optical microscope
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Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 205
Linh Dinh ◽  
Soohun Lee ◽  
Sharif Md Abuzar ◽  
Heejun Park ◽  
Sung-Joo Hwang

Donepezil (DPZ) is generally administered orally to treat Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, oral administration can cause gastrointestinal side effects. Therefore, to enhance compliance, a new way to deliver DPZ from transdermal patch was developed. Ionic bonds were created by dissolving dicarboxylic acid and DPZ in ethanol, resulting in a stable ionic liquid (IL) state. The synthesized ILs were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The DPZ ILs were then transformed to a suitable drug-in-adhesive patch for transdermal delivery of DPZ. The novel DPZ ILs patch inhibits crystallization of the IL, indicating coherent design. Moreover, DPZ ILs and DPZ IL patch formulations performed excellent skin permeability compared to that of the DPZ free-base patch in both in vitro and ex vivo skin permeability studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 815
Genwang Wang ◽  
Ye Ding ◽  
Haotian Long ◽  
Yanchao Guan ◽  
Xiwen Lu ◽  

Nano-manipulation technology, as a kind of “bottom-up” tool, has exhibited an excellent capacity in the field of measurement and fabrication on the nanoscale. Although variety manipulation methods based on probes and microscopes were proposed and widely used due to locating and imaging with high resolution, the development of non-contacted schemes for these methods is still indispensable to operate small objects without damage. However, optical manipulation, especially near-field trapping, is a perfect candidate for establishing brilliant manipulation systems. This paper reports about simulations on the electric and force fields at the tips of metallic probes irradiated by polarized laser outputted coming from a scanning near-field optical microscope probe. Distributions of electric and force field at the tip of a probe have proven that the polarized laser can induce nanoscale evanescent fields with high intensity, which arouse effective force to move nanoparticles. Moreover, schemes with dual probes are also presented and discussed in this paper. Simulation results indicate that different combinations of metallic probes and polarized lasers will provide diverse near-field and corresponding optical force. With the suitable direction of probes and polarization direction, the dual probe exhibits higher trapping force and wider effective wavelength range than a single probe. So, these results give more novel and promising selections for realizing optical manipulation in experiments, so that distinguished multi-functional manipulation systems can be developed.

Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Jianfeng Wang ◽  
Yuke Liu ◽  
Chao Yang ◽  
Wenmin Jiang ◽  
Yun Li ◽  

The viscoelastic behavior of minerals in shales is important in predicting the macroscale creep behavior of heterogeneous bulk shale. In this study, in situ indentation measurements of two major constitutive minerals (i.e., quartz and clay) in Longmaxi Formation shale from the Sichuan Basin, South China, were conducted using a nanoindentation technique and high-resolution optical microscope. Firstly, quartz and clay minerals were identified under an optical microscope based on their morphology, surface features, reflection characteristics, particle shapes, and indentation responses. Three viscoelastic models (i.e., three-element Voigt, Burger’s, and two-dashpot Kelvin models) were then used to fit the creep data for both minerals. Finally, the effects of peak load on the viscoelastic behavior of quartz and clay minerals were investigated. Our results show that the sizes of the residual imprints on clay minerals were larger than that of quartz for a specific peak load. Moreover, the initial creep rates and depths in clay minerals were higher than those in quartz. However, the creep rates of quartz and clay minerals displayed similar trends, which were independent of peak load. In addition, all three viscoelastic models produced good fits to the experimental data. However, due to the poor fit in the initial holding stage of the three-element Voigt model and instability of the two-dashpot Kelvin model, Burger’s model is best in obtaining the regression parameters. The regression results indicate that the viscoelastic parameters obtained by these models are associated with peak load, and that a relatively small peak load is more reliable for the determination of viscoelastic parameters. Furthermore, the regression values for the viscoelastic parameters of clay minerals were lower than those of quartz and the bulk shale, suggesting the former facilitates the viscoelastic deformation of shale. Our study provides a better understanding of the nanoscale viscoelastic properties of shale, which can be used to predict the time-dependent deformation of shale.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 192
Krzysztof Lukaszuk ◽  
Grzegorz Jakiel ◽  
Izabela Wocławek Potocka ◽  
Jolanta Kiewisz ◽  
Jolanta Olszewska ◽  

