neuroprotective effects
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2022 ◽  
Vol 144 ◽  
pp. 108030
Dominika Czerwińska-Główka ◽  
Magdalena Skonieczna ◽  
Adrian Barylski ◽  
Sylwia Golba ◽  
Wioletta Przystaś ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Nguyen Thanh Nhu ◽  
Shu-Yun Xiao ◽  
Yijie Liu ◽  
V. Bharath Kumar ◽  
Zhen-Yang Cui ◽  

Neural mitochondrial dysfunction, neural oxidative stress, chronic neuroinflammation, toxic protein accumulation, and neural apoptosis are common causes of neurodegeneration. Elamipretide, a small mitochondrially-targeted tetrapeptide, exhibits therapeutic effects and safety in several mitochondria-related diseases. In neurodegeneration, extensive studies have shown that elamipretide enhanced mitochondrial respiration, activated neural mitochondrial biogenesis via mitochondrial biogenesis regulators (PCG-1α and TFAM) and the translocate factors (TOM-20), enhanced mitochondrial fusion (MNF-1, MNF-2, and OPA1), inhibited mitochondrial fission (Fis-1 and Drp-1), as well as increased mitophagy (autophagy of mitochondria). In addition, elamipretide has been shown to attenuate neural oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, and ROS), neuroinflammation (TNF, IL-6, COX-2, iNOS, NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18), and toxic protein accumulation (Aβ). Consequently, elamipretide could prevent neural apoptosis (cytochrome c, Bax, caspase 9, and caspase 3) and enhance neural pro-survival (Bcl2, BDNF, and TrkB) in neurodegeneration. These findings suggest that elamipretide may prevent the progressive development of neurodegenerative diseases via enhancing mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial fusion, and neural pro-survival pathway, as well as inhibiting mitochondrial fission, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, toxic protein accumulation, and neural apoptosis. Elamipretide or mitochondrially-targeted peptide might be a targeted agent to attenuate neurodegenerative progression.

2022 ◽  
Ana Bujan ◽  
Adriana Sampaio ◽  
Diego Pinal

Measurement of cognitive reserve (CR) is a matter of constant reviews and developments due to the difficulty to assess it directly, being socio-behavioral indexes used as indirect proxies. An effort to unravel the neural correlates underlying CR seems mandatory, and strongly supported by the neuroscientific literature. Neurophysiological measures through electroencephalography (EEG) have proven to be a promising, almost inexpensive method to study the CR neural correlates. In line with the recommendations of Stern et al. (2020), the aim of the present study has been to demonstrate that resting-state EEG measures may moderate the relationship between age-related brain changes and cognitive status; thus, constituting an objective neural index of CR.Our results show that two resting-state EEG measures, delta current source density in the occipital region and beta 2 connectivity between limbic and occipital regions in the right hemisphere, moderate the relation between age and cognitive performance, indexing neuroprotective effects on cognition during the aging process. These results not only shed light on the neural mechanisms involved in CR but also allow us to propose features to be taken into account in order to enhance the results of interventions to delay the onset of cognitive deficits.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 75
Elisabete Lima ◽  
Jorge Medeiros

The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), increases continuously demanding the urgent development of anti-Alzheimer’s agents. Marine organisms (MO) have to create their own defenses due to the adverse environment where they live and so synthesize several classes of compounds, such as akaloids, to defend themselves. Therefore, the identification of marine natural products with neuroprotective effects is a necessity. Being that AD is not only a genetic but also an environmental complex disease, a treatment for AD remains to discover. As the major clinical indications (CI) of AD are extracellular plaques formed by β-amyloid (Aβ) protein, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) formed by hyper phosphorylated τ-protein, uncommon inflammatory response and neuron apoptosis and death caused by oxidative stress, alkaloids that may decrease CI, might be used against AD. Most of the alkalolids with those properties are derivatives of the amino acid tryptophan mainly with a planar indole scaffold. Certainly, alkaloids targeting more than one CI, multitarget-directed ligands (MTDL), have the potential to become a lead in AD treatment. Alkaloids to have a maximum of activity against CI, should be planar and contain halogens and amine quaternization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
Christopher R. Apostol ◽  
Kelsey Bernard ◽  
Parthasaradhireddy Tanguturi ◽  
Gabriella Molnar ◽  
Mitchell J. Bartlett ◽  

There is an unmet clinical need for curative therapies to treat neurodegenerative disorders. Most mainstay treatments currently on the market only alleviate specific symptoms and do not reverse disease progression. The Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), an endogenous neuropeptide hormone, has been extensively studied as a potential regenerative therapeutic. PACAP is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) and exerts its neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects via the related Class B GPCRs PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2, at which the hormone shows roughly equal activity. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) also activates these receptors, and this close analogue of PACAP has also shown to promote neuronal survival in various animal models of acute and progressive neurodegenerative diseases. However, PACAP’s poor pharmacokinetic profile (non-linear PK/PD), and more importantly its limited blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability has hampered development of this peptide as a therapeutic. We have demonstrated that glycosylation of PACAP and related peptides promotes penetration of the BBB and improves PK properties while retaining efficacy and potency in the low nanomolar range at its target receptors. Furthermore, judicious structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed key motifs that can be modulated to afford compounds with diverse selectivity profiles. Most importantly, we have demonstrated that select PACAP glycopeptide analogues (2LS80Mel and 2LS98Lac) exert potent neuroprotective effects and anti-inflammatory activity in animal models of traumatic brain injury and in a mild-toxin lesion model of Parkinson’s disease, highlighting glycosylation as a viable strategy for converting endogenous peptides into robust and efficacious drug candidates.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Ke Li ◽  
Jiayu Wang ◽  
Lei Chen ◽  
Meimei Guo ◽  
Ying Zhou ◽  

Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common and serious postoperative complication in elderly patients, and its underlying mechanism is elusive and without effective therapy at present. In recent years, the neuroinflammatory hypothesis has been developed in the pathogenesis of POD, in which the damaged blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role. Netrin-1 (NTN-1), an axonal guidance molecule, has been reported to have strong inflammatory regulatory and neuroprotective effects. We applied NTN-1 (45 μg/kg) to aged mice using a POD model with a simple laparotomy to assess their systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation by detecting interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and high mobility group box chromosomal protein-1 (HMGB-1) levels. We also assessed the reactive states of microglia and the permeability of the BBB by detecting cell junction proteins and the leakage of dextran. We found that a single dose of NTN-1 prophylaxis decreased the expression of IL-6 and HMGB-1 and upregulated the expression of IL-10 in the peripheral blood, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Nerin-1 reduced the activation of microglial cells in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and improved POD-like behavior. NTN-1 also attenuated the anesthesia/surgery-induced increase in BBB permeability by upregulating the expression of tight junction-associated proteins such as ZO-1, claudin-5, and occludin. These findings confirm the anti-inflammatory and BBB protective effects of NTN-1 in an inflammatory environment in vivo and provide better insights into the pathophysiology and potential treatment of POD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 293-299
Xueliang Gao ◽  
Zhao Wang ◽  
Peilei Jia ◽  
Yapeng Zhao ◽  
Kai Wang ◽  

Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of Crataegus songarica extract (CSCE) against traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats, and the underlying mechanism of action. Methods: A rat model of TBI was established via tracheal intubation procedure, and the rats were treated with graded doses of CSCE. Neuronal survival was determined by Nissl staining, while neuronal apoptosis was measured using TUNEL-staining. Neurological impairments were determined based on neurological severity score (NSS). Results: Treatment of TBI rats with CSCE enhanced neuronal survival and decreased TUNEL-positive cell fraction in the brain cortex. The treatment prevented elevation of NSS and suppressed mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in brain cortex. Moreover, CSCE treatment prevented TBI-mediated suppression of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in TBI rat brain cortex. Treatment of TBI rats with CSCE down-regulated NF-κB expression, increased Nrf2 expression and up-regulated mRNA expressions of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1). Conclusion: These results suggest that CSCE prevents TBI-mediated reduction in neuronal survival and inhibits brain cortical neuronal death in rats. It improves NSS and inhibits inflammatory response via activation of Nrf2 pathway and targeting of NF-κB expression. Therefore, CSCE is a potential therapeutic agent for TBI.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 257
Khadidja Kessas ◽  
Zhor Chouari ◽  
Imen Ghzaiel ◽  
Amira Zarrouk ◽  
Mohamed Ksila ◽  

Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that participate in a wide range of metabolic processes, including energy production and biomolecule synthesis. The morphology and distribution of intracellular mitochondria change dynamically, reflecting a cell’s metabolic activity. Oxidative stress is defined as a mismatch between the body’s ability to neutralise and eliminate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). A determination of mitochondria failure in increasing oxidative stress, as well as its implications in neurodegenerative illnesses and apoptosis, is a significant developmental process of focus in this review. The neuroprotective effects of bioactive compounds linked to neuronal regulation, as well as related neuronal development abnormalities, will be investigated. In conclusion, the study of secondary components and the use of mitochondrial features in the analysis of various neurodevelopmental diseases has enabled the development of a new class of mitochondrial-targeted pharmaceuticals capable of alleviating neurodegenerative disease states and enabling longevity and healthy ageing for the vast majority of people.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Jingjin Liu ◽  
Michael Veldeman ◽  
Anke Höllig ◽  
Kay Nolte ◽  
Lisa Liebenstund ◽  

AbstractIn a previous study from our group, argon has shown to significantly attenuate brain injury, reduce brain inflammation and enhance M2 microglia/macrophage polarization until 7 days after ischemic stroke. However, the long-term effects of argon have not been reported thus far. In the present study, we analyzed the underlying neuroprotective effects and potential mechanisms of argon, up to 30 days after ischemic stroke. Argon administration with a 3 h delay after stroke onset and 1 h after reperfusion demonstrated long-term neuroprotective effect by preserving the neurons at the ischemic boundary zone 30 days after stroke. Furthermore, the excessive microglia/macrophage activation in rat brain was reduced by argon treatment 30 days after ischemic insult. However, long-lasting neurological improvement was not detectable. More sensorimotor functional measures, age- and disease-related models, as well as further histological and molecular biological analyses will be needed to extend the understanding of argon’s neuroprotective effects and mechanism of action after ischemic stroke.

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