PurposeRemote work (RW) literature is a megatrend in HRM literature, and the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of RW as a concept and an organisational practice. Given the large number of papers being published on remote work, there is a need for a critical review of the extant literature using bibliometric analysis. This paper examines the literature on remote working to identify the factors crucial for managing a remote workforce. This study uses the complex adaptive systems theory as a foundation to build a framework that organisations can use to manage their remote workforce, focusing on three outcomes: employee engagement, collaboration and organisational agility.Design/methodology/approachBibliometric analysis was conducted on the research published in Scopus journal in the area of remote work, followed by critical literature analysis.FindingsThe bibliometric analysis identified five clusters that reflect five organisational factors which the management can align to achieve the desired outcomes of engagement, collaboration and agility: technology orientation, leadership, HRM practices, external processes and organisational culture. The present findings have important implications for managing the remote workforce.Originality/valueThe five factors were mapped to propose a conceptual model on engaging individual employees, fostering team collaboration and building organisational agility while working remotely. We also propose an application model for using technology to achieve the outcomes of engagement, collaboration and agility in the organisation. Practitioners could use this framework to focus on the factors that can create a conducive environment to improve work efficiency in a remote workforce.
PurposeThis study endeavours to (a) develop a comprehensive interpretive structural modelling (ISM) toolkit containing sufficient details about the suitability and procedural aspects of each ISM approach and offer points of reference for budding researchers, (b) highlight the compatibility of ISM approaches with other qualitative and quantitative approaches, and (c) chalk-out an agenda for future research.Design/methodology/approachThis study is based on an extensive review of 74 studies where researchers have used one or more ISM approaches. These studies span across the different industry sectors.FindingsThere exists a huge void in terms of the methodological synthesis of ISM approaches. ISM approaches are frequently used in sync with other qualitative and quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it highlights the need of improving the robustness of the proposed ISM models by sharing the critical details of research process.Research limitations/implicationsBeing a review-based work, it could not illustrate the discussed ISM approaches with real data. However, it offers a research agenda for the prospective researchers.Practical implicationsThe prerequisites, pitfalls, suitability and the procedural aspects of various ISM approaches contained in this toolkit are equally useful for the academicians as well as practitioners.Originality/valueIn the absence of a synthesized framework, this study contributes a comprehensive ISM toolkit which will help the researchers to choose a suitable ISM approach in a given case.
PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to facilitate perishable product supply chain (PPSC) managers and practitioners to assess PPSC failure events. The paper proposed fault tree methodology for assessing failures associated with PPSC for evaluating the performance in terms of effective PPSC management adoption.Design/methodology/approachInitially, different failure events were identified from literature and semi-structured interviews from experts. Fault tree model was developed from the identified failure events. Probability of failure events was calculated using Poisson distribution based on the annual reports and interviews conducted from experts. Further, qualitative analysis – minimum cut sets (MCSs), structural importance coefficient (SIC) – and quantitative analysis – Birnbaum importance measure (BIM), criticality importance factor (CIF) and diagnosis importance factor (DIF) – were performed for ranking of failure events. In this study, fault tree development and analysis were conducted on apple supply chain to present the authenticity of this method for failure analysis.FindingsThe findings indicate that the failure events, given as failure at production and procurement (A2), that is, involvement of middleman (BE3), handling and packaging failure (BE4) and transportation failure (A3), hold the highest-ranking scores in analysis of PPSC using fault tree approach.Originality/valueThis research uses the modularization approach for evaluation of failure events of PPSC. This paper explores failures related to PPSC for efficient management initiatives in apple supply chain context. The paper also provides suggestion from managerial perspective with respect to each failure event.
