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Author(s):  
Віталій Анатолійович Омельяненко

The priority direction of tax policy is the formation of tax potential, which includes the creation of conditions for the intensification of entrepreneurial activity, the formation of active development actors, the expansion of sources of tax revenue, the stimulation of innovation and investment activity. At the same time, in Ukraine, the lack of systemic directions of tax incentives for innovation in the legislation and practice of tax instruments significantly hinders the development of innovation potential of the economy and reduces its competitiveness. The basis for improving tax policy in the context of innovative development is the institutional component. The purpose of the study is to identify promising institutional aspects of the formation of tax potential in industry. The methodological basis of the study were analytical reviews, regulations, modern scientific and applied research in the field of innovation. The research uses methods of dialectics, methods and principles of scientific knowledge, tools of economic analysis to substantiate proposals for the formation of institutional foundations for the formation of tax potential. The main hypothesis of the study was the assumption that tax policy, which is aimed at developing innovation, largely determines the economic interest of industrial enterprises in the introduction of new technologies, as financial resources released from the tax potential of the enterprise can be directed to its innovation and investment activity. Presenting main material. The strategic task of tax potential management is to increase and strengthen the tax base by stimulating investment and innovation activity; support of enterprises in order to develop production and increase production. The tax potential is considered in the context of institutional innovation projects and smart specialization. An assessment of the prospects for the use of various tax instruments in accordance with the current situation and the need for the transition to adaptive management of tax potential of industry. The originality and practical significance is confirmed by the proposed scientific and methodological approaches to the management of tax potential in the context of innovative development. Conclusions and prospects for further research. Measures to increase the tax potential should include expanding the tax base not only through existing reserves, but also creating a new base through the development of innovation potential. The implementation of the relevant institutional strategy should be aimed not at simple maximization of tax revenues, but at the development of investment and innovation potential with the establishment of favorable conditions for the development of priority projects. Further research will focus on the analysis of the peculiarities of the use of tax tools in the framework of specific institutional and innovative projects of economic development.


Author(s):  
Тетяна Василівна Калінеску ◽  
Даніїл Сергійович Ревенко ◽  
Сергій Сергійович Підмогильний

Economic security embraces all spheres of activity, and brings neglect over by it’s to the negative (catastrophic) consequences, decline of different aspects of development the industries of economy, separate types of enterprise. Therefore there is a requirement in forming a paradigm of mechanism the strengthening economic security of entrepreneurial activity in obedience to the doctrines of economy development of Ukraine. A research aim is directed on forming of effective mechanism of strengthening economic security according to terms of business development, dynamics of moving the national economy, level of innovative diffusions and existent internal and external calls. Methodological basis of research became modern normative, legal, legislative aspects of strengthening economic security and eliminated of existent threats in the process of business developments. In the researches was using methods of dialectics, principles of scientific cognition, instruments of economic analysis for the sake of forming the effective mechanism of strengthening economic security of enterprise. The basic hypothesis of research became supposition about possibility of creation of universal mechanism of strengthening economic security that can provide stable development of entrepreneurial activity in the different spheres of national economy. Exposition of basic material. in the article are investigated the threats that influence on economic security of enterprise. Underline, that each of  threats can have the mechanisms strengthening of economic security, that consist with facilities, instruments, methods and forms composition, that it can be enough unique, depending on the type of enterprise. Originality and practical meaningfulness of research are confirmed by the offered composition of facilities, methods, forms and instruments of mechanism the strengthening of economic security that it is universal from one hand, and from other is allowing to tune the specific of activity the separate type of enterprise. Conclusions and prospects of further researches. It is well-proven that the mechanism of strengthening the economic security of enterprise must provide possibilities of the effective functioning of business and be the element of mechanism the economic security of the system of higher level. For every businessman there are the absolutely individual approaches to forming of mechanism the strengthening of economic security that depends from material and technical and financial resources, quality and structure of management entrepreneurial activity; state and regional support, legislative and legal base of functioning. Further researches will be directed on adaptation of the offered mechanism of strengthening the economic security, its monitoring and correcting, going out the requirements of internal and external environment of business and dynamics of global economic changes


2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (4) ◽  
pp. 419-430
Author(s):  
LA Reese

Typically, animal shelters and rescues are judged on their live release rates. This research explores the relative impact that shelter traits and programmes have on positive outcomes for dogs. Using a survey of 370 animal shelters and rescues across the US, it concludes that eschewing the use of breed labels for all dogs that do not appear to be pure-bred, having a robust foster programme, and using a matching programme are correlated with higher live release and lower return rates. Resources are not wholly determinative of success — it is the programmes shelters and rescues implement, not simply their human and financial resources — that are associated with positive outcomes.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Author(s):  
Kuiming Liu ◽  
Hui Li ◽  
Shihui Pang ◽  
Meng Mi ◽  
Jianping Chen ◽  
...  

