upregulated genes
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. U. Rehman ◽  
K. Muhammad ◽  
E. Novaes ◽  
Y. Que ◽  
A. Din ◽  

Abstract Transcription factors (TF) are a wide class of genes in plants, and these can regulate the expression of other genes in response to various environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic). In the current study, transcription factor activity in sugarcane was examined during cold stress. Initially, RNA transcript reads of two sugarcane cultivars (ROC22 and GT08-1108) under cold stress were downloaded from SRA NCBI database. The reads were aligned into a reference genome and the differential expression analyses were performed with the R/Bioconductor edgeR package. Based on our analyses in the ROC22 cultivar, 963 TF genes were significantly upregulated under cold stress among a total of 5649 upregulated genes, while 293 TF genes were downregulated among a total of 3,289 downregulated genes. In the GT08-1108 cultivar, 974 TF genes were identified among 5,649 upregulated genes and 283 TF genes were found among 3,289 downregulated genes. Most transcription factors were annotated with GO categories related to protein binding, transcription factor binding, DNA-sequence-specific binding, transcription factor complex, transcription factor activity in RNA polymerase II, the activity of nucleic acid binding transcription factor, transcription corepressor activity, sequence-specific regulatory region, the activity of transcription factor of RNA polymerase II, transcription factor cofactor activity, transcription factor activity from plastid promoter, transcription factor activity from RNA polymerase I promoter, polymerase II and RNA polymerase III. The findings of above results will help to identify differentially expressed transcription factors during cold stress. It also provides a comprehensive analysis of the regulation of the transcription activity of many genes. Therefore, this study provides the molecular basis for improving cold tolerance in sugarcane and other economically important grasses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 523-532
Xin Yan ◽  
Chunfeng Liang ◽  
Xinghuan Liang ◽  
Li Li ◽  
Zhenxing Huang ◽  

<sec> <title>Objective:</title> This study aimed to identify the potential key genes associated with the progression and prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). </sec> <sec> <title>Methods:</title> Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in ACC cells and normal adrenocortical cells were assessed by microarray from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The biological functions of the classified DEGs were examined by Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) enrichment analyses and a protein–protein interaction (PPI) network was mapped using Cytoscape software. MCODE software was also used for the module analysis and then 4 algorithms of cytohubba software were used to screen hub genes. The overall survival (OS) examination of the hub genes was then performed by the ualcan online tool. </sec> <sec> <title>Results:</title> Two GSEs (GSE12368, GSE33371) were downloaded from GEO including 18 and 43 cases, respectively. One hundred and sixty-nine DEGs were identified, including 57 upregulated genes and 112 downregulated genes. The Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that the upregulated genes were significantly enriched in the mitotic cytokines is, nucleus and ATP binding, while the downregulated genes were involved in the positive regulation of cardiac muscle contraction, extracellular space, and heparin-binding (P < 0.05). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) pathway examination showed significant pathways including the cell cycle and the complement and coagulation cascades. The protein– protein interaction (PPI) network consisted of 162 nodes and 847 edges, including mitotic nuclear division, cytoplasmic, protein kinase binding, and cell cycle. All 4 identified hub genes (FOXM1, UBE2C, KIF11, and NDC80) were associated with the prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) by survival analysis. </sec> <sec> <title>Conclusions:</title> The present study offered insights into the molecular mechanism of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) that may be beneficial in further analyses. </sec>

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 155
Nicholas J. Barrett ◽  
Jakob Thyrring ◽  
Elizabeth M. Harper ◽  
Mikael K. Sejr ◽  
Jesper G. Sørensen ◽  

