cytokines and chemokines
Recently Published Documents





Li Jin ◽  
Juan Li ◽  
ShuJuan Yang ◽  
Rou Zhang ◽  
Chunhua Hu ◽  

Background: In the past, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were considered to be noninflammatory cells and contribute to liver fibrosis by producing extracellular matrix. Recently, it was found that HSCs can also secrete cytokines and chemokines and therefore participate in hepatic inflammation. Autophagy participates in many immune response processes in immune cells. It is unclear whether autophagy is involved in inflammatory cytokine induction in HSCs. Methods: MAPK p38, Ulk1 phosphorylation and the Ulk1-Atg13 complex were analyzed in HSC-T6 cells after LPS treatment. The relationship between autophagy inhibition and inflammation was investigated in primary rat HSCs. Results: We discovered that LPS inhibited autophagy through MAPK p38. The activation of MAPK p38 induced Ulk1 phosphorylation, which disrupted the Ulk1-Atg13 complex and therefore inhibited autophagy. Furthermore, in primary rat HSCs, we demonstrated that autophagy inhibition regulated IL-1β induction, which depended on the MAPK p38/Ulk1 pathway. Conclusions: Our results reveal a continuous signaling pathway, MAPK p38-Ulk1 phosphorylation-Ulk1/Atg13 disruption, which inhibits autophagy and induces IL-1β expression in HSCs.

2022 ◽  
Denise Giannone ◽  
Maria Belén Vecchione ◽  
Alejandro Czernikier ◽  
Maria Laura Polo ◽  
Virginia Gonzalez Polo ◽  

Abstract Background SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response features in people with HIV infection (PWH) remain to be fully elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the impact of HIV over humoral and cellular responses in COVID-19 convalescent PWH. Methods Blood samples from 29 PWH with preserved CD4+T-cell counts on ART and 29 HIV-negative (HIVneg) donors were included. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG levels and IgG titers were determined by ELISA. Antibody neutralization capacity was evaluated against the reference B1 strain SARS-CoV-2. IFN-γ-secreting cells were detected by ELISpot using SARS-CoV-2 Spike, RBD, or Nucleocapsid protein or overlapping peptide pools. Frequency and phenotype of T, B and NK cells and levels of soluble cytokines and chemokines were assessed by flow cytometry. Results SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were detected on 65.5% of PWH and 79.3% of HIVneg individuals, with no differences in serum IgG levels and anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. All donors exhibited SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular immunity, including those with undetectable antibody responses. PWH showed diminished percentages of antibody-secreting cells compared to HIVneg cohort, with similar B cell proportions between groups. PWH presented an increment in T follicular helper (Tfh, CD4+CXCR5+) percentage, which negatively correlated with IgG titers. Additionally, CD4+PD1+ and CD8+HLA-DR+ cell frequencies were augmented in PWH. Moreover, PWH presented a high proportion of CD95+, CD25+, NKp46+, HLA-DR+, and CD38+/HLA-DR+ NK cells. Both groups displayed similar Tregs frequency, effector/memory, and T-helper profile for CD4TL, exhaustion and memory phenotypes for CD8TL and subtle differences in classical monocytes. Profile of circulating cytokines and chemokines was significantly different between both groups. Magnitude of IFN-γ responses to S or N proteins, and RBD was lower in PWH compared to HIVneg donors. Correlation analysis of immune and clinical parameters showed a distinct immune landscape in the PWH group. Conclusions PWH showed a distinctive immune profile although severity of COVID-19 was not exacerbated. PWH with conserved CD4+T-cell counts exerted both humoral and cellular responses against SARS-CoV-2. Even though cellular response was lower compared to HIVneg individuals, PWH achieved similar antibody responses with a high neutralization capacity. These data reinforce the impact of ART, not only in controlling HIV but also other infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Jing Luo ◽  
Qingjie Ma ◽  
Heng Tang ◽  
Xi Zou ◽  
Xin Guo ◽  

Background. Mechanical ventilation (MV) can provoke acute lung injury (ALI) by increasing inflammation activation and disrupting the barrier in lung tissues even causing death. However, the inflammation-related molecules and pathways in MV-induced ALI remain largely unknown. Hence, the purposes of this study are to examine the role and mechanism of a novel inflammation-related molecule, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), in ALI. Methods. The functions of LTB4 in one-lung ventilation (OLV) model were detected by the loss-of-function experiments. H&E staining was used to examine the pathologic changes of lung tissues. Functionally, PLCε-1 knockdown and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF-κB pathway inhibitor were used to detect the regulatory effects of LTB4 on the phospholipase Cε (PLCε-1)/TLR4/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. The levels of genes and proteins were determined by RT-qPCR and western blotting assay. The levels of inflammation cytokines and chemokines were measured by ELISA. Results. Here, we found LTA4H, leukotriene B (4) receptor 1 (BLT1), LTB4, and PLCε-1 upregulated in OLV rats and associated with inflammatory activation and lung permeability changes of lung tissues. Inhibition of LTB4 alleviated the OLV-induced ALI by inhibiting inflammatory activation and lung permeability changes of lung tissues. For mechanism analyses, LTB4 promoted OLV-induced ALI by activating the PLCε-1/TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Conclusion. LTB4 induced ALI in OLV rats by activating the PLCε-1/TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Our findings might supply a new potential therapeutic for OLV-induced ALI.