PurposeThe paper aims to study the outreach and performance of business correspondent (BC) models, which are implemented as a subsidiary agent of banks to accelerate the financial inclusion (FI) mission in India. In this regard, the study illustrates BC's products and services rendered to customers, forms of delivery channels and BC's view on banking services and Kiosk-based BC programs.Design/methodology/approachThe current paper is an empirical study based on surveying 200 Kiosk-based BCs working in the state of Kerala. After the preliminary screening analysis of the data with outlier deletion, removal of missing values and normality test, both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were executed followed by reliability test, convergent and discriminant validity tests. Covariance-based structural equation modeling (CBSEM) was performed for CFA and inferential tests were carried out by using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) and analysis of a moment structures (AMOS) and Eviews.FindingsChiefly, eight operational forms of BCs were found from the field survey. Hypothetical tests show the significant impact of the serviceability of banks on BC's profitability. Validity tests such as average variance extracted (AVE), composite reliability (CR), maximum shared variance (MSV) and average shared variance (ASV) were established after the removal of the cross-loaded items of the questionnaire from the rotated component matrix. BCs perform main banking services especially bank account opening facility and Akshaya E-Centers are widely used for this model as Kiosk banking in the surveyed state.Originality/valueSo far, no study has encompassed empirical research on performance analysis and outreach of the BC model in the state of Kerala where this BC model well functions. Since the study is a novel form of banking channelization for FI, the study can contribute to understanding the further feasibility and future dimension of the model based on experimental views of BCs.
PurposeThis study aims to explore and analyze the application of blockchain technology (BKCT) in agrifood supply chain management (AFSM).Design/methodology/approachA systematic literature review (SLR) using Scopus, Emerald and Web of Science covering publications from 2016 to 2021 (till June). Out of 429 papers, 89 papers were shortlisted from journals based on citation analysis. The citation analysis was followed by a content analysis was for an in-depth analysis.FindingsRegarding the application of BKCT in the agrifood supply chain, the study highlights the issue of food safety, traceability, transparency, eliminating intermediaries and integrating Internet of things (IoT) with BKCT as prominent applications in the agrifood sector. The study also uses the case of honey supply chain to use the explored applications in the agrifood sector and provides a traceability solution based on blockchain integrated with IoT. The challenges of BKCT as identified in the study are scalability, privacy, security, lack of regulations and lack of skills and training.Research limitations/implicationsThe review considers only academic papers obtained from specific databases with their relevance based on number of citations.Originality/valueThe study contributes to filling the existing research gap through this SLR on the application of BKCT in AFSCM. The content analysis further assists in exploring the benefits and challenges of BKCT in the agrifood sector. Thus, the academic articles selected aid in this process.
PurposeResilience, the ability of start-ups to deal with anticipated instabilities and probable disruptions, is becoming an important success element during coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). To survive in this pandemic situation, resilience is an important concept for start-ups. The present paper aims to “identify”, “analyse” and “categorize” the resilience factors for start-ups during the Covid-19 pandemic using total interpretive structural modelling (TISM).Design/methodology/approachThe resilience elements of start-ups during Covid-19 were identified and shortlisted during the first phase, which included literature analysis and extensive interaction with experts. TISM was used in the second phase to investigate or to determine how the factors interplayed between the resilience factors of start-ups during Covid-19. The Matrice d'impacts Croises Multiplication Appliquee a un Classment (MICMAC) method is used to rank and categorize the factors. Closed-ended questionnaire with the scheduled interview was conducted to collect the data.FindingsThe first part of the study found ten resilience elements in total. The TISM digraph was constructed in the second step to show why one resilience component led to another. The MICMAC analysis divided these factors into four groups: autonomous, linkage, dependent and independent. These groups represented resilience variables based on their driving and dependent power, which assist executives and managers in proactively addressing them while using the TISM digraph as a guide.Research limitations/implicationsDuring the Covid-19 epidemic, this study focused primarily on resilience characteristics for Indian start-ups.Practical implicationsThis study will help key stakeholders and scholars to better understand the elements that contribute to start-up's resilience.Originality/valueThe TISM method for start-up's resilience is suggested in this paper, which is a novel attempt in the field of resilience in this industry.
PurposeThe hotel and tourism industry forms a crucial economic sector for all the economies around the world. However, it suffered the worst hit during the COVID-19 outbreak. Considering the hotel and tourism sector's critical situation, this manuscript aims to emphasise the importance of resilience in the hotel and tourism supply chain (HTSC) and explores the crucial barriers that tend to disturb the inculcation of stability in the hotel and tourism sector. The present research analyses the factors influencing the hotel and tourism sector's resilience and also takes into consideration the various critical success factors (CSFs) needed to build a resilient HTSC.Design/methodology/approachA two-phase research approach has been proposed and used in this study. In the first phase, eight CSFs and sixteen factors influencing the hotel and tourism sector's resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic were identified. The basis of the identification of the CSFs and factors was literature and inputs received from experts. In the second phase, the grey-Entropy-EDAS, a qualitative and quantitative analysis, was used to analyse the identified CSFs and factors to determine the priority of concern.FindingsIn this research, the most imperative facet influencing the hotel and tourism sector's resilience has been identified, and the findings will assist hotel and tourism sector in managing and mitigating the repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic. The analysis of the results indicates that out of all the critical success factors, supply chain visibility is the most crucial aspect in building HTSC's resilience, whereas economic catastrophe is the most influential factor. Sensitivity analysis is also conducted to examine the priority ranking stability.Practical implicationsThe results of this study can be used by the hotel supply chain managers and policymakers to plan for various challenges faced by them as they try to implement resilience-based strategies in their supply chain.Originality/valueThis research is unique as it analyses the general factors hindering the pathway of resilience in the hotel and tourism supply chain. This is also the first kind of study that has used grey-Entropy to analyse the critical success factors and grey-EDAS for analysing the impact of various factors influencing the hotel and tourism sector's resilience.