Increases in Arctic temperatures have accelerated melting of the Greenland icesheet, exposing intertidal organisms, such as the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, to high air temperatures and low salinities in summer. However, the interaction of these combined stressors is poorly described at the transcriptional level. Comparing expression profiles of M. edulis from experimentally warmed (30 °C and 33 °C) animals kept at control (23‰) and low salinities (15‰) revealed a significant lack of enrichment for Gene Ontology terms (GO), indicating that similar processes were active under all conditions. However, there was a progressive increase in the abundance of upregulated genes as each stressor was applied, with synergistic increases at 33 °C and 15‰, suggesting combined stressors push the animal towards their tolerance thresholds. Further analyses comparing the effects of salinity alone (23‰, 15‰ and 5‰) showed high expression of stress and osmoregulatory marker genes at the lowest salinity, implying that the cell is carrying out intracellular osmoregulation to maintain the cytosol as hyperosmotic. Identification of aquaporins and vacuolar-type ATPase transcripts suggested the cell may use fluid-filled cavities to excrete excess intracellular water, as previously identified in embryonic freshwater mussels. These results indicate that M. edulis has considerable resilience to heat stress and highly efficient mechanisms to acclimatise to lowered salinity in a changing world.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 214
Qinghui Han ◽  
Qingxiang Zhu ◽  
Yao Shen ◽  
Michael Lee ◽  
Thomas Lübberstedt ◽  

Chilling injury poses a serious threat to seed emergence of spring-sowing maize in China, which has become one of the main climatic limiting factors affecting maize production in China. It is of great significance to mine the key genes controlling low-temperature tolerance during seed germination and study their functions for breeding new maize varieties with strong low-temperature tolerance during germination. In this study, 176 lines of the intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) Syn10 doubled haploid (DH) population, which comprised 6618 bin markers, were used for QTL analysis of low-temperature germination ability. The results showed significant differences in germination related traits under optimum-temperature condition (25 °C) and low-temperature condition (10 °C) between two parental lines. In total, 13 QTLs were detected on all chromosomes, except for chromosome 5, 7, 10. Among them, seven QTLs formed five QTL clusters on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 9 under the low-temperature condition, which suggested that there may be some genes regulating multiple germination traits at the same time. A total of 39 candidate genes were extracted from five QTL clusters based on the maize GDB under the low-temperature condition. To further screen candidate genes controlling low-temperature germination, RNA-Seq, in which RNA was extracted from the germination seeds of B73 and Mo17 at 10 °C, was conducted, and three B73 upregulated genes and five Mo17 upregulated genes were found by combined analysis of RNA-Seq and QTL located genes. Additionally, the variations of Zm00001d027976 (GLABRA2), Zm00001d007311 (bHLH transcription factor), and Zm00001d053703 (bZIP transcription factor) were found by comparison of amino sequence between B73 and Mo17. This study will provide a theoretical basis for marker-assisted breeding and lay a foundation for further revealing molecular mechanism of low-temperature germination tolerance in maize.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 79
Barnabás Cs. Gila ◽  
Károly Antal ◽  
Zsuzsanna Birkó ◽  
Judit Sz. Keserű ◽  
István Pócsi ◽  

Understanding the coordinated regulation of the hundreds of carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) genes occurring in the genomes of fungi has great practical importance. We recorded genome-wide transcriptional changes of Aspergillus nidulans cultivated on glucose, lactose, or arabinogalactan, as well as under carbon-starved conditions. We determined both carbon-stress-specific changes (weak or no carbon source vs. glucose) and carbon-source-specific changes (one type of culture vs. all other cultures). Many CAZyme genes showed carbon-stress-specific and/or carbon-source-specific upregulation on arabinogalactan (138 and 62 genes, respectively). Besides galactosidase and arabinan-degrading enzyme genes, enrichment of cellulolytic, pectinolytic, mannan, and xylan-degrading enzyme genes was observed. Fewer upregulated genes, 81 and 107 carbon stress specific, and 6 and 16 carbon source specific, were found on lactose and in carbon-starved cultures, respectively. They were enriched only in galactosidase and xylosidase genes on lactose and rhamnogalacturonanase genes in both cultures. Some CAZyme genes (29 genes) showed carbon-source-specific upregulation on glucose, and they were enriched in β-1,4-glucanase genes. The behavioral ecological background of these characteristics was evaluated to comprehensively organize our knowledge on CAZyme production, which can lead to developing new strategies to produce enzymes for plant cell wall saccharification.

