target therapy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Keiichi Tamai ◽  
Haruna Fujimori ◽  
Mai Mochizuki ◽  
Kennichi Satoh

Cancer tissue consists of heterogenous cell types, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of the tissue which possess therapy resistance, tumor reconstruction capability, and are responsible for metastasis. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is one of the most common type of liver cancer that is highly aggressive with poor prognosis. Since no target therapy is efficient in improving patient outcomes, new therapeutic approaches need to be developed. CSC is thought to be a promising therapeutic target because of its resistance to therapy. Accumulating evidences suggests that there are many factors (surface marker, stemness-related genes, etc.) and mechanisms (epithelial-mesenchymal transition, mitochondria activity, etc.) which are linked to CSC-like phenotypes. Nevertheless, limited studies are reported about the application of therapy using these mechanisms, suggesting that more precise understandings are still needed. In this review, we overview the molecular mechanisms which modulate CSC-like phenotypes, and discuss the future perspective for targeting CSC in iCCA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 360-382
Sanda Iacobas ◽  
Dumitru Andrei Iacobas

Many years and billions spent for research did not yet produce an effective answer to prostate cancer (PCa). Not only each human, but even each cancer nodule in the same tumor, has unique transcriptome topology. The differences go beyond the expression level to the expression control and networking of individual genes. The unrepeatable heterogeneous transcriptomic organization among men makes the quest for universal biomarkers and “fit-for-all” treatments unrealistic. We present a bioinformatics procedure to identify each patient’s unique triplet of PCa Gene Master Regulators (GMRs) and predict consequences of their experimental manipulation. The procedure is based on the Genomic Fabric Paradigm (GFP), which characterizes each individual gene by the independent expression level, expression variability and expression coordination with each other gene. GFP can identify the GMRs whose controlled alteration would selectively kill the cancer cells with little consequence on the normal tissue. The method was applied to microarray data on surgically removed prostates from two men with metastatic PCas (each with three distinct cancer nodules), and DU145 and LNCaP PCa cell lines. The applications verified that each PCa case is unique and predicted the consequences of the GMRs’ manipulation. The predictions are theoretical and need further experimental validation.

Pathobiology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Bruna Minniti Mançano ◽  
Mariana Bisarro dos Reis ◽  
Daniel Antunes Moreno ◽  
Flávia Escremim de Paula ◽  
Carlos Roberto de Almeida Junior ◽  

Herein, we present a rare case of a nine-month-old boy diagnosed with infant-type hemispheric glioma (gliosarcoma subtype) at the left frontal lobe. Following subtotal resection, the patient started chemotherapy with the BABY POG protocol. We describe the clinical diagnosis, histological characteristics, radiological features, molecular aspects, and management of this tumor. A comprehensive molecular analysis on the tumor tissue showed a <i>TPR-NTRK1</i> gene fusion. The patient was treated with a TRK inhibitor, larotrectinib, and exhibited a stable disease with residual lesion following 8 months of target therapy. The present study is the first report of an infantile gliosarcoma harboring <i>NTRK1</i> rearrangement treated with larotrectinib.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Antonio Faiella ◽  
Ferdinando Riccardi ◽  
Giacomo Cartenì ◽  
Martina Chiurazzi ◽  
Livia Onofrio

Background. c-MET is a receptor tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK) for the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). The binding of HGF to c-MET regulates several cellular functions: differentiation, proliferation, epithelial cell motility, angiogenesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, it is known to be involved in carcinogenesis. Comprehension of HGF-c-MET signaling pathway might have important clinical consequences allowing to predict prognosis, response to treatment, and survival rates based on its expression and dysregulation. Discussion. c-MET represents a useful molecular target for novel engineered drugs. Several clinical trials are underway for various solid tumors and the development of new specific monoclonal antibodies depends on the recent knowledge about the definite c-MET role in each different malignance. Recent clinical trials based on c-MET molecular targets result in good safety profile and represent a promising therapeutic strategy for solid cancers, in monotherapy or in combination with other target drugs. Conclusion. The list of cell surface receptors crosslinking with the c-MET signaling is constantly growing, highlighting the importance of this pathway for personalized target therapy. Research on the combination of c-MET inhibitors with other drugs will hopefully lead to discovery of new effective treatment options.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 820
Davide Ciardiello ◽  
Brigida Anna Maiorano ◽  
Paola Parente ◽  
Maria Grazia Rodriquenz ◽  
Tiziana Pia Latiano ◽  