PurposeThe study aims to examine the relationship between retailer's performance and corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices in Indian context. The article introduces a new conceptual model considering the parameters as per the stakeholder theory perspective.Design/methodology/approachThe authors conducted empirical research with CSR practices (CSRP) and other parameters to evaluate the retailers' performance using stakeholder theory. The authors present the results from 292 valid responses from the Indian retailers. The study used structured equation modeling (SEM) to present the analysis and the results.FindingsFindings indicate that CSRP along with additional constructs loyalty (L), reputation (R), customer satisfaction (CS) and competitive advantage (CA) have positive and significant impact on organizational performance (OP).Practical implicationsThe framework will serve as a guiding tool to the management of the retail outlets to examine carefully the link among CSRP with other variables presented in the study and subsequently to the retail outlet performance. The retailers must be more focused on the expectations and demands of the customers concerning products and services for better growth of the firms.Originality/valueThe uniqueness of the study lies in “CSR practices enabled integrated model” to examine the performance of the organizations. The proposed theoretical model would add value to the existing literature to help the retailers in process of their performance improvement.
PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare the efficiency of several water utilities using three frontier techniques. Moreover, this study estimates the impact of several qualities of service variables on water utilities’ performance.Design/methodology/approachThe paper utilizes three frontier techniques such as data envelopment analysis (DEA), stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) and stochastic non-parametric envelopment of data (StoNED) to estimate efficiency scores.FindingsEfficiency scores for each methodological approach were different being on average, 0.745, 0.857 and 0.933 for SFA, DEA and StoNED methods, respectively. Moreover, it was evidenced that water leakage had a statistically significant impact on water utilities’ costs.Research limitations/implicationsThe choice of an adequate and robust method for benchmarking the efficiency of water utilities is very relevant for water regulators because it affects decision making process such as water tariffs and design incentives to improve the performance and quality of service of water utilities.Originality/valueThis paper evaluates and compares the performance of a sample of water utilities using three different frontier methods. It has been revealed that the choice of the efficiency assessment method matters. Unlike SFA and DEA, a lower variability was shown in the efficiency scores obtained from the StoNED method.
PurposeThe present study is an attempt to extend the Model of Goal-directed Behavior (MGB) to consider health consciousness and perceived privacy protection as two critical factors to predict desire and intention by individuals to adopt and use wearable health devices (WHDs).Design/methodology/approachBased on the literature review hypotheses were framed and tested using data collected through a questionnaire survey. A total of 418 self-reported complete responses were considered to analyze the hypotheses proposed in the study. Structural equation modeling, effects analysis and model comparison (MGB and extended MGB) were performed to understand the predictability of the suggested model.FindingsThe results of the study corroborate that along with MGB, health consciousness and perceived privacy protection also induces the intention of users toward using WHDs. Health-consciousness is found to have a positive and significant direct and indirect impact on intention to use WHDs. Further, the model comparison exhibits that the proposed extended MGB is a better predictor of intention to use WHDs.Practical implicationsApart from the conventional framework of MGB, health consciousness and perceived privacy protection promote desire and intention to use WHDs. This research provides a framework for marketers to promote health consciousness among consumers by motivating them to adopt WHDs. Further, privacy protection features should be showcased in order to induce trust in consumers which in turn will trigger their intention to use WHDs to lead a healthy lifestyle.Originality/valueThe current study incorporates health consciousness and perceived privacy protection in MGB to fit into the context of healthcare intention study, which enhances the predictability of intention behavior of consumers and adds to the existing body of MGB and healthcare literature.