photon absorption
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 770
Mikhail Drobizhev ◽  
Rosana S. Molina ◽  
Jacob Franklin

Red fluorescent proteins and biosensors built upon them are potentially beneficial for two-photon laser microscopy (TPLM) because they can image deeper layers of tissue, compared to green fluorescent proteins. However, some publications report on their very fast photobleaching, especially upon excitation at 750–800 nm. Here we study the multiphoton bleaching properties of mCherry, mPlum, tdTomato, and jREX-GECO1, measuring power dependences of photobleaching rates K at different excitation wavelengths across the whole two-photon absorption spectrum. Although all these proteins contain the chromophore with the same chemical structure, the mechanisms of their multiphoton bleaching are different. The number of photons required to initiate a photochemical reaction varies, depending on wavelength and power, from 2 (all four proteins) to 3 (jREX-GECO1) to 4 (mCherry, mPlum, tdTomato), and even up to 8 (tdTomato). We found that at sufficiently low excitation power P, the rate K often follows a quadratic power dependence, that turns into higher order dependence (K~Pα with α > 2) when the power surpasses a particular threshold P*. An optimum intensity for TPLM is close to the P*, because it provides the highest signal-to-background ratio and any further reduction of laser intensity would not improve the fluorescence/bleaching rate ratio. Additionally, one should avoid using wavelengths shorter than a particular threshold to avoid fast bleaching due to multiphoton ionization.

2022 ◽  
Weihong Shen ◽  
Gangqiang Zhou ◽  
Jiangbing Du ◽  
Linjie Zhou ◽  
Ke Xu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Ling Zhang ◽  
Mahbod Morshedi ◽  
Mark G. Humphrey

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Deyang Yu ◽  
YangYang Hu ◽  
Guiling Zhang ◽  
Weiqi Li ◽  
Yongyuan Jiang

AbstractSemiconductor clusters, ZnnOn, ZnnSn, and CdnSn (n = 2–8), were optimized and the corresponding stable structures were acquired. The symmetry, bond length, bond angle, and energy gap between HOMO and LUMO were analyzed. According to reasonable calculation and comparative analysis for small clusters Zn2O2, Zn2S2, and Cd2S2, an effective method based on density function theory (DFT) and basis set which lay the foundation for the calculation of the large clusters have been obtained. The two-photon absorption (TPA) results show that for the nano clusters with planar configuration, sizes play important role on the TPA cross section, while symmetries determine the TPA cross section under circumstance of 3D stable structures. All our conclusions provide theoretical support for the development of related experiments.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 389
Aya M. Abu Baker ◽  
Ganjaboy S. Boltaev ◽  
Mazhar Iqbal ◽  
Mikhail Pylnev ◽  
Nasser M. Hamdan ◽  

Mixed (FAPbI3)0.92(MAPbBr3)0.08 perovskite thin films exhibit strong nonlinear optical responses, rendering them promising candidates for applications in photonics and optical communications. In this work, we present a systematic study on the ultrafast third-order nonlinear optical processes in mixed perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) by exploring the generation of third harmonic radiation and giant two-photon absorption-based photoluminescence (PL) when excited by femtosecond laser pulses of a 1030 nm central wavelength. A comparative analysis of the coherent third harmonic generation in the thin-film-containing perovskite nanocrystals has shown a 40× enhancement of the third harmonic signal compared to the signal generated in the pure quartz substrate. The cubic dependence of the third-nonlinear optical response of the (FAPbI3)0.92(MAPbBr3)0.08 perovskites on the intensity of the driving radiation was identified using broadband 38 femtosecond driving pulses. The positive nonlinear refractive index (γ = +1.4 × 10−12 cm2·W−1) is found to play an important role in improving the phase-matching conditions of the interacting pulses by generating a strong third order harmonic. The giant two-photon absorption (TPA)-assisted PL peak was monitored and a blue shift of the PL was obtained in the higher intensity range of the laser pulses, with the absorption coefficient β estimated to be~+7.0 cm·MW−1 at a 1030 nm laser wavelength.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Anna Kaczmarek-Kȩdziera ◽  
Borys Ośmiałowski ◽  
Piotr S. Żuchowski ◽  
Dariusz Kȩdziera

In the present study, the influence of the hydrogen bonding for the one- and two-photon absorption of the prototypical squaraine dye is investigated with quantum chemistry tools. The central squaraine unit is bound by strong hydrogen bonds with 4-substituted N,N′-diphenylurea and, alternatively, N,N′-diphenylthiourea molecules, which affects to a high extend the properties of the squaraine electron accepting moiety, thus shifting its maximum absorption wavelength and enhancing the TPA cross section. The replacement of oxygen by sulfur atoms in the squaraine central ring, known to affect its photophysical behavior, is considered here as the way of modifying the strength and nature of the intermolecular contacts. Additionally, the influence of the oxygen-by-sulfur replacement is also considered in the N,N′-diphenylurea moiety, as the factor affecting the acidity of the N–H protons. The introduction of the sequence of the substituents of varying electron-donating or electron-withdrawing characters in the position 4 of N,N′-diphenyl(thio)urea subsystems allows to finely tune the hydrogen bonding with the central squaraine unit by further modification of the N–H bond characteristics. All of these structural modifications lead to the controlled adjustment of the electron density distribution, and thus, the properties affected such as transition moments and absorption intensity. Ab initio calculations provide strong support for this way of tailoring of one- or two-photon absorption due to the obtained strong hypsochromic shift of the maximum one-photon absorption wavelength observed particularly for thiosquaraine complexes and an increase in the TPA wavelength together with the increase in the TPA cross section. Moreover, the source of the strong modification of the thiosquaraine OPA in contrast to the pristine oxosquaraine upon N,N′-diphenyl(thio)urea substitution is determined. Furthermore, for the first time, the linear dependence of the non-additivity in the interaction energy on the Hammett substituent constant is reported. The stronger the electron-donating character of the substituent, the larger the three-body non-additive components and the larger their percentage to the total interaction energy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 905 ◽  
pp. 109-114
Hao Nan Hu ◽  
Jin Feng Zhou

We have prepared GexGa4S96-x glasses for x=22.5, 27, 30 and 33.3 and GexGa8S92-x for x=32, 36 and measured their linear and nonlinear optical properties. The glasses exhibit broad transmission at a wavelength range from 1 to 12 μm. The evolution of linear, nonlinear index and two-photon absorption as a function of the content of Ge, and the relationship of n2 and β with linear refractive index and optical bandgap are analyzed. While the evolution of n2 and β is closer to the prediction by Sheik-Bahae for optical nonlinearity of semiconductors. Eg of Ge-Ga-S is found to vary from 2.33 to 2.99eV, and the largest nonlinear index is 1.16×10-14cm2/W at composition of Ge32Ga8S60 .

В.Р. Расулов ◽  
Р.Я. Расулов ◽  
Б.Б. Ахмедов ◽  
И.А. Муминов

Interband two-photon optical transitions are classified and expressions are obtained for the matrix elements in a narrow-gap semiconductor depending on the band parameters, degree of polarization, and light frequency. It is shown that the main contribution to two-photon linear-circular dichroism in narrow-gap semiconductors is made by optical transitions proceeding from the subband of light holes to the conduction band. The dependences of the partial coefficients of interband two-photon absorption of light, which differ from each other by the types of optical transitions, are analyzed depending on the degree of polarization of the light, and a quantitative analysis of the coefficient of linear-circular dichroism of two-photon absorption of light is carried out. Expressions are obtained for the spectral dependence of the coefficient of interband two-photon absorption of light in narrow-gap semiconductors in the Kane model.

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