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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (12) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ana Carolina Almeida de Oliveira Ferreira ◽  
Erika da Silva Monteiro ◽  
David de Oliveira Sousa ◽  
Calliandra Maria de Souza Silva ◽  
Izabel Cristina Rodrigues Da Silva ◽  
...  

Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is the most cultivated and consumed freshwater fish in Brazil. The present study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of ice and fresh tilapia samples commercialized in the Federal District. Tilapia samples were tested for counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, determination of total and thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus counts and presence of Salmonella. Ice samples were analyzed for determination of total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms and presence of Escherichia coli. Of the 20 samples of fresh tilapia analyzed, ten samples (50%) presented Salmonella (genetically confirmed through the presence of the invA gene) and, therefore, were unfit for consumption. S. aureus was found in 11 samples (55%), and one sample of fillet presented S. aureus counts (3.15 CFU/g) above the limit allowed by Brazilian legislation (3 log CFU/g). S. aureus colonies were confirmed by detection of CoA gene in molecular analysis. Of the 14 ice samples analyzed, 12 samples (85.7%) were unfit for use in fish conservation due to the presence of total coliforms and 9 ice samples (64.3%) were also contaminated with thermotolerant coliforms. E. coli was isolated from 6 ice samples (42.9%) and confirmed in the molecular analysis through the amplification of the MalB gene. In conclusion, the high contamination of tilapia samples with Salmonella and of the ice used for its conservation with coliforms and E. coli indicates the need for better hygienic practices in the tilapia production chain, to increase its quality and microbiological safety.


Author(s):  
Antonina Kolesnyak ◽  
Nataliya Polyanskaya

The general level of socio-economic development and the quality of life depend on the economic availability of food, i.e. the ability of the local population to buy products recommended by the Ministry of Health. Each family has the right to afford quality food for all household members. The local economic availability of food depends, first of all, on the income per capita in a particular region. The present research assessed the economic availability of food in the Republic of Buryatia using such indicators as food supplies, cash income per capita, household budget structure, and self-sufficiency in basic foodstuffs. The results were compared with the food situation in other regions of the Far Eastern Federal District and the average Russian data.


2022 ◽  
Vol 99 (12) ◽  
pp. 22-26
Author(s):  
M. M. Yunusbaeva ◽  
L. Ya. Borodina ◽  
R. A. Sharipov ◽  
E. S. Bilalov ◽  
M. M. Аzamatova ◽  
...  

The objective of the study: to assess changes in the incidence and prevalence of multiple drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) and TB/HIV coinfection (TB/HIV) in Volga Federal District (VFD) and its regions during 2016-2020.Subjects and Methods. Data from FGSN Forms No. 8, 33, and 61, and analytical reviews of main statistical TB rates in the Russian Federation have been studied. The number of those died is presented as per the Rosstat data.Results. An increase in the incidence and prevalence of MDR TB and TB/HIV coinfection has been detected in certain region of Volga Federal District. Perm Region, the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Republic of Udmurtia, and Orenburg and Samara Regions have the highest prevalence of MDR TB and TB/HIV coinfection. In 2020, the Republic of Bashkortostan was the only region where the incidence and prevalence of MDR TB were growing (164.7% and 47.3%, respectively). The highest incidence and prevalence of TB/HIV coinfection was reported in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Perm Kray, Orenburg Region, the Chuvash and Udmurt Republics. Over the last 5 years, the maximum increase in TB/HIV incidence and prevalence was observed in the Republic of Bashkortostan (38.8% and 41.3%, respectively).


Author(s):  
Tatiane Paschoal ◽  
Priscila Maria da Silva ◽  
Gisela Demo ◽  
Natasha Fogaça ◽  
Mario Cesar Ferreira

This study tested the impacts of perceptions of quality of telework life and job crafting on public school teachers’ work well-being. The sample was composed of 184 teachers who answered a questionnaire with scales previously validated in Brazil. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed. Perceptions of quality of telework life and job crafting actions predicted work well-being and contributed to investigating gaps in the organizational and work literature. This study offers a diagnosis of teachers’ experiences during remote work and highlights the relations between those variables in a changing work context transformation, fostered by Covid-19 pandemia.


