Journal of Agricultural Science
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Published By Canadian Center Of Science And Education

1916-9760, 1916-9752

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 113
Author(s):  
Selorm Omega ◽  
Esther E. E. Adebote ◽  
Peter K. Omega ◽  
Selorm Akaba ◽  
Omitoyin A. Siyanola

Coronavirus has disrupted aquaculture activities at all levels. The pandemic has had effect on farmer’s input, output, market, revenue, and contact with Extension officers. To reduce the growing effect of the pandemic, the use of Information Communication Technologies has become necessary as farmers can get easy access to extension agents and monitor farm activities while reducing exposure to the virus. Hence, this research was conducted to determine fish farmer’s willingness to pay for improved Information Communication Technologies in bridging the gap caused by the Coronavirus outbreak. The study used cross-sectional survey with data collected from Ibadan, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 40 farmers. Primary data was analysed using StataSE13.0 and the results revealed that; 80% of farmers were affected by Coronavirus and acknowledged that Information Communication Technologies play a role in their activities (55%). The probit regression revealed that the scale of operation, age of farmer, household size, status in the household, and usage of Information Communication Technologiess were found to be statistically significant determinants of farmer’s willingness to pay. These points to the fact that improved Information Communication Technologies are relevant to sustain aquaculture output in the face of Coronavirus. The study recommends that the government, the ministry for aquaculture, and stakeholders in aquaculture should support small-scale in the form of training, credit and provision of support systems to help them acquire and use improved ICTs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 104
Author(s):  
Royford Magiri ◽  
Sharon Gaundan ◽  
Shivani Singh ◽  
Sumilesh Pal ◽  
Archibold Bakare ◽  
...  

This paper examines the agricultural training in higher education institutions and tertiary colleges, their pre-eminent role and how best they can contribute to alleviate poverty in rural communities in Fiji and other South Pacific island countries. These institutions provide support through training farmers (vocational and adult education) and/or extension officers and providing researchers. Unfortunately, agricultural training institutions are not adapting to the rapid changing times early enough and have more or less maintained the traditional way of training. There is a need for agricultural institutions to amend their programs to facilitate the new emerging areas, together with new learning and teaching frameworks, establish new partnerships with the private sector in addition to expanding their representation in governance in addition to holding continuous dialogue with policymakers. Further, these institutions can potentially showcase local customs and knowledge, mirroring the regional culture, and ethical customs of the Pacific island community, as well as global movements and development forces. In reinforcing their title role as contributors to a culture of education and rural agricultural development, we suggest that agricultural institutions engage more directly and more effectively in partnerships and dialogue with other local agricultural stakeholders and their surrounding rural communities in Fiji and other Pacific island countries.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 95
Author(s):  
Jane Jerono Cheserek ◽  
Kahiu Ngugi ◽  
James Wanjohi Muthomi ◽  
Chrispine Ogutu Omondi ◽  
Cecelia Wakigondi Kathurima

Organoleptic and biochemical attributes in the coffee bean determine the final cup quality of coffee which is a critical factor in the price determination of coffee in the market. The study aimed at determining the genetic variability of the green coffee bean. The trial sites were located at Siaya and Busia counties in Kenya. Nineteen different genotypes were established and included Arabusta coffee hybrids, backcrosses of Arabica to tetraploid Robusta, Arabica coffee, Robusta coffee, and Arabusta coffee. Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications in each site was used in conducting the experiment. The coffee beans were harvested in the year 2018 and extraction and calculation of sucrose, trigonelline, caffeine, and chlorogenic acids was carried using the recommended methods. The cupping procedure involved the use of five judges in assessing the flavor, aroma, balance, overall standard, acidity, body, and aftertaste of the roasted coffee beans. The sensory evaluation used the Specialty Coffee Association (SCA) method. There were significant variations recorded for the traits that were measured. All the traits were highly heritable registering values of > 50% for heritability whereby, caffeine and oil were highly heritable traits with 90.8% and 88.9% respectively. Oil had a high phenotypic coefficient of variation, genotypic variation, and response values when compared to the other traits. All the organoleptic traits were positively correlated with sucrose, trigonelline, and oil but the correlation with caffeine and chlorogenic acids was negative. The genotypic effects contributed largely to the high heritability recorded with a low influence from the environmental factors.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 144
Author(s):  
Mohammed Rasheed Igbal