Weibei area is the largest limestone resource area in Shaanxi Province, which is an important boundary to distinguish the climate difference between the south and the north of China, and also a significant ecological safety protection barrier in the northwest of China. The complex geological environment and harsh environment make the mining area have serious geological disaster hidden danger. Based on the site engineering geological data of typical limestone quarry slope in Weibei, this paper constructs a three-dimensional geological model, uses FLAC3D software to simulate excavation, and analyzes the stress and strain law of the quarry slope. SlopeLE software was used to analyze the safety factor of slope stability and the potential slip surface before and after taking reinforcement measures. The results show the following: (1) Limestone is the main rock component of the mine, followed by mudstone. The joint and fissure are developed, the rock mass is broken, and the hidden danger of engineering geological disaster is high. (2) There is a sliding trend in both sides during excavation, and the maximum vertical displacement is 2.1 cm. (3) If the slope is reinforced according to the design scheme, the slope stability safety factor will be increased from 1.062 to 1.203 in a stable state, which greatly improves the stability of the slope and provides a guarantee for human and financial resources.


Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 2966
Author(s):  
Gilver Odilon Mendel Kombo Mpindou ◽  
Ignacio Escuder Bueno ◽  
Estela Chordà Ramón

Water-related diseases, particularly waterborne diseases, remain significant sources of morbidity and mortality worldwide but especially in developing countries. Emerging waterborne pathogens represent a major health risk. Cryptosporidium is one such pathogen which is globally recognized as a major cause of diarrhea in children and adults. The objective of this paper is not only to review published studies on the impact of these emerging waterborne pathogens but also to identify the various risk factors that favor their transmission. A number of envisaged and needed actions to tackle the challenge of these pathogens in Africa have also been discussed. We have searched the web of ScienceDirect, PubMed, Scopus. ISI Web of Science, SpringerLink, and Google Scholar. The first database search yielded 3099 articles. As a result, 141 studies were submitted for abstract review. A total of 68 articles were selected for full text analysis. After evaluating a considerable number of articles on this topic, the following results were obtained. A number of pathogens are likely to present public health risks, including Cryptosporidium. The contaminating potential of these pathogens is associated with a multitude of factors, such as the effects of climate change, social and behavioral aspects of local populations, water issues, geographical locations that may cause isolation, and inequalities due to lack of transparency of governments in the distribution of financial resources. We stress the need to maintain and strengthen real-time surveillance and rapid epidemiological responses to outbreaks and the emergence of new waterborne pathogens in all countries. African governments, for their part, should be aware of future risks of waterborne protozoan diseases. They must provide immediate and effective responses by establishing technical and financial mechanisms to ensure sufficient quantities of safe drinking water, sewage disposal, and hygiene for all.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Stephanie Dorais ◽  
Daniel Gutierrez

Background: Mental health concerns are climbing steadily on college campuses, and universities do not have the staffing and financial resources to address the overwhelming needs of students seeking counseling services. College counselors generally must place students on waitlists or refer them to external resources. Further, during the COVID-19 pandemic, university counselors have been working tirelessly to treat students through online formats. Alternative, online, evidence-based interventions offer college counselors a significant advantage in effectively treating their students. We seek to expand the empirical evidence for mindfulness interventions through online formats for the college population. We registered the study (ISRCTN13587045) at www.isrctn.com.Objective: We examined the effectiveness of a unique online centering meditation and its impact on stress and trait mindfulness in the college population.Methods: Through a randomized controlled trial, the treatment group participated in a 4-week intervention of centering for 10 min each morning and night. We measured stress and mindfulness in both groups through the Perceived Stress Scale and Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks.Results: The centering meditation treatment had a statistically significant positive impact on stress and mindfulness compared to a waitlist control group. The meditation group had an average of 64% adherence rate.Conclusion: The study findings indicate that individuals who participate in a 4-week online centering intervention showed improved levels of stress and trait mindfulness over time.Clinical Trial Registration: WHO International Clinical Registry Platform, identifier: ISRCTN13587045.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258615
Author(s):  
Alexandra Lawrence ◽  
Fabian Friedrich ◽  
Carl Beierkuhnlein

Habitat loss from anthropogenic development has led to an unprecedented decline in global biodiversity. Protected areas (PAs) exist to counteract this degradation of ecosystems. In the European Union, the Natura 2000 (N2k) network is the basis for continent-wide conservation efforts. N2k is the world’s largest coordinated network of protected areas. However, threats to ecosystems do not stop at the borders of PAs. As measured by a landscape fragmentation metric, anthropogenic development can affect the interiors of PAs. To ensure the long-term viability of the N2k network of PAs, this paper attempts to quantify the degree to which N2k sites are insulated from development pressures. We use a comprehensive dataset of effective mesh density (seff) to measure aggregate fragmentation inside and within a 5 km buffer surrounding N2k sites. Our results show a strong correlation (R² = 0.78) between fragmentation (seff) within and around N2k sites. This result applies to all biogeographical regions in Europe. Only a narrow majority (58.5%) of N2k sites are less fragmented than their surroundings. Remote and mountainous regions in northern Europe, the Alps, parts of Spain, and parts of eastern Europe show the lowest levels of fragmentation. These regions tend to hold the largest N2k sites as measured by area. In contrast, central and western Europe show the highest fragmentation levels within and around N2k sites. 24.5% of all N2k sites are classified as highly to very-highly fragmented. N2k PA age since initial protection does not correlate with the difference in exterior and interior fragmentation of N2k PAs. These results indicate that PAs in Europe are not sheltered from anthropogenic pressures leading to fragmentation. Hence, we argue that there is a high potential for improving PA efficacy by taking pre-emptive action against encroaching anthropogenic fragmentation and by targeting scarce financial resources where fragmentation pressures can be mitigated through enforced construction bans inside PAs.


