crystal layer
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Takahiro Iwase ◽  
Jessica Onaka ◽  
Akira Emoto ◽  
Daisuke KOYAMA ◽  
Mami Matsukawa

Abstract The effect of the liquid crystal (LC) layer thickness on the optical characteristics of an ultrasound LC lens was explored. Three LC lenses with differing LC layer thicknesses (100, 200, and 300 µm) were fabricated, and the optical focal lengths were measured by an optical microscope with a varying driving voltage. For the lens with a 200-µm-thick LC layer, a larger change in the focal length was observed for a smaller driving voltage compared with that of the other two lenses, indicating that the LC layer thickness is appropriate for a variable-focus lens.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1213 (1) ◽  
pp. 012009
N Sitnikov ◽  
A Shelyakov ◽  
I Zaletova

Abstract The study of the effect of electropulse treatment with a variable duration on the crystallization processes and the structure of a amorphous TiNiCu alloy with 25 at.% Cu in comparison with isothermal annealing and heating at a constant speed was carried out. The alloy was fabricated by rapid-quenching from the liquid state (melt spinning technique) at the cooling rate of the melt of about 106 °C/s in the form of a ribbon with a thickness of 28 μm with a surface crystal layer with a thickness of about 2-3 μm. To remove the crystal layer, the method of double-sided electrochemical polishing was used. The studies were carried out by methods of differential scanning calorimetry, metallography and scanning electron microscopy. It was established that the formation of the crystalline phase in the electropulse treatment of the amorphous ribbon occurs from the surface to the inner part due to the predominant formation and growth of columnar crystals with subsequent nucleation and growth of crystals in the rest of the ribbon.

Crystals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1347
Yingshuang Meng ◽  
Zhonghua Li ◽  
Xiangcun Li ◽  
Wu Xiao ◽  
Gaohong He ◽  

In this work, we investigated the porosity distribution and separation property of the porous crystal layer formed via the polythermal process. The proposed porosity distribution model, considering both the cooling profile and the crystal settling effect, provided simulative results that met the MRI analysis experimental results with suitable agreement. Significant porosity variation from the top to the bottom of the crystal layer (ϕ from 0.75 to 0.55 under rapid cooling profile) was detected. Meanwhile, the vertical supersaturation degree gradient induced by the fluid fluctuation could impact nucleation and crystal growth kinetic along with crystal particle settling. The resulting crystal layer possessed various impurity inclusion conditions. Under a moderate cooling profile (0.4 K·min−1), the volume fraction of closed pores against overall pores decreased from 0.75 to 0.36. The proposed model and experimental analysis approach were demonstrated to be helpful for porosity distribution simulation and impure inclusion analysis of layer crystallization.

2021 ◽  
Zixin Zhao

LC-SLM provides a flexible way to modulate the phase of light with the help of a grayscale pattern loaded on it. Nevertheless, the modulated phase profile is of relatively low accuracy due to the nonlinear and nonuniform response of the liquid crystal layer in the SLM. To improve the performance of LC-SLM on the wavefront generation, the nonlinear and nonuniform phase response needs to be calibrated and compensated effectively. In this chapter, we present some state-of-art methods to measure the phase modulation curve of the LC-SLM. Some methods to measure the static aberration caused by the backplane of the LC-SLM are then presented. Last but not the least, the future development of the LC-SLM in phase modulation is also presented.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Wei Huang ◽  
Zili Feng ◽  
Huanran Fu ◽  
Wei Xiang

An ionic soil stabilizer (ISS) is used to reinforce clay soils because the ISS can regulate the hydration processes and microstructures of clays. To evaluate the regulation of ISS, natural bentonite was modified by ISS at different concentrations in this research. Water vapour adsorption and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were carried out to interpret the hydration mechanism of bentonite. Meanwhile, an associated analysis between hydration pore structures and hydration mechanisms was implemented through variation of pore characteristic tests at different relative humidities (RHs) to distinguish multiscale pore adsorption of water during the corresponding hydration process. In addition, the pore characteristics were studied via XRD, nitrogen adsorption, and mercury injection tests. Finally, the origins that adsorbed water and pore structures changed by adding ISS were discussed. The results showed that for calcium bentonite, the cations hydrated first in the range of 0 < RH < 0.45 ~ 0.55 , accompanied by the expansion of micropores. Then, adsorption occurred on the basal surface of the crystal layer in the range of 0.45 ~ 0.55 < RH < 0.8 ~ 0.9 , with water mainly adsorbed into the mesopores. With further hydration when RH > 0.8 ~ 0.9 , diffused double layer (DDL) water ceaselessly entered the macropores. Both adsorbed water and multiscale pore size decreased when ISS was added to bentonite. The origins of the reduction were the regulation of ISS to exchangeable cations and the basal surface of the crystal layer.

Crystals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 908
Fabrizio Ciciulla ◽  
Annamaria Zaltron ◽  
Riccardo Zamboni ◽  
Cinzia Sada ◽  
Francesco Simoni ◽  

In this study, we present a new configuration of the recently reported optofluidic platform exploiting liquid crystals reorientation in lithium niobate channels. In order to avoid the threshold behaviour observed in the optical control of the device, we propose microchannels realized in a x-cut crystal closed by a z-cut crystal on the top. In this way, the light-induced photovoltaic field is not uniform inside the liquid crystal layer and therefore the conditions for a thresholdless reorientation are realized. We performed simulations of the photovoltaic effect based on the well assessed model for Lithium Niobate, showing that not uniform orientation and value of the field should be expected inside the microchannel. In agreement with the re-orientational properties of nematic liquid crystals, experimental data confirm the expected thresholdless behaviour. The observed liquid crystal response exhibits two different regimes and the response time shows an unusual dependence on light intensity, both features indicating the presence of additional photo-induced fields appearing above a light intensity of 107 W/m2.

Crystals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (7) ◽  
pp. 815
Qi Wang ◽  
Yingming Wang ◽  
Yan Li ◽  
Shijie Zhang ◽  
Ri Li

In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann–cellular automata (LBM-CA) model with dynamic and static grids was used to study the growth of three-dimensional (3D) multidendrites under directional solidification with random preferred angles. In the static grid, the temperature field, flow field, and solute field during solidification were calculated by the LBM method, and in the dynamic grid, each dendrite evolution was calculated based on the CA method at its preferential crystallographic orientation. The coupling of LBM and CA was made by interpolation of the correlation quantities between the two sets of grids. The effects of wall-equiaxed crystal density on the number of columnar crystals and the thickness of the equiaxed crystal layer were studied by this model. The results showed that the density of the wall-equiaxed crystal has little effect on the number of columnar crystals and the thickness of the equiaxed crystal layer. When other conditions were the same, the lower the undercooling, the fewer the columnar crystals, and the thicker the equiaxed layer. In addition, the smaller the heat transfer coefficient, the lower the number of columnar grains, and the smaller the thickness of equiaxed grains.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (9) ◽  
pp. 2172
Ashot H. Gevorgyan ◽  
Sergey S. Golik ◽  
Nikolay A. Vanyushkin ◽  
Ilya M. Efimov ◽  
Mushegh S. Rafayelyan ◽  

In our paper, the magneto-optical properties of a dichroic cholesteric liquid crystal layer with large values of magneto-optical parameter g and low values of dielectric permittivity were investigated. The solutions of the dispersion equation and their peculiarities were investigated in detail. The specific properties of reflection, transmission, absorption, rotation, ellipticity spectra and also the spectra of ellipticity and azimuth of eigen polarization were investigated. The existence of a tunable linear and nonreciprocal transmission band was shown.

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