Biliary tract cancers (BTC) represent a heterogeneous and aggressive group of tumors with dismal prognosis. For a long time, BTC has been considered an orphan disease with very limited therapeutic options. In recent years a better understanding of the complex molecular landscape of biology is rapidly changing the therapeutic armamentarium. However, while 40–50% of patients there are molecular drivers susceptible to target therapy, for the remaining population new therapeutic options represent an unsatisfied clinical need. The role of immunotherapy in the continuum of treatment of patients with BTC is still debated. Despite initial signs of antitumor-activity, single-agent immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) demonstrated limited efficacy in an unselected population. Therefore, identifying the best partner to combine ICIs and predictive biomarkers represents a key challenge to optimize the efficacy of immunotherapy. This review provides a critical analysis of completed trials, with an eye on future perspectives and possible biomarkers of response.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 173
Clara Guido ◽  
Clara Baldari ◽  
Gabriele Maiorano ◽  
Angela Mastronuzzi ◽  
Andrea Carai ◽  

Pediatric brain tumors represent the most common types of childhood cancer and novel diagnostic and therapeutic solutions are urgently needed. The gold standard treatment option for brain cancers in children, as in adults, is tumor resection followed by radio- and chemotherapy, but with discouraging therapeutic results. In particular, the last two treatments are often associated to significant neurotoxicity in the developing brain of a child, with resulting disabilities such as cognitive problems, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory dysfunctions/deficits. Nanoparticles have been increasingly and thoroughly investigated as they show great promises as diagnostic tools and vectors for gene/drug therapy for pediatric brain cancer due to their ability to cross the blood–brain barrier. In this review we will discuss the developments of nanoparticle-based strategies as novel precision nanomedicine tools for diagnosis and therapy in pediatric brain cancers, with a particular focus on targeting strategies to overcome the main physiological obstacles that are represented by blood–brain barrier.

Guitti Pourdowlat ◽  
Maryam Parvizi ◽  
Shogher Boyadjian ◽  
Masoud Shamaei ◽  
Mihan Pourabdollah

Background: Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is a potential target for cancer therapy as a tumor suppressor. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare but fatal cancer. This study tries to estimate the incidence of ERβ expression in the various subtypes of MPM tumors. Methods and Materials: In a retrospective study performed at a pulmonary tertiary referral hospital, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissues of 46 definitive MPM were evaluated for expression of ERβ by immunohistochemistry. Results: ERβ was detected in 14 cases (30.4%) out of the total 46 patients with a mean age of 58.08±11.59 SD, including 33 (71.7%) males. There was no statistically significant difference in patients with positive ERβ staining versus negative cases in age and sex (P >0.05). MPM subtypes included 36 (78.2%) cases of epithelioid mesothelioma, 3 (6.5%) cases of sarcomatoid, 5 (10.8%) cases of biphasic, and 2 (4.3%) cases of desmoplastic subtype. ERβ expression was observed only in epithelioid (11 of total 36 cases) and biphasic (3 of total 5 cases) tumors. There was no significant difference in the incidence of ERβ expression in different subtypes of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Statistical analysis shows a significant difference in the expression of ERβ in the epithelioid subtype (with a more favorable prognosis) versus non-epithelioid subtypes (with poor prognosis, including sarcomatoid, desmoplastic, and biphasic) (P = 0.024). Discussion and Conclusion: Considering the higher proportion of the epithelioid type of MPM with ERβ expression, this highlights the role of ERβ in target therapy of MPM tumor, especially in the epithelioid subtype with a more favorable prognosis. A better understanding of the pathology of mesothelioma will eventually contribute to the development of therapies beyond the existing therapeutic platform.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Xiao-Wei Zhang ◽  
Lin Li ◽  
Wen-Qian Hu ◽  
Ming-Ning Hu ◽  
Yan Tao ◽  