Author(s):  
Md Zahid Hasan Sabuz ◽  
◽  
Muhammad Faizal ◽  
Md Khairuzzaman ◽  
Tanjim Hasin ◽  
...  

Cement industries are responsible for huge amount of air pollution, which is harmful for the relevant workers health. According to a new questionnaire-based study, Bangladesh's cement industry has limited opportunities to follow green manufacturing practices. The aim of this paper is to investigate the situation of group wise environmental sustainability practices in Bangladesh, with the goal of assisting cement manufacturers in Bangladesh to improve their environmental sustainability practices in their manufacturing processes. In this paper, a comparison of cement manufacturers across Bangladesh's three major divisions was presented. It has been discovered that a large number of employees from these three departments are unaware of environmental concerns and sustainable industrial activities. Just 53% of the respondents are aware of the environmental concerns surrounding cement production and their customers are the primary sources of such knowledge. Furthermore, only 42% of respondents used the ISO 14000 environmental quality control scheme, despite the fact that 53% of respondents used some kind of green manufacturing. Moreover, the causes for non-adoption as well as environmental factors affecting sustainable industrial practices have been identified and established. The lack of financial resources, lack of understanding and information about environmental issues, lack of demand from customers and stakeholders are the reasons why such practices have not been adopted. In order to follow green production methods, it is essential to use environmentally friendly cement materials, recycled-fiber packaging, biodegradable packaging and environmentally friendly waste management systems and technologies.


BMC Cancer ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Désirée Schliemann ◽  
Kogila Ramanathan ◽  
Nicholas Matovu ◽  
Ciaran O’Neill ◽  
Frank Kee ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) experienced increasing rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence in the last decade and lower 5-year survival rates compared to high-income countries (HICs) where the implementation of screening and treatment services have advanced. This review scoped and mapped the literature regarding the content, implementation and uptake of CRC screening interventions as well as opportunities and challenges for the implementation of CRC screening interventions in LMICs. Methods We systematically followed a five-step scoping review framework to identify and review relevant literature about CRC screening in LMICs, written in the English language before February 2020. We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Google Scholar for studies targeting the general, asymptomatic, at-risk adult population. The TIDieR tool and an implementation checklist were used to extract data from empirical studies; and we extracted data-informed insights from policy reviews and commentaries. Results CRC screening interventions (n = 24 studies) were implemented in nine middle-income countries. Population-based screening programmes (n = 11) as well as small-scale screening interventions (n = 13) utilised various recruitment strategies. Interventions that recruited participants face-to-face (alone or in combination with other recruitment strategies) (10/15), opportunistic clinic-based screening interventions (5/6) and educational interventions combined with screening (3/4), seemed to be the strategies that consistently achieved an uptake of > 65% in LMICs. FOBT/FIT and colonoscopy uptake ranged between 14 and 100%. The most commonly reported implementation indicator was ‘uptake/reach’. There was an absence of detail regarding implementation indicators and there is a need to improve reporting practice in order to disseminate learning about how to implement programmes. Conclusion Opportunities and challenges for the implementation of CRC screening programmes were related to the reporting of CRC cases and screening, cost-effective screening methods, knowledge about CRC and screening, staff resources and training, infrastructure of the health care system, financial resources, public health campaigns, policy commitment from governments, patient navigation, planning of screening programmes and quality assurance.


Author(s):  
Mariya Samohovec

Agriculture support funds is one of the variants for supporting agricultural producers, incl. budgetary functioning, worldwide. The main sources of formation and activities of agriculture support funds (in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Armenia) were analyzed. The research is based on the official information materials for establishment and functioning of such funds (regulatory legal acts, articles of association, corporate documents, financial statements, etc.). The following conclusions were made as the result of the analysis: agriculture support funds may include own capital and attracted resources, investors' facilities and funds of international financial institutions. The main area of activity of agriculture support funds is financing agricultural producers on various bases - lending and microcredit, investments, subsidies, leasing programs. It is possible to distinguish three options for the financial resources movement through agricultural support funds, depending on the role assigned to the fund in this mechanism – source of financial resources, the State agent or investor.


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