2022 ◽  
Wei Liu ◽  
Mohamad-Gabriel Alameh ◽  
June F. Yang ◽  
Jonathan R. Xu ◽  
Paulo JC Lin ◽  

Treating immunosuppressive tumors represents a major challenge in cancer therapies. Activation of STING signaling has shown remarkable potential to invigorate the immunologically 'cold' tumor microenvironment (TME). However, we and others have shown that STING is silenced in many cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), both of which are associated with an immune-dampened TME. In this study, we applied mRNA lipid nanoparticles (LNP) to deliver a permanently active gain-of-function STINGR284S mutant into PDAC and MCC cells. Expression of STINGR284S induces cytokines and chemokines crucial for promoting intratumoral infiltration of CD8+ T cells and, importantly, also leads to robust cancer cell death while avoiding T cell entry and toxicity. Our studies demonstrated that mRNA-LNP delivery of STINGR284S could be explored as a novel therapeutic tool to reactivate antitumor response in an array of STING-deficient cancers while overcoming the toxicity and limitations of conventional STING agonists.

2022 ◽  
Shumin Li ◽  
Siying Liu ◽  
Rui Ai Chen ◽  
Mei Huang ◽  
To Sing Fung ◽  

Coronavirus infections induce the expression of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We have previously shown that in cells infected with gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 were drastically upregulated, and the MAP kinase p38 and the integrated stress response pathways were implicated in this process. In this study, we report that coronavirus infection activates a negative regulatory loop that restricts the upregulation of a number of proinflammatory genes. As revealed by the initial transcriptomic and subsequent validation analyses, the anti-inflammatory adenine-uridine (AU)-rich element (ARE)-binding protein, Zinc finger protein 36 (ZFP36) and its related family members were upregulated in cells infected with IBV and three other coronaviruses, alphacoronaviruses porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), and betacoronavirus HCoV-OC43, respectively. Characterization of the functional roles of ZFP36 during IBV infection demonstrated that ZFP36 promoted the degradation of transcripts coding for IL-6, IL-8, dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), through binding to AREs in these transcripts. Consistently, knockdown and inhibition of JNK and p38 kinase activities reduced the expression of ZFP36, as well as the expression of IL-6 and IL-8. On the contrary, overexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) and MAPKAP kinase-2 (MK2), the upstream and downstream kinases of p38, respectively, increased the expression of ZFP36 and decreased the expression of IL-8. Taken together, this study reveals an important regulatory role of the MKK3-p38-MK2-ZFP36 axis in coronavirus infection-induced proinflammatory response. Importance Excessive and uncontrolled induction and release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, the so-called cytokine release syndrome (CRS), would cause life-threatening complications and multiple organ failure in severe coronavirus infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and COVID-19. This study reveals that coronavirus infection also induces the expression of ZFP36, an anti-inflammatory ARE-binding protein, promoting the degradation of ARE-containing transcripts coding for IL-6 and IL-8 as well as a number of other proteins related to inflammatory response. Furthermore, the p38 MAP kinase, its upstream kinase MKK3 and downstream kinase MK2 were shown to play a regulatory role in upregulation of ZFP36 during coronavirus infection cycles. This MKK3-p38-MK2-ZFP36 axis would constitute a potential therapeutic target for severe coronavirus infections.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 61
Mitchell V. Palmer ◽  
Carly Kanipe ◽  
Paola M. Boggiatto

The bovine tuberculoid granuloma is the hallmark lesion of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) due to Mycobacterium bovis infection. The pathogenesis of bTB, and thereby the process of bovine tuberculoid granuloma development, involves the recruitment, activation, and maintenance of cells under the influence of antigen, cytokines and chemokines in affected lungs and regional lymph nodes. The granuloma is key to successful control of bTB by preventing pathogen dissemination through containment by cellular and fibrotic layers. Paradoxically, however, it may also provide a niche for bacterial replication. The morphologic and cellular characteristics of granulomas have been used to gauge disease severity in bTB pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy studies. As such, it is critical to understand the complex mechanisms behind granuloma initiation, development, and maintenance.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Marcia A Munoz ◽  
Emma K Fletcher ◽  
Oliver P Skinner ◽  
Julie Jurczyluk ◽  
Esther Kristianto ◽  

Bisphosphonates drugs target the skeleton and are used globally for the treatment of common bone disorders. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates act by inhibiting the mevalonate pathway in bone-resorbing osteoclasts but, surprisingly, also appear to reduce the risk of death from pneumonia. We overturn the long-held belief that these drugs act only in the skeleton and show that a fluorescently labelled bisphosphonate is internalised by alveolar macrophages and large peritoneal macrophages in vivo. Furthermore, a single dose of a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (zoledronic acid) in mice was sufficient to inhibit the mevalonate pathway in tissue-resident macrophages, causing the build-up of a mevalonate metabolite and preventing protein prenylation. Importantly, one dose of bisphosphonate enhanced the immune response to bacterial endotoxin in the lung and increased the level of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. These studies suggest that bisphosphonates, as well as preventing bone loss, may boost immune responses to infection in the lung and provide a mechanistic basis to fully examine the potential of bisphosphonates to help combat respiratory infections that cause pneumonia.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document