protein assembly
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Siyao Wang ◽  
Qingqing Zhou ◽  
Yunxue Li ◽  
Bingcheng Wei ◽  
Xinliang Liu ◽  

Nicky Hwang ◽  
Haiqun Ban ◽  
Shuo Wu ◽  
Kelly McGuire ◽  
Ellen Hernandez ◽  

Cell Reports ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (12) ◽  
pp. 110139
Tania Arguello ◽  
Susana Peralta ◽  
Hana Antonicka ◽  
Gabriel Gaidosh ◽  
Francisca Diaz ◽  

Suyeong Han ◽  
Yongwon Jung

Nature uses a wide range of well-defined biomolecular assemblies in diverse cellular processes, where proteins are major building blocks for these supramolecular assemblies. Inspired by their natural counterparts, artificial protein-based assemblies have attracted strong interest as new bio-nanostructures, and strategies to construct ordered protein assemblies have been rapidly expanding. In this review, we provide an overview of very recent studies in the field of artificial protein assemblies, with the particular aim of introducing major assembly methods and unique features of these assemblies. Computational de novo designs were used to build various assemblies with artificial protein building blocks, which are unrelated to natural proteins. Small chemical ligands and metal ions have also been extensively used for strong and bio-orthogonal protein linking. Here, in addition to protein assemblies with well-defined sizes, protein oligomeric and array structures with rather undefined sizes (but with definite repeat protein assembly units) also will be discussed in the context of well-defined protein nanostructures. Lastly, we will introduce multiple examples showing how protein assemblies can be effectively used in various fields such as therapeutics and vaccine development. We believe that structures and functions of artificial protein assemblies will be continuously evolved, particularly according to specific application goals.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0252497
Gisela Pöll ◽  
Michael Pilsl ◽  
Joachim Griesenbeck ◽  
Herbert Tschochner ◽  
Philipp Milkereit

In yeast and human cells many of the ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) are required for the stabilisation and productive processing of rRNA precursors. Functional coupling of r-protein assembly with the stabilisation and maturation of subunit precursors potentially promotes the production of ribosomes with defined composition. To further decipher mechanisms of such an intrinsic quality control pathway we analysed here the contribution of three yeast large ribosomal subunit r-proteins rpL2 (uL2), rpL25 (uL23) and rpL34 (eL34) for intermediate nuclear subunit folding steps. Structure models obtained from single particle cryo-electron microscopy analyses provided evidence for specific and hierarchic effects on the stable positioning and remodelling of large ribosomal subunit domains. Based on these structural and previous biochemical data we discuss possible mechanisms of r-protein dependent hierarchic domain arrangement and the resulting impact on the stability of misassembled subunits.

2021 ◽  
Yang S Chen ◽  
Sharon Tracy ◽  
Vince Harjono ◽  
Fan Xu ◽  
James J Moresco ◽  

During times of unpredictable stress, organisms must adapt their gene expression to maximize survival. Along with changes in transcription, one conserved means of gene regulation during conditions that quickly represses translation is the formation of cytoplasmic phase-separated mRNP granules such as P-bodies and stress granules. Previously, we identified that distinct steps in gene expression can be coupled during glucose starvation as promoter sequences in the nucleus are able to direct the subcellular localization and translatability of mRNAs in the cytosol. Here, we report that Rvb1 and Rvb2, conserved ATPase proteins implicated as protein assembly chaperones and chromatin remodelers, were enriched at the promoters and mRNAs of genes involved in alternative glucose metabolism pathways that we previously found to be transcriptionally upregulated but translationally downregulated during glucose starvation in yeast. Engineered Rvb1/Rvb2-binding on mRNAs was sufficient to sequester the mRNAs into phase-separated granules and repress their translation. Additionally, this Rvb-tethering to the mRNA drove further transcriptional upregulation of the target genes. Overall, our results point to Rvb1/Rvb2 coupling transcription, mRNA granular localization, and translatability of mRNAs during glucose starvation. This Rvb-mediated rapid gene regulation could potentially serve as an efficient recovery plan for cells after stress removal.

Ruifeng Shi ◽  
Wenya Hou ◽  
Zhao-Qi Wang ◽  
Xingzhi Xu

Iron–sulfur (Fe/S) clusters (ISCs) are redox-active protein cofactors that their synthesis, transfer, and insertion into target proteins require many components. Mitochondrial ISC assembly is the foundation of all cellular ISCs in eukaryotic cells. The mitochondrial ISC cooperates with the cytosolic Fe/S protein assembly (CIA) systems to accomplish the cytosolic and nuclear Fe/S clusters maturation. ISCs are needed for diverse cellular functions, including nitrogen fixation, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial respiratory pathways, and ribosome assembly. Recent research advances have confirmed the existence of different ISCs in enzymes that regulate DNA metabolism, including helicases, nucleases, primases, DNA polymerases, and glycosylases. Here we outline the synthesis of mitochondrial, cytosolic and nuclear ISCs and highlight their functions in DNA metabolism.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Simone Höfler ◽  
Peer Lukat ◽  
Wulf Blankenfeldt ◽  
Teresa Carlomagno

AbstractBox C/D ribonucleoprotein complexes are RNA-guided methyltransferases that methylate the ribose 2’-OH of RNA. The central ‘guide RNA’ has box C and D motifs at its ends, which are crucial for activity. Archaeal guide RNAs have a second box C’/D’ motif pair that is also essential for function. This second motif is poorly conserved in eukaryotes and its function is uncertain. Conflicting literature data report that eukaryotic box C’/D’ motifs do or do not bind proteins specialized to recognize box C/D-motifs and are or are not important for function. Despite this uncertainty, the architecture of eukaryotic 2’-O-methylation enzymes is thought to be similar to that of their archaeal counterpart. Here, we use biochemistry, X-ray crystallography and mutant analysis to demonstrate the absence of functional box C’/D’ motifs in more than 80% of yeast guide RNAs. We conclude that eukaryotic Box C/D RNPs have two non-symmetric protein assembly sites and that their three-dimensional architecture differs from that of archaeal 2’-O-methylation enzymes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (9) ◽  
Seán I O’Donoghue ◽  
Andrea Schafferhans ◽  
Neblina Sikta ◽  
Christian Stolte ◽  
Sandeep Kaur ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
Gökçe Senger ◽  
Martin H. Schaefer

Protein assembly is a highly dynamic process and proteins can interact in different ways and stoichiometries within a complex. The importance of maintaining protein stoichiometry for complex function and avoiding aggregation of orphan subunits has been demonstrated. However, how exactly the organization of proteins into complexes constrains differential protein abundance in extreme cellular conditions like cancer, where a lot of protein abundance changes occur, has not been systematically investigated. To study this, we collected proteomic data made available by the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) to quantify proteomic changes during carcinogenesis and systematically tested five interaction types in complexes to investigate which of these features impact on protein abundance correlation patterns in cancer. We found that higher than expected fraction of protein complex subunits does not show changes in their abundances compared to those in the normal samples. Furthermore, we found that the way proteins interact in complexes indeed constrains their co-abundance patterns. Our results highlight the role of the interactions between the proteins and the need of cancer cells to deal with aberrant changes in protein abundance.

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