Optical Microscope
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Yongdong Tong ◽  
Youzhen Cai ◽  
Xuening Wang ◽  
Zhimin Li ◽  
Austin Nevin ◽  

AbstractScientific analysis revealed the materials and techniques used in the process of making polychrome sculptures providing a solid foundation for the protection and restoration of the painted statues. In addition, the analyses revealed changes in colour schemes applied to the sculptures can provide the basis for the virtual restoration of the painted statues. In order to carry out scientifically-informed protection and restoration of the Bodhidharma statue from the Lingyan Temple, Changqinq, Shandong, several analytical methods such as optical microscope (OM), Micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM–EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed. Analyses clearly reveal the information including the stratigraphic structure and the composition of pigment. The use of silver foils and golden yellow pyrophyllite mineral to replace gold foils were found in the gilding paint layer in the later repainting after the Song Dynasty. This work reports the coexistence of emerald green (Cu(C2H3O2)2·3Cu(AsO2)2) and the degradation product lavendulan (NaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl·5H2O) in large areas of the paint stratigraphy and on the surface confirming that the degradation of emerald green is related to the thickness of the paint layer; in thinner paint layers emerald green is transformed in lavendulan, while thicker layers of contain both lavendulan and emerald green, suggesting an environmental source of chlorides.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (18) ◽  
pp. 5464
Linglin Xu ◽  
Siyu Liu ◽  
Peiming Wang ◽  
Zhenghong Yang

Efflorescence is aesthetically undesirable to all cementitious materials products and mainly results from the carbonation of hydrates and salt precipitation. Alternative binders without portlandite formation theoretically have much lower efflorescence risk, but in practice, the efflorescence of ettringite-rich systems is still serious. This study reports the impacts of mineral additives on the efflorescence of ettringite-rich systems and the corresponding microstructural evolution. The effects of silica fume, limestone powder, and diatomite on efflorescence and the capillary pore structure of mortars were investigated from a multi-scale analysis. The composition and microstructure of efflorescent phases were revealed by optical microscope (O.M.), in-situ Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results indicate that the addition of mineral additives can efficiently inhibit the efflorescence of reference, especially with silica fume. Similar to the ettringite-rich system, the efflorescence substances of all modifies are composed of ettringite and CaCO3, indicating that the addition of mineral admixture does not lead to chemical reactions, lower capillary absorption coefficient of mineral additives modified specimen, the denser pore structure and the lower efflorescence degree.

2021 ◽  
Vol 900 ◽  
pp. 51-60
Zainab Hassan ◽  
Mudhar Al-Obaidi

There has been a significant increase in the use of composite materials to reinforce metallic structures. Such an increase has been especially noted in marine and underground applications, where there is a higher corrosion impact. Whilst there have been several attempts to investigate the mechanical properties of several synthesized composite materials, few of these have analyzed the corrosion of such composite materials at different weight ratios. The aim of this paper is to explore the best weight ratios of a graphite/Zinc composite matrix that would yield the lowest corrosion rate for a variety of applications. The research is validated using experimentation based on six additives of graphite (1wt%, 2.5wt%, 4wt%, 6wt%, 8wt%, and 10wt%), which are used as reinforcements for a range of weight ratios. The additives were prepared using the powder metallurgy method. The corrosion rate for all specimens used was carried out at the room temperature of 27 °C. Analysis results showed that 1wt% of graphite additive has the highest corrosion resistance compared to other weight ratios tested. This has been verified by examining the microstructure of the composite using an optical microscope for 12h, 24h, and 48h of immersion time in a 1M HCl acid solution.

Symmetry ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1755
Susana M. Salazar Marocho ◽  
Mary Beth VanLandingham ◽  
Firas Mourad ◽  
Andres Pappa ◽  
Sreenivas Koka

The chance to critically and microscopically inspect the quality of bonded restorations once they are delivered to the patient after several pre-cementation steps is rare or nonexistent. Replicas of in-service restorations can provide a wealth of information on the integrity of the restorations and moreover make it possible to bring this information to the laboratory for further detailed analysis. This study aimed to characterize the epoxy replicas of 27 cemented monolithic yttria-stabilized zirconia crowns of the maxillary and mandibular arch to assess surface roughness, topography, and symmetry. The topography of the facial, lingual, and occlusal/incisal surfaces of each crown was observed under the optical microscope and further characterized using the scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness measurements were performed using the atomic force microscope. The optical microscope was used to measure the golden proportion and visible width of the anterior maxillary crowns. Surface damage consistent with unpolished adjustment was identified mostly in the occlusal surface of the posterior teeth. Other irregularities, such as scratch marks, small pits, and coarse pits were also found. The surface roughness had great variability. Not all of the anterior maxillary and mandibular teeth followed the golden proportion concept. This study design allows in vitro characterization of in-service restorations. It provides a framework for using replicas for early identification of patterns or features that can trigger fracture and for analysis of morphology and symmetry.