Climate change is one of the most crucial challenges identified in this century for the Pacific Region, such as Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands and many more. Citizens of Fiji have gone through peculiarly climatic and weather conditions over the past years like globalization, which had led to many consequences, especially in the agricultural sector which is the main income of many livelihoods not only in Fiji but in other Pacific countries as well. Climatic conditions have been changing adversely from past decades, such as temperature, rise in the sea level, precipitation changes, atmospheric composition changes, flooding, and tropical cyclones. These changes have led to alterations in the environment, thus, affecting crop and livestock production in the agricultural system. For instance, crops that require specific soil and temperature situations are vastly influenced when the temperature level changes suddenly, making the crops vulnerable to adapt to the alterations and therefore, the crops eventually die. Likewise, animal species also get affected by temperature changes, such as heat stress which specifically affects the fertility of male and female livestock. Due to these events, Fiji’s economies have also been affected since agriculture plays a vital role in boosting our economy through local market sales and exporting. Thereby, this review illustrates the impacts of climate change and ways to move forward/ solutions, for example, FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) and Pacific Islands Climate Change Assistance Program (PICCAP) have supported Fiji in bringing adaptation programs for preparing farmers and all other individuals on the upcoming climatic conditions such as adapting tolerant crops that can handle droughts and other adverse weather conditions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 122
Author(s):  
Rupinder Chandel ◽  
Karun Sharma

Crop characteristics of cotton are crucial to identify the important crop attributes like plant height, canopy width, sympods and monopods distribution, row spacing which affects the performance of mechanical harvesters. The activity and effectiveness of most harvest aids, including desiccants is reduced by low temperature conditions. Trash content was observed to be lesser in cotton harvested by cotton picker than cotton harvested by cotton stripper. It was found that a maximum cotton yield of 1000 kg acre-1 was obtained for a cotton plant population ranging between 45,000 and 90,000 plants acre-1. Likewise, a minimum of 700 to 740 kg acre-1 was observed for a cotton plant population of 33,000 plants acre-1. In higher yielding cotton, cotton pickers recorded higher picking rate than cotton strippers. Picking/harvesting efficiency of cotton stripper with both finger and brush type mechanism was higher than the spindle type cotton picker. Picking efficiency of pneumatic picker was higher than the other types of picking mechanisms, but with lesser rate of picking capacity. Gin turnout of cotton was higher with cotton picker when compared with cotton stripper due to lesser trash content in picker harvested cotton. The horsepower requirement of cotton stripper ranged from ½ to ¼ horsepower and cost is about two-thirds of the price as compared with cotton picker. The scheduling and monitoring of various activities involved in cotton picking by using a suitable software model can increase the benefits of both growers and harvesting companies. The reduction in uniformity with roller gin-type lint cleaners ranged between 0.2 to 0.8%, which was lesser as compared with saw-type lint cleaners. Introducing mechanical harvesting has always been a decades-long process. In Turkey, it took 20 years and in Greece, this process took place very gradually over a 15-year period. Top cotton producing countries like India, Pakistan, China, Uzbekistan and other developing countries like Iran Paraguay are still not using machine harvesting. The introduction of mechanical cotton picker or stripper can help improve quality and quantity of cotton picking thereby giving more benefit to growers in developing countries and improving their socio-economic status. The most controversial issue raised by the introduction of the mechanical cotton harvester is great migration as the machines eliminated jobs and forced poor families to leave their homes and farms in search for urban jobs. Therefore Government policies towards cotton harvesting mechanization must include the alternative jobs, packages for dependent manual cotton pickers and their families.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 24
Author(s):  
Ping Ren ◽  
Buting Hong ◽  
Siying Zhu

In this paper, based on a field survey on typical villages in a Chinese metropolis suburb, we employ a risk matrix and the Borda ranking method to evaluate risks related to transfer of rural housing land for tourism development from the perspectives of different stakeholders. We also make suggestions regarding how to standardize transfers and revitalize utilization of rural housing land use rights. Combining qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis, the risk matrix determines the various risk levels faced by different stakeholders in the circulation of rural housing land for tourism development from two dimensions: risk impact degree and risk occurrence probability. Then, the Borda ranking method can subdivide the risk types within each risk level, thus identifying the most critical risks. Our results indicate that (1) unfair distribution of income from land transfers is the major risk faced by farm households and directly decides their willingness to transfer their housing land; (2) market instability is the prime risk factor faced by social investors, and together with project progress risk, indirectly leads to occurrence of operation risk and severely affects the motivation of social investors to invest in transfer, development and operation of rural housing land for tourism development; (3) disappearance of countryside characteristics is the critical risk factor faced by village collectives, and coordination and management risk is the main impediment that blocks the process of transfer of rural housing land for tourism development; and (4) other risks confronted by stakeholders in land transfer, although not the main ones, still need to be granted great importance and followed up closely. Therefore, it is necessary not only to establish appropriate risk avoidance measures for different critical risk factors faced by different stakeholders of such land transfers, but also to strengthen study of the association between the risks, identify the conduction effect of direct and indirect risks, macro and micro risks, and before action and after action risks, and improve the ability to prevent and mitigate these risks.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 158
Author(s):  
Anne Brown
Keyword(s):  