2022 ◽  
Vol 354 (11-12) ◽  
pp. 36-39
Author(s):  
V. V. Mikhailova ◽  
T. P. Lobova ◽  
M. S. Shishkina ◽  
A. N. Skvortsova

Relevance. The reproductive health of dairy cows is one of the top priorities in dairy farming. Viral diarrhea, a disease of mucous membranes in cattle, is one of the causes of impaired reproductive function on farms. The disease is widespread throughout the world and causes significant economic damage, which consists of a decrease in productivity, lack of offspring, impaired reproductive function of the broodstock, costs of treatment and specific prevention. The viral diarrhea virus has an immunosuppressive effect. Diagnosis is complicated by a “blurry” clinical picture due to the association of the virus with other respiratory-intestinal viruses and the addition of a secondary bacterial infection, as well as the presence of a persistent form of infection. The diagnosis requires the analysis of clinical and epizootic data, pathological changes and a combination of several methods of laboratory diagnostics. An important link in the prevention and recovery of herds is the conduct of epizootic monitoring and analysis of its results.Methodology. The assessment of the epizootic situation for viral diarrhea, a disease of mucous membranes in cattle in the Russian Federation for 2020, was carried out based on the results of the analysis of information obtained from annual reports provided by state veterinary laboratories in the FSBI CNMVL in the form of 4-vet (annual).Results. Based on the results of the epizootic monitoring, it can be concluded that the viral diarrhea virus is widely circulating in the livestock farms of the Russian Federation. In 2020, positive results were recorded in all federal districts of the Russian Federation (in 33 subjects), except for the Far Eastern Federal District. The most difficult epizootic situation is in the North Caucasus Federal District and the Central Federal District (38% and 29% of the total number of positive results, respectively).


2022 ◽  
pp. 198-204
Author(s):  
E. A. Mateykovich ◽  
I. I. Kukarskaya ◽  
T. V. Legalova