Chung Taing ◽  
Katherine L. Ackerman ◽  
Alison D. Nugent ◽  
Jorgen B. Jensen

AbstractSea salt aerosol(s) (SSA) play a significant role in the atmosphere through aerosol direct and indirect effects, and in atmospheric chemistry as a source of tropospheric bromine. In-situ measurements of coarse-mode SSA particles are limited because of their low concentration and relatively large sizes (dry radius, rd > 0.5 μm). With this in mind, a new, low-cost, easily usable method for sampling coarse-mode SSA particles in the marine boundary layer was developed. A SSA particle sampler that uses an impaction method was designed and built using 3D printing and Arduino microcontrollers and sensors. It exposes polycarbonate slides to ambient airflow remotely on a kite-based platform to capture coarse-mode SSA particles. Because it is a smaller version of the Giant Nucleus Impactor (GNI), designed for use on aircraft, it is named the miniature-Giant Nucleus Impactor, or “mini-GNI”. After sample collection, the same optical microscope methodology utilized by the GNI was used to analyze the wetted salt particles that impacted onto the slides. In this proof-of-concept study, multiple mini-GNIs were attached serially to a kite string, allowing for sampling at multiple altitudes simultaneously. The robustness of the results from this new instrument and methodology for sampling at ambient RH (~ 75 %) the SSA particle size distribution with rd > 3.3 μ m are compared with a similar study. We find that the SSA particle number concentration decreases weakly with altitude and shows no correlation to instantaneous U10 wind speed along the windward coastline of O‘ ahu in the Hawaiian Islands.

Coatings ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1122
Dongjing Liu ◽  
Yuan You ◽  
Mufu Yan ◽  
Hongtao Chen ◽  
Rui Li ◽  

In order to explore the effect of the addition of rare earth (RE) to a steel microstructure and the consequent performance of a nitrided layer, plasma nitriding was carried out on 38CrMoAl steel in an atmosphere of NH3 at 550 °C for 4, 8, and 12 h. The modified layers were characterized using an optical microscope (OM), a microhardness tester, X-ray diffraction (XRD), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and an electrochemical workstation. After 12 h of nitriding without RE, the modified layer thickness was 355.90 μm, the weight gain was 3.75 mg/cm2, and the surface hardness was 882.5 HV0.05. After 12 h of RE nitriding, the thickness of the modified layer was 390.8 μm, the weight gain was 3.87 mg/cm2, and the surface hardness was 1027 HV0.05. Compared with nitriding without RE, the ε-Fe2-3N diffraction peak was enhanced in the RE nitriding layer. After 12 h of RE nitriding, La, LaFeO3, and a trace amount of Fe2O3 appeared. The corrosion rate of the modified layer was at its lowest (15.089 × 10−2 mm/a), as was the current density (1.282 × 10−5 A/cm2); therefore, the corrosion resistance improved.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (3) ◽  
pp. 114-121
Samiul Kaiser ◽  
Mohammad Salim Kaiser

The copper based alloys Al-bronze and α-brass containing each of 10wt% aluminum and zinc were prepared by casting. Afterwards, the specimens were cold-rolled with various percentages of deformation and the cold-rolled samples were aged subsequently at the varied time for four hours and temperatures ranging up to 500°C. Samples underwent characterizations by microhardness testing, electrical resistivity, optical properties, differential scanning calorimetry as well as microstructure analysis using an optical microscope. The results showed that the hardening of Cu-based alloys was taken place due to solid-solution hardening. Al addition accelerated the hardness through ageing due to the formation of various intermetallic copper aluminites into the aged alloy which was hard and brittle in nature. The resistivity decreased marginally through heat treatment due to the stage of stress relieving, recovery, precipitation coarsening as well as recrystallization and increased for arranging different intermetallics into the alloys. The microstructural study revealed that the cold rolled alloys content the different phases of elongated grain at the rolling direction. Meanwhile higher ageing temperatures at 500°C for one hour led to recrystallization and grain growth especially in pure copper and Cu-10Zn alloys.

Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 995
Yuval Boneh ◽  
Emily J. Chin ◽  
Greg Hirth

Combined observations from natural and experimental deformation microstructures are often used to constrain the rheological properties of the upper mantle. However, relating natural and experimental deformation processes typically requires orders of magnitude extrapolation in strain rate due to vastly different time scales between nature and the lab. We examined a sheared peridotite xenolith that was deformed under strain rates comparable to laboratory shearing time scales. Microstructure analysis using an optical microscope and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was done to characterize the bulk crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), intragrain misorientations, subgrain boundaries, and spatial distribution of grains. We found that the microstructure varied between monophase (olivine) and multiphase (i.e., olivine, pyroxene, and garnet) bands. Olivine grains in the monophase bands had stronger CPO, larger grain size, and higher internal misorientations compared with olivine grains in the multiphase bands. The bulk olivine CPO suggests a dominant (010)[100] and secondary activated (001)[100] that are consistent with the experimentally observed transition of the A to E-types. The bulk CPO and intragrain misorientations of olivine and orthopyroxene suggest that a coarser-grained initial fabric was deformed by dislocation creep coeval with the reduction of grain size due to dynamic recrystallization. Comparing the deformation mechanisms inferred from the microstructure with experimental flow laws indicates that the reduction of grain size in orthopyroxene promotes activation of diffusion creep and suggests a high activation volume for wet orthopyroxene dislocation creep.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (18) ◽  
pp. 5172
Paulina Rolka ◽  
Jaroslaw Karwacki ◽  
Maciej Jaworski

Energy storage is one of the most effective ways to increase energy savings and efficiency of heating and air conditioning systems. Phase change materials (PCMs) are increasingly used in latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems to increase their capacity. In such systems, costs are a very important factor of viability so the typical heat transfer elements like fin-and-tube heat exchangers are used to construct the LHTES. The problem of this approach is a possibility of corrosion of metals in contact with PCM that shortens the life cycle of LHTES. Therefore, the main objective of this work is an experimental study of the compatibility of metals typically used in fin-and-tube heat exchangers (copper and aluminum) with three commercially available organic PCMs (RT15, RT18HC, and RT22HC). Compatibility of PCMs with copper and aluminum was tested for a period of approximately two months, during which a total of 35 heating and cooling cycles were carried out, each with a complete phase transition of the tested materials. In the course of the tests it was assessed whether the PCM caused corrosion of the tested metals. The evaluation was based on the gravimetric method, calculation of corrosion rate, and visual observations and measurements of the features on the metal sample’s surface using optical microscope. It was determined that RT15, RT18 HC, and RT22 HC show low corrosion rates for aluminum and copper samples. The visual tests indicate that there was no change in the PCM solutions during the tests, only a sediment was observed for the samples with the combination of copper and aluminum. Microscopic examination of the surface of the samples did not show any significant surface changes, except for the aluminum samples, on the surface of which local microdefects were observed. It follows from the present results that copper and aluminum can be used to design the heat transfer surface in contact with the chosen PCMs.

Delia-Andrada Duca ◽  
Mircea Laurențiu Dan ◽  
Nicolae Vaszilcsin

Due to the large quantity of expired and unused drugs worldwide, pharmaceutical disposal has become a serious problem that requires increased attention. In the present paper, the study on recycling ceftazidime (CZ) as an additive in copper and nickel electrodeposition from acid baths is highlighted. CZ is the active substance from expired commercial drug Ceftamil®. Its electrochemical behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry. As well, kinetic parameters for copper and nickel electrodeposition were determined using Tafel plots method at different temperatures and CZ concentrations in these acid baths. The activation energy was calculated from Arrhenius plots. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the charge transfer resistance and coverage degree in the electrolyte solutions at several potential values. Gibbs free energy values, calculated from Langmuir adsorption isotherms, revealed the chemical nature of CZ–electrode surface interactions. The favorable effect of the organic molecules added in copper and nickel electroplating baths was emphasized by optical microscope images. The morphology of the obtained deposits without and with 10−4 mol L−1 CZ was compared. The experimental results revealed that expired Ceftamil® is suitable as additive in copper and nickel electroplating processes from acid baths.

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