items in all three groups and the interview data supports the findings in the main data. Thus, providing further evidence for the Americanisation of Brunei English and that Brunei English is undergoing change.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 147-166
Bebwa Isingoma

In standard British/American English, some transitive verbs, which are ontologically specified for objects, may be used with the objects not overtly expressed (for example, leave), while other transitive verbs do not permit this syntactic behavior (for example, vacate). The former have been referred to as verbs that allow implicit arguments. This study shows that while verbs such as vacate do not ideally allow implicit arguments in standard British/American English, this is permitted in Ugandan English (a non-native variety), thereby highlighting structural asymmetries between British/American English and Ugandan English, owing mainly to substrate influence and analogization. The current study highlights those structural asymmetries and ultimately uncovers some characteristic features in the structural nativization process of English in Uganda, thereby contributing to the growing larger discourse meant to fill the gaps that had characterized World Englishes scholarship, where thorough delineations of Ugandan English have been virtually absent.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 197
Faisal Mustafa ◽  
Syamsul Bahri Yusuf

Try and V construction is prevalent in British and American English. This construction is found in both spoken and written English, although with different frequencies. The verb in this construction only appears in in the base form. The lack of research on this verb formation leaves many aspects unexplored, one of which is the transitivity of the verb. Therefore, this study is intended to find out the number of arguments informed by this construction by matching the number of arguments to the verb try and the verb following it after the conjunction and. Two verbs were used to test this match, i.e., give and bring, which are three-place predicate verbs, and other two two-place predicate verbs, i.e., see and answer, were used to validate the finding. British National Corpus (BNC) and Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) were used to collect the data. The findings show that the number of arguments matched the verb following the conjunction and. Therefore, it can be concluded the number of arguments in try and V construction is not unique to this construction, but it is similar to the try to V, where V is the non-finite verb which selects the number of arguments. This result suggests that try and V construction needs to be included in English grammar textbooks in order that non-native speakers can use and understand this rare grammatical rule in appropriate contexts.

2021 ◽  
pp. 026765832110662
Ala Simonchyk ◽  
Isabelle Darcy

The study investigates the relationship between lexical encoding and production in order to establish whether learners are able to produce a difficult contrast in words that they merged in their mental lexicon. Forty American English learners of Russian were tested on their production and lexical encoding of familiar and highly-frequent words with the plain/palatalized contrast in second language (L2) Russian. Results suggest that the relationship between phonolexical encoding and production is less straightforward than a simple mirror image and is strongly affected by the prosodic position of the target consonants. In word-final position, learners did not lexically encode the difference between plain and palatalized consonants but they strived to produce it, although not very successfully. In intervocalic position, learners’ ability to encode and produce words with the plain/palatalized contrast was more accurate than in word-final position, which was attributed to the ‘spelling trap’ effect. Since Russian orthography employs vowel graphemes to mark the plain/palatalized status of preceding consonants, it appears that learners relied on these assumed vowel differences to articulate complex palatalization gestures. Thus, the findings of this study suggest that L2 learners can produce a contrast that they have not yet lexically encoded.

2021 ◽  
pp. 32-42
Emnijeta Ahmetović

Classified as a Germanic language and evidently a common language, a lingua franca of the world, after years of development, English has formed a number of varieties differing in many areas, including vocabulary, pronunciation, spelling, grammar, and in some cases, accent. As a result of its widespread, it is crucial to know which variety is used, yet preferred by learners, and observe differences between them. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the two most commonly used, often mixed, varieties of English, namely American English and British English, in one high school in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. Moreover, we aimed , to see whether students are aware of the significant differences in spelling, vocabulary, and grammatical structure. In doing so, 50 randomly selected high school students were given a test consisting of written differences related to lexical items, spelling, as well as differences visible in grammar. The findings revealed that the majority of participants prefer British English, though they are not totally aware of the differences in the mentioned areas between these two varieties; as a result, they are frequently mixing them. Lacking knowledge about these two primary varieties of English would, undeniably in some cases, lead to misunderstanding; thus, teachers should pay more attention and give more effort to raise the learners’ awareness of different varieties and their distinctive aspects.

Javier Calle-Martín ◽  
Juan Lorente-Sánchez

The intensifiers this and that acquired their intensifying function as a result of a grammaticalization process by means of which deictic demonstratives became degree adverbs with the meaning “to this or that extent, so much, so.” The phenomenon spread in the early nineteenth century as a typical resource of spoken English, and since then these intensifiers have found a niche in the written domain by imposing a scalar construal on adjectives for which scale is not the default. Even though these intensifiers are observed in practically all the varieties of English around the world, they predominate in American English, with its use in all the other inner circle varieties lagging well behind. In the outer circle varieties, the construction is also subject to some geographical preferences. The present article has two objectives: to evaluate the role and distribution of this and that as intensifiers in selected Asian varieties of English and to analyze the lexicosemantic structure of their right-hand collocates in terms of word class and mode of construal. The study demonstrates, firstly, the existence of different stages of grammaticalization of this and that, the latter having a wider repertoire of collocates; and secondly, an ongoing process of colloquialization and Americanization of the phenomenon, which is contributing to its growing diffusion in the outer circle varieties of English. The evidence comes from the Indian, Hong Kong, Singaporean and Philippines components of the Corpus of Global Web-based English.

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