Introduction. Loss of pregnancy remains an extremely acute public health problem today. Live birth accounts for only 30% of gestational outcomes, all other pregnancies that occur end in reproductive losses: 30% – implantation, 30% – postimplantation, 10% – spontaneous miscarriages. In conditions of declining birth rates, reducing reproductive losses is the most important element of the state’s demographic policy.Аim. Тo assess the reproductive health of women of fertile age in the Tyumen region, registered in antenatal clinics and other medical institutions in connection with pregnancy, as well as the risks associated with an increase in the frequency of diseases endemic for the West Siberian region.Materials and methods. The study used data from federal statistical observation. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using the statistical program Statistica (version 13.0). Quantitative features are described by absolute and relative (percent) indicators. The difference is considered significant at p < 0.05. Results. Despite the increase in the number of women of reproductive age, fertility rates are declining both in the Tyumen region and in the Ural Federal District, as well as in Russia as a whole. The 5-year dynamics of registered pregnancies in the Tyumen region correlates with the dynamics of the birth rate. The incidence of HIV and hepatitis C among pregnant women for five years and for each of the given nosologies exceeds 1% of the number of patients admitted under the supervision of health care facilities. At the same time, since 2018, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy associated with HIV has significantly increased (p >< 000.1). These data also indicate an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in HIV-infected pregnant women (p >< 000.1). From 2016 to 2019, there has been a steady increase in the incidence of ectopic pregnancies and spontaneous abortion in primary pregnant women. The situation has improved somewhat in 2020. Noteworthy is the high share of medical abortion in birth control. Сonclusions. Despite the increase in the number of women of reproductive age, fertility rates are declining both in the Tyumen region and in  the  Ural Federal District, as well as in  Russia  as a  whole. The  5-year dynamics of  registered pregnancies in the Tyumen region correlates with the dynamics of the birth rate. ><  0.05.Results. Despite the increase in the number of women of reproductive age, fertility rates are declining both in the Tyumen region and in the Ural Federal District, as well as in Russia as a whole. The 5-year dynamics of registered pregnancies in the Tyumen region correlates with the dynamics of the birth rate. The incidence of HIV and hepatitis C among pregnant women for five years and for each of the given nosologies exceeds 1% of the number of patients admitted under the supervision of health care facilities. At the same time, since 2018, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy associated with HIV has significantly increased (p < 000.1). These data also indicate an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in HIV-infected pregnant women (p >< 000.1). From 2016 to 2019, there has been a steady increase in the incidence of ectopic pregnancies and spontaneous abortion in primary pregnant women. The situation has improved somewhat in 2020. Noteworthy is the high share of medical abortion in birth control. Сonclusions. Despite the increase in the number of women of reproductive age, fertility rates are declining both in the Tyumen region and in  the  Ural Federal District, as well as in  Russia  as a  whole. The  5-year dynamics of  registered pregnancies in the Tyumen region correlates with the dynamics of the birth rate. ><  000.1). These data also indicate an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in HIV-infected pregnant women (p < 000.1). From 2016 to 2019, there has been a steady increase in the incidence of ectopic pregnancies and spontaneous abortion in primary pregnant women. The situation has improved somewhat in 2020. Noteworthy is the high share of medical abortion in birth control. Сonclusions. Despite the increase in the number of women of reproductive age, fertility rates are declining both in the Tyumen region and in  the  Ural Federal District, as well as in  Russia  as a  whole. The  5-year dynamics of  registered pregnancies in the Tyumen region correlates with the dynamics of the birth rate. >< 000.1). From 2016 to 2019, there has been a steady increase in the incidence of ectopic pregnancies and spontaneous abortion in primary pregnant women. The situation has improved somewhat in 2020. Noteworthy is the high share of medical abortion in birth control.Сonclusions. Despite the increase in the number of women of reproductive age, fertility rates are declining both in the Tyumen region and in  the  Ural Federal District, as well as in  Russia  as a  whole. The  5-year dynamics of  registered pregnancies in the Tyumen region correlates with the dynamics of the birth rate.


2022 ◽  
pp. 50-55
Author(s):  
G. T. Dzyuba ◽  
Y. E. Skurikhina ◽  
G. A. Zakharova ◽  
A. V. Ponomareva

Objective: Epidemiological data analysis concerning the spread of brucellosis in Russia and Primorsky Region, study of the manifestations of the epidemic process and the current state of brucellosis issue.Methods: Descriptive epidemiological analysis of materials on infectious morbidity based on state statistical reporting forms No. 1, No. 2 “Information on infectious and parasitic morbidity”.Results: Brucellosis affects workers in the main occupational groups of livestock breeders, workers involved in the processing of livestock, who contact sick animals and other sources of brucellosis infection. Primorsky Region is a territory with an unstable epidemiological situation on brucellosis. A different morbidity rates were registered over the years. However usually it does not exceed the national average rate. In 2009, the morbidity rate counted 27.5% less than in Russian Federation (0.21 and 0.29 per 100,000 respectively), compared to previous years, the average long-term morbidity rate in the region increased by 3.5 times. The disease rate for the period from 2009 to 2019 ranged from 0.05 to 0.21%. In 2012, it exceeded the index in the Far Eastern Federal District (0.1 per 100,000 population). Brucellosis cases were detected among livestock breeders during an extraordinary medical examination due to the bad situation on brucellosis among animals.Conclusions: In recent decades, the epizootic and epidemiological situation on brucellosis remains tense due to the decrease in the number of serological and bacteriological studies among animals and humans, the weakening of veterinary-sanitary control and the formation of new private farms.