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a widely used and accepted treatment of choice for oocyte fertilization. However, the quality of sperm selection depends on the accurate visualization of the morphology, which can be achieved with a high image resolution. We aim to correct the conviction, shown in a myriad of publications, that an ultra-high magnification in the range of 6000×–10,000× can be achieved with an optical microscope. The goal of observing sperm under the microscope is not to simply get a larger image, but rather to obtain more detail—therefore, we indicate that the optical system’s resolution is what should be primarily considered. We provide specific microscope system setup recommendations sufficient for most clinical cases that are based on our experience showing that the optical resolution of 0.5 μm allows appropriate visualization of sperm defects. Last but not least, we suggest that mixed research results regarding the clinical value of IMSI, comparing to ICSI, can stem from a lack of standardization of microscopy techniques used for both ICSI and IMSI.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 288
Karol Bula ◽  
Bartosz Korzeniewski

The presented work’s aim is the application of low-power laser treatment for the enhancement of interfacial micromechanical adhesion between polyamide 6 (filled with glass fiber) and aluminum. A fiber laser beam was used to prepare micro-patterns on aluminum sheets. The micro-structuring was conducted in the regime of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mm/s laser beam speeds, for both sides. The joining process was realized in an injection molding process. Metallic inserts were surface engraved and overmolded in one-side and two-side configurations. A lap shear test was used to examine the strength of the joints. Engraved metallic surfaces and adequate imprints on polyamide side were checked by optical microscope with motorized stages, and roughness parameters were also determined. Microscopic observations made it possible to describe the grooves’ shape and to conclude that a huge recast melt was formed when the lowest laser beam speed was applied; thus, the roughness parameter Ra reached the highest value of 16.8 μm (compared to 3.5 μm obtained for the fastest laser speed). The maximum shear force was detected for a sample prepared with the lowest scanning speed (one-sides joints), and it was 883 N, while for two-sided joints, the ultimate force was 1410 N (for a scanning speed of 200 mm/s).

2022 ◽  
Vol 906 ◽  
pp. 31-37
Smbat V. Mazmanyan ◽  
Gayane Papyan ◽  
Tamara Sargsyan ◽  
Armine Baghdagyulyan ◽  
Tatevik Paytyan ◽  

The paper presents the study of morphological characteristics of cement particles and reveals the influence of the structure of the cement grain composition on the physical and mechanical properties of cement. The following portland cements produced by “Hrazdan Cement Corporation” LLC, which have 52,5 MPa and 42,5 MPa compressive strength limit and hydraulic additives up to 20% and over 20% have been used for the experiment: CEM II/ A-P 42,5N, CEM II/ B-P 42,5N, CEM II/A-Q 42,5N, CEM II/B-Q, CEM II/A-L 42,5N, CEM II/B-L 42,5N, CEM II/A-M 42,5N, CEM II/B-M, CEM III/A-S 42,5N and CEM III/B-S 42,5N. Grain distribution in all the samples has been studied using a CILAS laser analyzer. Microscopic analysis of all the fractions has been carried out with the help of James Swift optical microscope. The given grain compositions have undergone chemical analysis in compliance with the requirements of interstate ISO 5382-2019 and ASTM C114-18 standards. Experimental studies and analyses show that the cements with microsilica have the highest value of water-cement ratio-W/C = 0.7, the highest by volume compression are the cements with volcanic slag-4 mm, the beginning of the bonding period is the longest in case of limestone cements - t = 140 minutes, followed by microsilica cements, and in third place there are artificial slag cements, the results of which are as follows: 130; 124 minutes. The summarized data show that microsilica cements have the highest compressive strength limit among the cements having the same percentage of additives-48.87 MPa.

