conventional risk factors
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
R. Muzaffar ◽  
M. A. Khan ◽  
M. H. Mushtaq ◽  
M. Nasir ◽  
A. Khan ◽  
...  

Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate the strength of association of raised plasma homocysteine concentration as a risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factor. It was a case control study conducted at Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. A total of 210 subjects aged 25 to 60 years comprising of 105 newly admitted patients of CHD as cases and 105 age and sex matched healthy individuals with no history of CHD as control were recruited for the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from cases and controls. Plasma homocysteine was analyzed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method on automated immunoassay analyzer (Abbott IMX). Total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL cholesterol were analyzed using calorimetric kit methods. The concentration of LDL cholesterol was calculated using Friedewald formula. The patients were also assessed for traditional risk factors such as age, sex, family history of CVD, hypertension, smoking and physical activity, and were compared with control subjects. The collected data was entered in SPSS version 24 for analysis and interpretation.The mean age in controls and experimental groups were 43.00± 8.42 years and 44.72± 8.59 years with statistically same distribution (p- value= 0.144). The mean plasma homocysteine for cases was 22.33± 9.22 µmol/L where as it was 12.59±3.73 µmol/L in control group. Highly significant difference was seen between the mean plasma level of homocysteine in cases and controls (p˂0.001).Simple logistic regression indicates a strong association of coronary heart disease with hyperhomocysteinemia (OR 7.45), which remained significantly associated with coronary heart disease by multivariate logistic regression (OR 7.10, 95%C1 3.12-12.83, p=0.000). The present study concludes that elevated levels of Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factors and can be used as an indicator for predicting the future possibility for the onset of CVD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 297-303
Author(s):  
Jaideep C Menon ◽  
Rajesh Thachathodiyil ◽  
Anugrah Nair ◽  
Rajiv Chandrasekhar ◽  
Natarajan Kumaraswamy ◽  
...  

Coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian-Indians is characterised by an earlier onset and more severe disease when compared to Western populations. It is estimated that about 20% of patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome do not have any of the conventional risk factors for CAD. To assess the risk posed by each of the newer risk factors; alongside conventional risk factors namely diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia for coronary artery disease and to compare the relative risk in a case-control design. Department of Cardiology, XXX Institute of Medical sciences (XXX). Case control study design. Cases are as any individual with coronary artery disease and controls included patients with non-coronary conditions. Dependant variable: coronary artery disease (CAD); Independent variables: Lp PLA2, Lp(a), Apo(a), Apo(b), Ratio (Apo B/Apo A); Other predictors- diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, tobacco use Categorical variables were presented as frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis was used to study the comparison and association of the categorical risk factors with the disease status, respectively. Software used was SPSS version 20.0. A total of 253 participants aged between 19 and 90 years; 140 cases and 113 controls were enrolled in this study. Except for the hs-CRP level, alcohol consumption and LDL, all the other risk factors were seen significantly associated with the coronary artery disease; dyslipidaemia (10.8, 95% CI 3.29-35.37), gender- male (4.68, 95% CI 2.12-10.30), diabetes mellitus (3.3, 95% CI 1.6 -6.77), lipoprotein(a) more than 30mg% (2.34, 95% CI 1.06-5.15) and hypertension (2.48, 95% CI 1.14-5.39). Conventional risk factors namely diabetes, hypertension and dyslipdaemia showed a statistically significant association with CAD while from among the biochemical markers the association was statistically significant only for Lp(a) when compared both between cases and controls and also in cases < age 50 years. The other biochemical risk factors namely Lp-PLA2, Apo(A1) and Apo(b) showed a weak degree of association with CAD. In the present study we analyse the role of inflammatory mediators of CAD (hs-CRP, Lp-PLA2), pro-thrombotic markers [Lp(a)] alongside the lipid fractions apoB, apo A and their ratio to assess which of these biochemical markers predisposed one to CAD through assessment of the relative risk.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Maryam Alidoust ◽  
Leila Hamzehzadeh ◽  
Asma Khorshid Shamshiri ◽  
Fahimeh Afzaljavan ◽  
Mohammad Amin Kerachian ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the common cancers with a high mortality rate worldwide. In Iran, there has been a trend of increased incidence of colorectal cancer in the last three decades that necessitates the early diagnosis. Genetic factors have an influential role in its etiology along with the conventional risk factors such as age, diet, and lifestyle. Results from GWAS have shown significant associations between SMAD7 gene variants and risk of CRC. This study aimed to assess the association of certain polymorphisms as well as haplotypes of this gene and risk of colorectal cancer. Methods and materials This study was designed as a case–control association study. After obtaining ethical approval and informed consent, blood samples from 209 patients with colorectal cancer were collected and DNA was extracted. Four variants: rs4939827, rs34007497, rs8085824 and rs8088297 were genotyped using ARMS-PCR method. Results SMAD7 rs4939827 in the recessive and co-dominant models was associated with colorectal cancer risk [TT/CT + CC: OR = 2.90, 95%CI (1.38–6.09), p = 0.005; CC + TT/CT: OR = 1.66, 95%CI (1.00–2.75), p = 0.01]. Haplotype analysis indicated that some SNP combinations including two for-SNPs haplotypes of T-T-C-C and T-C-C-A were significantly associated with CRC risk. Conclusion Based on the identified association of SMAD7 gene variations and haplotypes with colorectal cancer risk in our population, genetic variations in this gene region may have a role in CRC development. This data may shed light on the genetic predisposition of CRC which involves different pathways including TGF-β.