Reviewer acknowledgements for Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2022.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 36
Author(s):  
Emanuel Arnoni Costa ◽  
Cristine Tagliapietra Schons ◽  
César Augusto Guimarães Finger ◽  
André Felipe Hess

Improving volumetric quantification of Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia) in Mixed Ombrophilous Forest is a constant need in order to provide accurate and timely information on current and future growing stock to ensure forest management. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate and compare the volume estimates obtained through Nonlinear Regression (NR), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Simulated Annealing (SA) in order to generate accurate volume estimates. Volumetric equations were developed including the independent variables diameter at breast height (dbh), total height (h) and crown rate (cr) and from the fit through the NR, GA and SA approaches. The GA and SA approaches evaluated proved to be a reliable optimization strategy for parameter estimation in Parana pine volumetric modelling, however, no significant differences were found in comparison with the NR approach. This study therefore contributes through the generation of robust equations that could be used for accurate estimates of the volume of the Parana pine in southern Brazil, thus supporting the planning and establishment of management and conservation actions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 86
Author(s):  
Camus Mahougnon Adoligbe ◽  
Stéphanie Gloria Akpo ◽  
Santoze Adido ◽  
Marguéritte M’Po ◽  
Ange-Régis Zoclanclounon ◽  
...  

The beta-casein gene is one of the most functional genetic candidate that affect milk quality and composition traits. Among its variants, the A1/A2 are the most common. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the distribution of the Beta-casein gene variants (A1/A2) in three different cattle breeds in order to determine which of the breed produce a better milk for consumers’ health. 152 blood samples which comprises 72 (Muturu), 40 (Azawak) and 40 Girolando were used to carry out this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples and each variant was subsequently amplified from the extracted DNA samples using an Allele-Specific PCR technique and then confirmed by running the PCR products on 1% agarose gel. The result showed that there were three genotypes (A1A1, A2A1 and A2A2) in the three breeds. The average percentage genotypic frequencies obtained from this study were 42.76%, 31.58% and 25.66% respectively for A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2 genotypes while the percentage allelic frequencies were 58% and 42% respectively for A1 and A2 allele. The genetic parameters of Azawak breed were higher than that of the other breeds, what implies that there was a higher polymorphism and genetic diversity in the Azawak breed in the beta-casein gene compare to the other breeds. The A2 beta-casein variant in milk has been found to be desirable for milk consumer’s health and nutrition. This study therefore showed that the Azawak breed provides a good potential for increasing this favorable allele through appropriate breeding techniques of cattle.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 1
Author(s):  
Fei Zheng ◽  
Meijing Zhang ◽  
Yiwen Zhen ◽  
Jianhua Yuan ◽  
Wenming Zhao ◽  
...  

The establishment of female inflorescence morphology is of great significance to the formation of final maize yield. defective ear1 (dea1) is a novel maize mutant with developmental defect of female inflorescence caused by natural variation. Morphological analysis revealed that the mutant dea1 was characterized as a “scar-like” crack on the adaxial side of the top of the ear, accounting for 28.6-100.0% of the ear length, with an average of 32.4%. The results of scanning electron microscope showed that there was collapse in the formation of paired spikelet primordium at the base of the axillary meristem. Most of investigated botanical and agronomical traits of dea1 were lower than those of wild type, except for ear length and hundred grain weight. The grain yield per ear of mutant dea1 was 35.93% lower than that of wild type, and the width of mutation crack contributed the most to the yield loss per ear. The identification of the mutant dea1 and the characteristically phenotypic analysis provide a theoretical basis for the study of the molecular regulation mechanism of ear development and the application of high-yield breeding in maize.The establishment of female inflorescence morphology is of great significance to the formation of final maize yield. defective ear1 (dea1) is a novel maize mutant with developmental defect of female inflorescence caused by natural variation. Morphological analysis revealed that the mutant dea1 was characterized as a “scar-like” crack on the adaxial side of the top of the ear, accounting for 28.6-100.0% of the ear length, with an average of 32.4%. The results of scanning electron microscope showed that there was collapse in the formation of paired spikelet primordium at the base of the axillary meristem. Most of investigated botanical and agronomical traits of dea1 were lower than those of wild type, except for ear length and hundred grain weight. The grain yield per ear of mutant dea1 was 35.93% lower than that of wild type, and the width of mutation crack contributed the most to the yield loss per ear. The identification of the mutant dea1 and the characteristically phenotypic analysis provide a theoretical basis for the study of the molecular regulation mechanism of ear development and the application of high-yield breeding in maize.


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