Amanzhol Kubeyev ◽  
Nathaniel Forbes Inskip ◽  
Tomos Phillips ◽  
Yihuai Zhang ◽  
Christine Maier ◽  

AbstractFlow in fractures is sensitive to their geometrical surface characteristics. The surface can undergo deformation if there is a change in stress. Natural fractures have complex geometries and rough surfaces which complicates the modelling of deformation and fluid flow. In this paper, we present a computational model that takes a digital image of a rough fracture surface and provides a stress–permeability relationship. The model is based on a first-principle contact mechanics approach at the continuum scale. Using this first principle approach, we investigate numerically the effect of fracture surface roughness and shifting of surfaces on the permeability evolution under applied stress and compare the results with laboratory experiments. A mudrock core fracture surface was digitalized using an optical microscope, and 2D cross sections through fracture surface profiles were taken for the modelling. Mechanical deformation is simulated with the contact mechanics based Virtual Element Method solver that we developed within the MATLAB Reservoir Simulation Toolbox platform. The permeability perpendicular to the fracture cross section is determined by solving the Stokes equation using the Finite Volume Method. A source of uncertainty in reproducing laboratory results is that the exact anchoring of the two opposite surfaces is difficult to determine while the stress–permeability relationship is sensitive to the exact positioning. We, therefore, investigate the sensitivity to a mismatch in two scenarios: First, we assess the stress–permeability of a fracture created using two opposing matched surfaces from the rock sample, consequently applying relative shear. Second, we assess the stress–permeability of fractures created by randomly selecting opposing surfaces from that sample. We find that a larger shift leads to a smaller drop in permeability due to applied stress, which is in line with a previous laboratory study. We also find that permeability tends to be higher in fractures with higher roughness within the investigated stress range. Finally, we provide empirical stress–permeability relationships for various relative shears and roughnesses for use in hydro-mechanical studies of fractured geological formations.

Mustapha Nouri ◽  
Mahfoud Tahlaiti

This work aims to present a multi-scale numerical approach based on a 2D finite element model to simulate the diffusive behaviour of biocomposites based on randomly dispersed Diss fibres during ageing in water. So, first of all, the diffusive behaviour of each phase (fibres/matrix) as well as of the biocomposite was determined experimentally. Secondly, the microstructure of the biocomposite was observed by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and then regenerated in a Digimat finite element calculation software thanks to its own fibre generator: "Random fibre placement". Finally, the diffusion problem based on Fick's law was solved on the Abaqus finite element calculation software. The results showed an excellent agreement between the experiment and the numerical model. The numerical model has enabled a better understanding of the diffusive behaviour of water within the biocomposite, in particular the effect of the fibre/matrix interface. In terms of durability, the layered structure of this biocomposite has proven to be effective in protecting the plant fibres from hydrothermal transfer, which preserves the durability of the material.

Takahiro Iwase ◽  
Jessica Onaka ◽  
Akira Emoto ◽  
Daisuke KOYAMA ◽  
Mami Matsukawa

Abstract The effect of the liquid crystal (LC) layer thickness on the optical characteristics of an ultrasound LC lens was explored. Three LC lenses with differing LC layer thicknesses (100, 200, and 300 µm) were fabricated, and the optical focal lengths were measured by an optical microscope with a varying driving voltage. For the lens with a 200-µm-thick LC layer, a larger change in the focal length was observed for a smaller driving voltage compared with that of the other two lenses, indicating that the LC layer thickness is appropriate for a variable-focus lens.

Pardeep Saini ◽  
Pradeep K. Singh

Abstract Aluminium metal matrix composites (AMCs) have become quite popular for light weight, low cost, and good workability. The present work reports the impact of silicon carbide (SiC) reinforcement on the physical, microstructural, and mechanical characteristics of Al-4032/SiC composites with 4, 6, 8% of SiC (particle size 54μm) fabricated through bottom pouring stir casting. Density and porosity measurements of all three AMCs have been performed using the rule of mixture. The microstructure of the AMC samples has been analyzed using an optical microscope (OM), x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The mechanical properties, in terms of the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), elongation, micro-hardness, and impact toughness of the AMCs have also been obtained according to American society for testing and materials (ASTM) standards. A maximum 1.52% increase in theoretical density, while a maximum 2.92% decrease in experimental density has been recorded for 8% reinforcement. The UTS, microhardness, and impact toughness of the AMC have been found to improve significantly owing to the addition of ceramic particles. The uniform distribution of SiC particles all over base Al-4032 matrix material has been noticed by SEM and OM for AMCs up to 6% reinforcement.

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