2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (4) ◽  
pp. 352-356
Author(s):  
Arslan Masood ◽  
Noor Dastgir ◽  
Inam Ur Rehman ◽  
Junaid Rehman ◽  
Aleena Khan ◽  
...  

Objectives: To determine the prevalence, patterns and behavioural attributes of tobacco abuse in patients of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Furthermore, to assess the interaction of tobacco abuse with other conventional risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methodology: This observational study included 230 consecutive patients with ACS. Data was collected regarding total duration and extent of tobacco consumption, “tobacco addiction” and various behavioural patterns related to it. Risk factors profile was acquired for hypertension, diabetes, obesity, family history of premature CVD and dyslipidemia. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for these risk factors were calculated for tobacco abusers compared to non-abusers. Results: Among the study population, 63(27.4%) were active tobacco users. Urban residents had lesser odds of being tobacco abusers compared to non-urban residents (0.49, [0.27 – 0.89]). Tobacco abusers had a lower prevalence of hypertension compared to non-abusers (0.44 [0.24 – 0.81]). A similar trend was observed for diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia, however, the differences could not reach significance thresholds. Cigarette smoking was the commonest mode of tobacco consumption (90.5%). “Tobacco addiction” could be attributed to 84.1% of abusers. Most (82.5%) were willing to give up tobacco abuse and 63.3% had already made attempts at quitting. Conclusion: About one-third of ACS patients were tobacco abusers with the majority being tobacco addicts. Tobacco abuse was observed to be independently implicated as a risk factor in ACS patients. Furthermore, tobacco abuse was inversely related to hypertension translating into a sub-multiplicative / additive impact of hypertension as a risk factor.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Abdelrahman A. Jamiel ◽  
Husam Ardah ◽  
Amjad M. Ahmed ◽  
Mouaz H. Al-Mallah

Abstract Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a fast-growing health problem that imposes an enormous economic burden. Several studies demonstrated the association between physical inactivity and predicting the incidence of diabetes. However, these prediction models have limited validation locally. Therefore, we aim to explore the predictive value of exercise capacity in the incidence of diabetes within a high diabetes prevalence population.Methodology: A retrospective cohort study including consecutive patients free of diabetes who underwent clinically indicated treadmill stress testing. Diabetic patients at baseline or patients younger than 18 years of age were excluded. Incident diabetes was defined as an established clinical diagnosis post-exercise testing date. The predictive value of exercise capacity was examined using Harrell’s c-index, net reclassification index (NRI), and integrated discrimination index (IDI).Results: A total of 8,722 participants (mean age 46±12 years, 66.3% were men) were free of diabetes at baseline. Over a median follow-up period of 5.24 (2.17-8.78) years, there were 2,280 (≈26%) new cases of diabetes. In a multivariate model adjusted for conventional risk factors, we found a 12% reduction in the risk of incident diabetes for each one greater MET achieved (HR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.88–0.92; P<0.001). Using Cox regression, exercise capacity improved the prediction ability beyond the conventional risk factors (AUC=0.62 to 0.66 and c-index= 0.62 to 0.68).Conclusion: Exercise capacity improved the overall predictability of incidence diabetes. Patients with reduced exercise capacity are at high risk for developing incidence diabetes. Improvement of both physical activity and functional capacity represents a preventive measure for the general population.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Abdelrahman A. Jamiel ◽  
Husam Ardah ◽  
Amjad M. Ahmed ◽  
Mouaz H. Al-Mallah