AbstractDespite the great advances in target therapy, lung cancer remains the top cause of cancer-related death worldwide. G protein-coupled receptor neurokinin-1 (NK1R) is shown to play multiple roles in various cancers; however, the pathological roles and clinical implication in lung cancer are unclarified. Here we identified NK1R as a significantly upregulated GPCR in the transcriptome and tissue array of human lung cancer samples, associated with advanced clinical stages and poor prognosis. Notably, NK1R is co-expressed with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in NSCLC patients’ tissues and co-localized in the tumor cells. NK1R can crosstalk with EGFR by interacting with EGFR, transactivating EGFR phosphorylation and regulating the intracellular signaling of ERK1/2 and Akt. Activation of NK1R promotes the proliferation, colony formation, EMT, MMP2/14 expression, and migration of lung cancer cells. The inhibition of NK1R by selective antagonist aprepitant repressed cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Knockdown of NK1R significantly slowed down the tumor growth in nude mice. The sensitivity of lung cancer cells to gefitinib/osimertinib is highly increased in the presence of the selective NK1R antagonist aprepitant. Our data suggest that NK1R plays an important role in lung cancer development through EGFR signaling and the crosstalk between NK1R and EGFR may provide a potential therapeutic target for lung cancer treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-12
Benedict S Liao ◽  
Elizabeth Harvowitz ◽  
Michael Fishbein ◽  

Glyco-polypeptides (Comosain, Bromelain) induced leucocyte binding ability to tumor surface antigens, such as interleukin 2, 6, 8, and TNFs, is known as an immuno-target therapy. Using different concentration of Bromelain proteinases in 6 types of cancer cell, it resulted in hydrolysis, fibrinolysis, necrosis, and anti-metastatic effects in tumor cells. Anti-cancer effects were achieved in carcinoma of lung, breast, colon, ovary, cervix, and uterus. Investigation of anti-metastatic effects in Bromelain were carried out in a double-blind study: low dose cohort was on 10 mg/kg/day and a high dose cohort which was on 50 mg/kg/day for a period of over six months. A total of 83 patients with 3rd and 4th stage of refractory solid tumors were enrolled, whom at least previously failed on two regimens of chemotherapy and/or failed on radiation therapy. The rates of Complete Response (CR) and Partial Responses (PR) in high dose cohort are astonishing with 52% and 27% respectively. The Progress Disease (PD) was 10%, and the Stable Disease (SD) was 11%. The implications and results of the findings are discussed with in view of the reported anti-metastatic activity of orally administrated Bromelain.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Laura Guarnaccia ◽  
Giovanni Marfia ◽  
Matteo Maria Masseroli ◽  
Stefania Elena Navone ◽  
Melissa Balsamo ◽  

Glioblastoma is the most common primitive tumor in adult central nervous system (CNS), classified as grade IV according to WHO 2016 classification. Glioblastoma shows a poor prognosis with an average survival of approximately 15 months, representing an extreme therapeutic challenge. One of its distinctive and aggressive features is aberrant angiogenesis, which drives tumor neovascularization, representing a promising candidate for molecular target therapy. Although several pre-clinical studies and clinical trials have shown promising results, anti-angiogenic drugs have not led to a significant improvement in overall survival (OS), suggesting the necessity of identifying novel therapeutic strategies. Metformin, an anti-hyperglycemic drug of the Biguanides family, used as first line treatment in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), has demonstrated in vitro and in vivo antitumoral efficacy in many different tumors, including glioblastoma. From this evidence, a process of repurposing of the drug has begun, leading to the demonstration of inhibition of various oncopromoter mechanisms and, consequently, to the identification of the molecular pathways involved. Here, we review and discuss metformin’s potential antitumoral effects on glioblastoma, inspecting if it could properly act as an anti-angiogenic compound to be considered as a safely add-on therapy in the treatment and management of glioblastoma patients.

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