mycobacterium bovis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 713-726
Flávio Gomes Barcelos ◽  
Taís Ramalho dos Anjos ◽  
Leila Auxiliadora de Arruda Alencar ◽  
Vinicius Silva Castro ◽  

Mycobacterium bovis is a bacterium belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that causes tuberculosis in cattle and in other domestic and wild animals, as well as in humans. Disease control measures are carried out by slaughtering animals tested positive in the intradermal tuberculinization test and sanitation of their original living spaces, in addition to epidemiological surveillance carried out through the sanitary inspection of bovine carcasses in slaughterhouses. In the latter, official inspection services collect samples from macroscopic lesions suspected of bovine tuberculosis, which are then sent for laboratory analysis. Knowledge concerning the variables associated with the occurrence of M. bovis can aid in decision-making regarding control and disease eradication efforts. In this context, the aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for a positive M. bovis diagnosis in suspected bovine tuberculosis lesions obtained during epidemiological surveillance activities in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A total of 105 suspicious lesions were analyzed using the Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (nested q-PCR) method, of which 14 (13.33%) tested positive for M. bovis. Univariate and bivariate statistical analyses indicated that the variable “animal slaughter” was the only risk factor presenting statistical significance associated with the diagnosis of M. bovis (p < 0.05), demonstrating that macroscopic lesions suspected as being caused by bovine tuberculosis from animals with an in vivo diagnosis were 2.82 - fold more likely to result in a positive M. bovis diagnosis by molecular tests.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 123
Reginaldo G. Bastos ◽  
Heba F. Alzan ◽  
Vignesh A. Rathinasamy ◽  
Brian M. Cooke ◽  
Odir A. Dellagostin ◽  

Babesiosis is a disease caused by tickborne hemoprotozoan apicomplexan parasites of the genus Babesia that negatively impacts public health and food security worldwide. Development of effective and sustainable vaccines against babesiosis is currently hindered in part by the absence of definitive host correlates of protection. Despite that, studies in Babesia microti and Babesia bovis, major causative agents of human and bovine babesiosis, respectively, suggest that early activation of innate immune responses is crucial for vertebrates to survive acute infection. Trained immunity (TI) is defined as the development of memory in vertebrate innate immune cells, allowing more efficient responses to subsequent specific and non-specific challenges. Considering that Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), a widely used anti-tuberculosis attenuated vaccine, induces strong TI pro-inflammatory responses, we hypothesize that BCG TI may protect vertebrates against acute babesiosis. This premise is supported by early investigations demonstrating that BCG inoculation protects mice against experimental B. microti infection and recent observations that BCG vaccination decreases the severity of malaria in children infected with Plasmodium falciparum, a Babesia-related parasite. We also discuss the potential use of TI in conjunction with recombinant BCG vaccines expressing Babesia immunogens. In conclusion, by concentrating on human and bovine babesiosis, herein we intend to raise awareness of BCG TI as a strategy to efficiently control Babesia infection.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 113
Jamie Medley ◽  
Aaron Goff ◽  
Paulo J. G. Bettencourt ◽  
Madelaine Dare ◽  
Liam Cole ◽  

New strategies are required to reduce the worldwide burden of tuberculosis. Intracellular survival and replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after macrophage phagocytosis is a fundamental step in the complex host–pathogen interactions that lead to granuloma formation and disease. Greater understanding of how the bacterium survives and thrives in these environments will inform novel drug and vaccine discovery programs. Here, we use in-depth RNA sequencing of Mycobacterium bovis BCG from human THP-1 macrophages to describe the mycobacterial adaptations to the intracellular environment. We identify 329 significantly differentially regulated genes, highlighting cholesterol catabolism, the methylcitrate cycle and iron homeostasis as important for mycobacteria inside macrophages. Examination of multi-functional gene families revealed that 35 PE/PPE genes and five cytochrome P450 genes were upregulated 24 h after infection, highlighting pathways of potential significance. Comparison of the intracellular transcriptome to gene essentiality and immunogenicity studies identified 15 potential targets that are both required for intracellular survival and induced on infection, and eight upregulated genes that have been demonstrated to be immunogenic in TB patients. Further insight into these new and established targets will support drug and vaccine development efforts.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 61
Mitchell V. Palmer ◽  
Carly Kanipe ◽  
Paola M. Boggiatto

The bovine tuberculoid granuloma is the hallmark lesion of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) due to Mycobacterium bovis infection. The pathogenesis of bTB, and thereby the process of bovine tuberculoid granuloma development, involves the recruitment, activation, and maintenance of cells under the influence of antigen, cytokines and chemokines in affected lungs and regional lymph nodes. The granuloma is key to successful control of bTB by preventing pathogen dissemination through containment by cellular and fibrotic layers. Paradoxically, however, it may also provide a niche for bacterial replication. The morphologic and cellular characteristics of granulomas have been used to gauge disease severity in bTB pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy studies. As such, it is critical to understand the complex mechanisms behind granuloma initiation, development, and maintenance.

Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Mario Alberto Flores-Valdez

In 2021, most of the world was reasonably still concerned about the COVID-19 pandemic, how cases were up and down in different countries, how the vaccination campaigns were ongoing, and most people were familiar with the speed with which vaccines against SARS-Co-V2 were developed, analyzed, and started to be applied in an attempt to curb the pandemic. Because of this, it may have somehow passed relatively inadvertently for people outside of the field that the vaccine used to control tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), was first applied to humans a century ago. Over these years, BCG has been the vaccine applied to most human beings in the world, despite its known lack of efficacy to fully prevent respiratory TB. Several strategies have been employed in the last 20 years to produce a novel vaccine that would replace, or boost, immunity and protection elicited by BCG. In this work, to avoid potential redundancies with recently published reviews, I only aim to present my current thoughts about some of the latest findings and outstanding questions that I consider worth investigating to help develop a replacement or modified BCG in order to successfully fight TB, based on BCG itself.

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
pp. 358-358
Olga Romina Gomez Rojas ◽  
Matthew Weatherhead ◽  
Matthew Hicks ◽  
Christopher Dado ◽  
Abdulgadir Adam

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