Data ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Author(s):  
Ilka Kawashita ◽  
Ana Alice Baptista ◽  
Delfina Soares

This research investigates whether, why, and how open government data (OGD) is used and reused by Brazilian state and district public administrations. A new online questionnaire was developed and collected data from 26 of the 27 federation units between June and July 2021. The resulting dataset was cleaned and anonymized. It contains an insight on 158 parameters for 26 federation units explored. This article describes the questionnaire metadata and the methods applied to collect and treat data. The data file was divided into four sections: respondent profile (identify the respondent and his workplace), OGD use/consumption, what OGD is used for by public administrations, and why OGD is used by public administrations (benefits, barriers, drivers, and barriers to OGD use/reuse). Results provide the state of the play of OGD use/reuse in the federation units administrations. Therefore, they could be used to inform open data policy and decision-making processes. Furthermore, they could be the starting point for discussing how OGD could better support the digital transformation in the public sector.


Upravlenie ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 75-87
Author(s):  
M. Yu. Dyakov

The article presents the results of an analysis of the possibilities for the transition of the region’s economy to a circular economic model. According to the aim of this article the main economic activities and tools for making such a transition in Kamchatka Territory have been identified. The principles of the circular economy and its advantages over the traditional “linear” model have been analysed. On the example of the Kamchatka Territory, the preconditions and prospects for the region’s transition to a circular economy model in terms of the existing structure of production of goods and services have been analysed. Using MS Excel tools, the structure of the gross regional product has been analysed, according to the results of which the main economic activities that are promising for the transition to a circular model have been identified. Regional indicators for waste recycling and neutralisation have been analysed, and chain coefficients have been calculated for growth in the share of recycled and neutralised waste for Russia as a whole, for the Far Eastern Federal District and Kamchatka Territory. Based on the results of the calculation, it has been concluded that the coefficient values for the Kamchatka Territory lag behind those for the whole of Russia and the Far Eastern Federal District. A number of financial and economic, technological, legal and informational tools have been identified, the use of which makes it possible to implement the transition to a circular economic model. Fisheries, energy, tourism, recycling and waste management have been identified as the most promising economic activities for such a transition. The findings conclude that it is important to continue research into the various aspects of the transition to a circular economy, as well as continued coordinated efforts are needed to implement it.


Public Health ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (4) ◽  
pp. 34-48
Author(s):  
D. O. Ivanov ◽  
V. K. Yuryev ◽  
Yu. V. Petrenko ◽  
K. E. Moiseeva ◽  
I. I. Mogileva ◽  
...  

In order to assess the mortality and lethality rates of newborns in obstetric organizations of the North-Western Federal District in 2013–2019, a comparative analysis of official statistics data was carried out. It was found that in the North-Western Federal District in the period from 2013 to 2019, there was an almost annual decrease in newborn mortality rates. The overall decrease in mortality in maternity care organizations of the Federal District (from 2,5% to 1,9%) was mainly due to a decrease in mortality in obstetric hospitals of the first and second levels (respectively from 3,2% to 1,2% and from 1,7% to 0,7%), while most children died in perinatal centers, where the mortality rate has not changed in recent years (2013 – 4,1%; 2019 – 4,0%). The study showed a decrease in mortality rates in the subjects of the Russian Federation that are part of the federal district, except for the city of St. Petersburg. The average hospital lethality rate of newborns in maternity care organizations of the North-Western Federal District during 2013–2019 was in the range of 1,9%–2,0%, did not change significantly and corresponded to the national average. However, the level of hospital lethality significantly differed in individual subjects of the district – in more than half of them, the level of hospital lethality exceeded the average, while in others it was significantly lower. Thus, the decrease in the mortality and lethality rates of newborns in maternity care organizations indicates an increase in the quality of medical care for children in the North-Western Federal District. dicates an increase in the quality of medical care for children in the North-Western Federal District. 


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