2022 ◽  
Tom Johnson ◽  
Defne Saatci ◽  
Lahiru Handunnetthi

Susceptibility to schizophrenia is mediated by genetic and environmental risk factors. Infection driven maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy is a key environmental risk factor. However, little is known about how MIA during pregnancy could contribute to adult-onset schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated if maternal immune activation induces changes in methylation of genes linked to schizophrenia. We found that differentially expressed genes in schizophrenia brain were significantly enriched among MIA induced differentially methylated genes in the foetal brain in a cell-type-specific manner. Upregulated genes in layer V pyramidal neurons were enriched among hypomethylated genes at gestational day 9 (fold change = 1.57 , FDR = 0.049) and gestational day 17 (fold change = 1.97 , FDR = 0.0006). We also found that downregulated genes in GABAergic Rosehip interneurons were enriched among hypermethylated genes at gestational day 17 (fold change = 1.62, FDR= 0.03). Collectively, our results highlight a connection between MIA driven methylation changes during gestation and schizophrenia gene expression signatures in the adult brain. These findings carry important implications for early preventative strategies in schizophrenia.

Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 55
Minghui Jin ◽  
Yinxue Shan ◽  
Yan Peng ◽  
Ping Wang ◽  
Qi Li ◽  

The insecticidal Vip3 proteins, secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) during its vegetative growth phase, are currently used in Bt crops to control insect pests, and are genetically distinct from known insecticidal Cry proteins. Compared with Cry toxins, the mechanisms of Vip3 toxins are still poorly understood. Here, the responses of Spodoptera frugiperda larvae after Vip3Aa challenge are characterized. Using an integrative analysis of transcriptomics and proteomics, we found that Vip3Aa has enormous implications for various pathways. The downregulated genes and proteins were mainly enriched in metabolic pathways, including the insect hormone synthesis pathway, whereas the upregulated genes and proteins were mainly involved in the caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway, along with the MAPK signaling and endocytosis pathways. Moreover, we also identified some important candidate genes involved in apoptosis and MAPKs. The present study shows that exposure of S. frugiperda larvae to Vip3Aa activates apoptosis pathways, leading to cell death. The results will promote our understanding of the host response process to the Vip3Aa, and help us to better understand the mode of action of Vip3A toxins.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 113
Jamie Medley ◽  
Aaron Goff ◽  
Paulo J. G. Bettencourt ◽  
Madelaine Dare ◽  
Liam Cole ◽  

New strategies are required to reduce the worldwide burden of tuberculosis. Intracellular survival and replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after macrophage phagocytosis is a fundamental step in the complex host–pathogen interactions that lead to granuloma formation and disease. Greater understanding of how the bacterium survives and thrives in these environments will inform novel drug and vaccine discovery programs. Here, we use in-depth RNA sequencing of Mycobacterium bovis BCG from human THP-1 macrophages to describe the mycobacterial adaptations to the intracellular environment. We identify 329 significantly differentially regulated genes, highlighting cholesterol catabolism, the methylcitrate cycle and iron homeostasis as important for mycobacteria inside macrophages. Examination of multi-functional gene families revealed that 35 PE/PPE genes and five cytochrome P450 genes were upregulated 24 h after infection, highlighting pathways of potential significance. Comparison of the intracellular transcriptome to gene essentiality and immunogenicity studies identified 15 potential targets that are both required for intracellular survival and induced on infection, and eight upregulated genes that have been demonstrated to be immunogenic in TB patients. Further insight into these new and established targets will support drug and vaccine development efforts.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Andrea Henriques-Pons ◽  
Daniela Gois Beghini ◽  
Vanessa dos Santos Silva ◽  
Samuel Iwao Horita ◽  
Fabrício Alves Barbosa da Silva