Abstract Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a fast-growing health problem that imposes an enormous economic burden. Several studies demonstrated the association between physical inactivity and predicting the incidence of diabetes. However, these prediction models have limited validation locally. Therefore, we aim to explore the predictive value of exercise capacity in the incidence of diabetes within a high diabetes prevalence population.Methodology: A retrospective cohort study including consecutive patients free of diabetes who underwent clinically indicated treadmill stress testing. Diabetic patients at baseline or patients younger than 18 years of age were excluded. Incident diabetes was defined as an established clinical diagnosis post-exercise testing date. The predictive value of exercise capacity was examined using Harrell’s c-index, net reclassification index (NRI), and integrated discrimination index (IDI).Results: A total of 8,722 participants (mean age 46±12 years, 66.3% were men) were free of diabetes at baseline. Over a median follow-up period of 5.24 (2.17-8.78) years, there were 2,280 (≈26%) new cases of diabetes. In a multivariate model adjusted for conventional risk factors, we found a 12% reduction in the risk of incident diabetes for each one greater MET achieved (HR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.88–0.92; P<0.001). Using Cox regression, exercise capacity improved the prediction ability beyond the conventional risk factors (AUC=0.62 to 0.66 and c-index= 0.62 to 0.68).Conclusion: Exercise capacity improved the overall predictability of incidence diabetes. Patients with reduced exercise capacity are at high risk for developing incidence diabetes. Improvement of both physical activity and functional capacity represents a preventive measure for the general population.


2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Author(s):  
Byungyoon Yun ◽  
Juho Sim ◽  
Inchul Jeong ◽  
Seunghyun Lee ◽  
Seunghan Kim ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
pp. postgradmedj-2021-139722
Author(s):  
Xiangxue Xiao ◽  
Qing Wu

Purpose of the studyTo determine if multiple Genetic Risk Scores (GRSs) improve bone mineral density (BMD) prediction over single GRS in an independent sample of Caucasian women.Study designBased on summary statistics of four genome-wide association studies related to two osteoporosis-associated traits, namely BMD and heel quantitative ultrasound derived estimated BMD (eBMD), four GRSs were derived for 1205 individuals in the Genome-Wide Scan for Female Osteoporosis Gene Study. The effect of each GRS on BMD variation was assessed using multivariable linear regression, with conventional risk factors adjusted for. Next, the eBMD-related GRS that explained the most variance in BMD was selected to be entered into a multi-score model, along with the BMD-related GRS. Elastic net regularised regression was used to develop the multiscore model, which estimated the joint effect of two GRSs (GRS_BMD and GRS_eBMD) on BMD variation, after being adjusted for conventional risk factors.ResultsWith the same clinical risk factors having been adjusted for, the model that included GRS_BMD performed best by explaining 32.53% of the variance in BMD; the single-score model that included GRS_eBMD explained 34.03% of BMD variance. The model that includes both GRS_BMD and GRS_ eBMD, as well as the clinical risk factors, aggregately explained 35.05% in BMD variation. Compared with the single GRS models, the multiscore model explained significantly more variance in BMD.ConclusionsThe multipolygenic score model explained a considerable amount of BMD variation. Compared with single score models, multipolygenic score model provided significant improvement in explaining BMD variation.


Author(s):  
Laxmi H. Shetty ◽  
Rahul S. Patil ◽  
Jayashree Kharge ◽  
J. R. Vijay Kumar ◽  
Santu Ghosh ◽  
...  

Introduction Coronary artery disease (CAD) follows a different pattern in women and men, more so in the young (< 40 years). The gender differences in the risk factors, clinical presentation and diagnosis need to be understood, so that appropriate and timely treatment can be given. Objective The study contemplates to analyze the gender differences in the presence of major coronary risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and immediate outcomes in patients who present with premature CAD (PCAD). Patients and Methods We evaluated 1,062 consecutive registry patients who presented with diagnosis of PCAD between 2018 to 2019 at our institution after satisfying the inclusion criteria. Results The study analyses 82 females and 980 males. The mean age of females was 35.4 ± 4.68 years and males was 34.2 ± 4.25 years. Males smoked more often (55.1%, p < 0.001). Females more often had abnormal BMI (84.1%, p < 0.001), increased waist-hip ratios (97.6%, p < 0.001), diabetes (35.4%, p < 0.001), dyslipidemia (17.1% vs. 11%) and hypertension (15.9% vs. 11.5%). STEMI was the most common presentation among males (80.4% vs. 71.9%). Majority of females (74.6%) presented 6 hours after index pain. NSTEMI was more common among females (20.7% vs. 16%). Single-vessel involvement was common in both sexes (84.1% in males and 85.2% in females). Obstructive CAD was less common in both groups. Conclusions Conventional risk factors play a major role for CAD in Indians. Smoking was common in males and metabolic syndrome in females. Also, females had a higher threshold for seeking treatment and referral. Measures have to be taken for early diagnosis and referral of females. Recanalized and thrombotic coronaries were common, indicating predominant thrombus burden in the young


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