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells present in virtually all tissues; they have potent self-renewal capacity and differentiate into multiple cell types. For many reasons, these cells are a promising therapeutic alternative to treat patients with severe COVID-19 and pulmonary post-COVID sequelae. These cells are not only essential for tissue regeneration; they can also alter the pulmonary environment through the paracrine secretion of several mediators. They can control or promote inflammation, induce other stem cells differentiation, restrain the virus load, and much more. In this work, we performed single-cell RNA-seq data analysis of MSCs in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from control individuals and COVID-19 patients with mild and severe clinical conditions. When we compared samples from mild cases with control individuals, most genes transcriptionally upregulated in COVID-19 were involved in cell proliferation. However, a new set of genes with distinct biological functions was upregulated when we compared severely affected with mild COVID-19 patients. In this analysis, the cells upregulated genes related to cell dispersion/migration and induced the γ-activated sequence (GAS) genes, probably triggered by IFNGR1 and IFNGR2. Then, IRF-1 was upregulated, one of the GAS target genes, leading to the interferon-stimulated response (ISR) and the overexpression of many signature target genes. The MSCs also upregulated genes involved in the mesenchymal-epithelial transition, virus control, cell chemotaxis, and used the cytoplasmic RNA danger sensors RIG-1, MDA5, and PKR. In a non-comparative analysis, we observed that MSCs from severe cases do not express many NF-κB upstream receptors, such as Toll-like (TLRs) TLR-3, -7, and -8; tumor necrosis factor (TNFR1 or TNFR2), RANK, CD40, and IL-1R1. Indeed, many NF-κB inhibitors were upregulated, including PPP2CB, OPTN, NFKBIA, and FHL2, suggesting that MSCs do not play a role in the “cytokine storm” observed. Therefore, lung MSCs in COVID-19 sense immune danger and act protectively in concert with the pulmonary environment, confirming their therapeutic potential in cell-based therapy for COVID-19. The transcription of MSCs senescence markers is discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 794
Renjian Xie ◽  
Bifei Li ◽  
Lee Jia ◽  
Yumei Li

Metastasis is the leading cause of melanoma-related mortality. Current therapies are rarely curative for metastatic melanoma, revealing the urgent need to identify more effective preventive and therapeutic targets. This study aimed to screen the core genes and molecular mechanisms related to melanoma metastasis. A gene expression profile, GSE8401, including 31 primary melanoma and 52 metastatic melanoma clinical samples, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between melanoma metastases and primary melanoma were screened using GEO2R tool. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) analyses of DEGs were performed using the Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). The Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) and Cytoscape with Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plug-in tools were utilized to detect the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network among DEGs. The top 10 genes with the highest degrees of the PPI network were defined as hub genes. In the results, 425 DEGs, including 60 upregulated genes and 365 downregulated genes, were identified. The upregulated genes were enriched in ECM–receptor interactions and the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, while 365 downregulated genes were enriched in amoebiasis, melanogenesis, and ECM–receptor interactions. The defined hub genes included CDK1, COL17A1, EGFR, DSG1, KRT14, FLG, CDH1, DSP, IVL, and KRT5. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of the hub genes during melanoma metastasis were verified in the TCGA database and paired post- and premetastatic melanoma cells, respectively. Finally, KRT5-specific siRNAs were utilized to reduce the KRT5 expression in melanoma A375 cells. An MTT assay and a colony formation assay showed that KRT5 knockdown significantly promoted the proliferation of A375 cells. A Transwell assay further suggested that KRT5 knockdown significantly increased the cell migration and cell invasion of A375 cells. This bioinformatics study provided a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of melanoma metastasis. The in vitro experiments showed that KRT5 played the inhibitory effects on melanoma metastasis. Therefore, KRT5 may serve important roles in melanoma metastasis.

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